Our Solar System
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Our Solar System

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Our Solar System Our Solar System Presentation Transcript

  • Warmup Henry David Thoreau once said, “The sun is but a morning star.” What do you think he meant?
  • Our Solar System Earth Science: Book J, Chapter 3
  • Section 2: The Sun – Our Very Own Star By the end of this section, you should be able to:  Describe the basic structure and composition of the sun.  Explain how the sun generates energy.  Describe the surface activity of the sun, and identify how this activity affects Earth.
  • The Structure of the Sun  The sun is basically a large ball of gas made mostly of hydrogen and helium held together by gravity.  Although the sun may appear to have a solid surface, it does not. The visible surface of the sun starts at the point where the gas becomes so thick that you cannot see through it.
  •  The sun is made of several layers.
  • Energy Production in the Sun  The sun has been shining on the Earth for about 4.6 billion years. Many scientists once thought that the sun burned fuel to generate its energy.  If the sun were simply burning, it would last for only 10,000 years.
  • Energy Production in the Sun  Scientists later began thinking that gravity was causing the sun to slowly shrink and that gravity would release enough energy to heat the sun.  If all of the sun’s gravitational energy were released, the sun would last only 45 million years.
  • Energy Production in the Sun  Albert Einstein showed that matter and energy are interchangeable. Matter can change into energy according to his famous formula: E mc2  E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.  Because c is such a large number, tiny amounts of matter can produce a huge amount of energy.
  • Energy Production in the Sun  The process by which two or more low-mass nuclei join together, or fuse, to form another nucleus is called nuclear fusion.  In this way, four hydrogen nuclei can fuse to form a single nucleus of helium. During the process, energy is produced.
  • Energy Production in the Sun  During fusion, under normal conditions, the nuclei of hydrogen atoms never get close enough to combine.  The reason is that the nuclei are positively charged, and like charges repel each other, just as similar poles on a pair of magnets do.
  • Energy Production in the Sun  In the center of the sun, however, temperature and pressure are very high.  As a result, hydrogen nuclei have enough energy to overcome the repulsive force, and hydrogen fuses into helium.
  • Energy Production in the Sun  Energy produced in the center, or core, of the sun takes millions of years to reach the sun’s surface.  Energy passes from the core through a very dense region called the radiative zone. The matter in the radiative zone is so crowded that light and energy are blocked and sent in different directions.
  • Energy Production in the Sun  Eventually, energy reaches the convective zone. Gases circulate in the convective zone, which is about 200,000 km thick.  Hot gases in the convective zone carry the energy up to the photosphere, the visible surface of the sun.  From the photosphere, energy leaves the sun as light, which takes only 8.3 minutes to reach Earth.
  • Solar Activity  The churning of hot gases in the sun, combined with the sun’s rotation, creates magnetic fields that reach far out into space.  The constant flow of magnetic fields from the sun is called the solar wind.  Sometimes, solar wind interferes with the Earth’s magnetic field. This type of solar storm can disrupt TV signals and damage satellites.
  • Solar Activity  The sun’s magnetic fields tend to slow down activity in the convective zone. When activity slows down, areas of the photosphere become cooler than the surrounding area.  These cooler areas show up as sunspots. Sunspots are cooler, dark spots of the photosphere of the sun. Some sunspots can be as large as 50,000 miles in diameter.
  • Sunspots
  • Solar Activity  Sunspot activity can affect the Earth. Some scientists have linked the period of low sunspot activity, 1645-1715, with a period of very low temperatures that Europe experienced during that time, known as the “Little Ice Age.”
  • Solar Activity  The magnetic fields responsible for sunspots also cause solar flares. Solar flares are regions of extremely high temperatures and brightness that develop on the sun’s surface.  When a solar flare erupts, it sends huge streams of electrically charged particles into the solar system. Solar flares can interrupt radio communications on the Earth and in orbit.
  • Section 2 Review p.73 #2-11
  • Warmup  The Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old. The first fossil evidence of life on Earth has been dated between 3.7 billion and 3.4 billion year ago.  Write a paragraph in your science journal describing what Earth might have been like during the first billion years of its existence.
  • Section 3: The Earth Takes Shape By the end of this section, you should be able to:  Describe the formation of the solid Earth.  Describe the structure of the Earth.  Explain the development of Earth’s atmosphere and the influence of early life on the atmosphere.  Describe how the Earth’s oceans and continents formed.
  • Formation of the Solid Earth  The Earth is mostly made of rock. Nearly threefourths of its surface is covered with water.  Our planet is surrounded by a protective atmosphere of mostly nitrogen and oxygen, and smaller amounts of other gases.
  • Formation of the Solid Earth  The Earth formed as planetesimals in the solar system collided and combined.  When a young planet is still small, it can have an irregular shape. As the planet gains more matter, the force of gravity increases.  When a rocky planet, such as Earth, reaches a diameter of about 350 km, the force of gravity becomes greater than the strength of the rock.
  • Formation of the Solid Earth  As the Earth grew to this size, the rock at its center was crushed by gravity and the planