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Detecting bias 1314
 

Detecting bias 1314

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    Detecting bias 1314 Detecting bias 1314 Presentation Transcript

    • Monday, October 7, 13
    • New York Times (1/18/1986) After the Shock, a Need to Share Grief and Loss The nation came together yesterday in a moment of disaster and loss. Wherever Americans were when they heard the news -- at work, at school or at home -- they shared their grief over the death of the seven astronauts, among them one who had captured their imaginations, Christa McAuliffe, the teacher from Concord, N.H., who was to have been the first ordinary citizen to go into space. Shortly after noon, when the first word of the explosion came, daily events seemed to stop as people awaited the details and asked the same questions: "What happened? Are there any survivors?" In offices, restaurants and stores, people gathered in front of television sets, mesmerized by the terrible scene of the shuttle exploding, a scene that would be replayed throughout the day and night. Children who had learned about Mrs. McAuliffe were watching in classrooms across the country. It seemed to be one of those moments, enlarged and frozen, that people would remember and recount for the rest of their lives.... “It was like the Kennedy thing,” said John Hannan, who heard the news when his sister called him at his office…. “Everyone was numb.”… Columbia Journalism Review (March/April 2003) It is January 28, 1986 – a bitterly cold morning at Cape Canaveral. The countdown clock is ticking as seven astronauts aboard the space shuttle Challenger prepare for launch. Among them is Christa McAuliffe, the New Hampshire high school teacher who is set to become the first ordinary American in space. Several hundred miles north, in Atlanta, a Federal Express messenger delivers an envelope to the headquarters of the Cable News Network, the only TV network set to cover the "routine" launch live. The countdown continues as shuttle commander Dick Scobee and pilot Michael Smith run through their preflight checklist. T minus 25 minutes and counting. CNN is broadcasting a live progress report from the Cape when the anchorwoman in Atlanta suddenly breaks in: "We have an important announcement about the space shuttle. A panel of engineers from Morton Thiokol, which designed the craft’s solid-fuel rocket booster, has unanimously urged NASA to scrub this morning’s launch. According to a company memo provided to CNN, the rocket experts are afraid cold weather might cause problem-plagued rocket-booster parts call O-rings to malfunction, allowing hot gases to burn a hole through the booster. This, the experts say, could cause a catastrophic explosion. Incredibly, NASA is still going ahead with the launch." The wire services, monitoring CNN, filed urgent bulletins quoting the network report. NASA is besieged with calls, including one from the White House. A T minus 15 minues, NASA announces a "hold" in the countdown and shortly thereafter reports that the mission has been scrubbed… Monday, October 7, 13
    • IN COMPARINGTHESETWO ARTICLES,WHAT TYPE OF BIAS IS REVEALED? WHAT ISTHE IMPACT ONTHETELLING OFTHE STORY OF THE CHALLENGER’S LAST FLIGHT?? New York Times (1/18/1986) After the Shock, a Need to Share Grief and Loss The nation came together yesterday in a moment of disaster and loss. Wherever Americans were when they heard the news -- at work, at school or at home -- they shared their grief over the death of the seven astronauts, among them one who had captured their imaginations, Christa McAuliffe, the teacher from Concord, N.H., who was to have been the first ordinary citizen to go into space. Shortly after noon, when the first word of the explosion came, daily events seemed to stop as people awaited the details and asked the same questions: "What happened? Are there any survivors?" In offices, restaurants and stores, people gathered in front of television sets, mesmerized by the terrible scene of the shuttle exploding, a scene that would be replayed throughout the day and night. Children who had learned about Mrs. McAuliffe were watching in classrooms across the country. It seemed to be one of those moments, enlarged and frozen, that people would remember and recount for the rest of their lives.... “It was like the Kennedy thing,” said John Hannan, who heard the news when his sister called him at his office…. “Everyone was numb.”… Columbia Journalism Review (March/April 2003) It is January 28, 1986 – a bitterly cold morning at Cape Canaveral. The countdown clock is ticking as seven astronauts aboard the space shuttle Challenger prepare for launch. Among them is Christa McAuliffe, the New Hampshire high school teacher who is set to become the first ordinary American in space. Several hundred miles north, in Atlanta, a Federal Express messenger delivers an envelope to the headquarters of the Cable News Network, the only TV network set to cover the "routine" launch live. The countdown continues as shuttle commander Dick Scobee and pilot Michael Smith run through their preflight checklist. T minus 25 minutes and counting. CNN is broadcasting a live progress report from the Cape when the anchorwoman in Atlanta suddenly breaks in: "We have an important announcement about the space shuttle. A panel of engineers from Morton Thiokol, which designed the craft’s solid-fuel rocket booster, has unanimously urged NASA to scrub this morning’s launch. According to a company memo provided to CNN, the rocket experts are afraid cold weather might cause problem-plagued rocket-booster parts call O-rings to malfunction, allowing hot gases to burn a hole through the booster. This, the experts say, could cause a catastrophic explosion. Incredibly, NASA is still going ahead with the launch." The wire services, monitoring CNN, filed urgent bulletins quoting the network report. NASA is besieged with calls, including one from the White House. A T minus 15 minues, NASA announces a "hold" in the countdown and shortly thereafter reports that the mission has been scrubbed… Monday, October 7, 13
    • DETECTING BIAS World History 9 St.Anne’s-Belfield 2013-2014 Monday, October 7, 13
    • KEY POINTS Monday, October 7, 13
    • KEY POINTS •What question are historians trying to answer? Monday, October 7, 13
    • KEY POINTS •What question are historians trying to answer? •What do historians rely on to answer this question? Monday, October 7, 13
    • KEY POINTS •What question are historians trying to answer? •What do historians rely on to answer this question? •Unfortunately, these sources are often biased and not completely accurate. Monday, October 7, 13
    • KEY POINTS •What question are historians trying to answer? •What do historians rely on to answer this question? •Unfortunately, these sources are often biased and not completely accurate. •To get at the truth of “what really happened,” historians have to learn how to detect bias in documents and filter it out (part of “historical thinking!) Monday, October 7, 13
    • WHAT IS BIAS? Monday, October 7, 13
    • WHAT IS BIAS? Prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair. Monday, October 7, 13
    • WORD CHOICE Monday, October 7, 13
    • WORD CHOICE One way to detect and filter out bias is through the careful scrutiny of a sources’ word choice. Monday, October 7, 13
    • WORD CHOICE One way to detect and filter out bias is through the careful scrutiny of a sources’ word choice. Often, authors will use particular words to describe an event in a manner intended to influence the reader’s view of that event. This subtle “distortion” is a clear sign of bias. Monday, October 7, 13
    • WORD CHOICE One way to detect and filter out bias is through the careful scrutiny of a sources’ word choice. Often, authors will use particular words to describe an event in a manner intended to influence the reader’s view of that event. This subtle “distortion” is a clear sign of bias. We can learn how to detect bias through these slightly distorted words and filter it out to get a more accurate view of “what really happened.” Monday, October 7, 13
    • WORD CHOICE MATTERS Monday, October 7, 13
    • CAN WORD CHOICE AND PHRASING REVEAL BIAS? Monday, October 7, 13
    • CAN WORD CHOICE AND PHRASING REVEAL BIAS? Monday, October 7, 13
    • WHAT IS... BIASTHROUGH OMISSION? Monday, October 7, 13
    • WHAT IS... BIASTHROUGH OMISSION? New York Times (1/18/1986) After the Shock, a Need to Share Grief and Loss The nation came together yesterday in a moment of disaster and loss. Wherever Americans were when they heard the news -- at work, at school or at home -- they shared their grief over the death of the seven astronauts, among them one who had captured their imaginations, Christa McAuliffe, the teacher from Concord, N.H., who was to have been the first ordinary citizen to go into space. Shortly after noon, when the first word of the explosion came, daily events seemed to stop as people awaited the details and asked the same questions: "What happened? Are there any survivors?" In offices, restaurants and stores, people gathered in front of television sets, mesmerized by the terrible scene of the shuttle exploding, a scene that would be replayed throughout the day and night. Children who had learned about Mrs. McAuliffe were watching in classrooms across the country. It seemed to be one of those moments, enlarged and frozen, that people would remember and recount for the rest of their lives.... “It was like the Kennedy thing,” said John Hannan, who heard the news when his sister called him at his office…. “Everyone was numb.”… Columbia Journalism Review (March/April 2003) It is January 28, 1986 – a bitterly cold morning at Cape Canaveral. The countdown clock is ticking as seven astronauts aboard the space shuttle Challenger prepare for launch. Among them is Christa McAuliffe, the New Hampshire high school teacher who is set to become the first ordinary American in space. Several hundred miles north, in Atlanta, a Federal Express messenger delivers an envelope to the headquarters of the Cable News Network, the only TV network set to cover the "routine" launch live. The countdown continues as shuttle commander Dick Scobee and pilot Michael Smith run through their preflight checklist. T minus 25 minutes and counting. CNN is broadcasting a live progress report from the Cape when the anchorwoman in Atlanta suddenly breaks in: "We have an important announcement about the space shuttle. A panel of engineers from Morton Thiokol, which designed the craft’s solid-fuel rocket booster, has unanimously urged NASA to scrub this morning’s launch. According to a company memo provided to CNN, the rocket experts are afraid cold weather might cause problem-plagued rocket-booster parts call O-rings to malfunction, allowing hot gases to burn a hole through the booster. This, the experts say, could cause a catastrophic explosion. Incredibly, NASA is still going ahead with the launch." The wire services, monitoring CNN, filed urgent bulletins quoting the network report. NASA is besieged with calls, including one from the White House. A T minus 15 minues, NASA announces a "hold" in the countdown and shortly thereafter reports that the mission has been scrubbed… Monday, October 7, 13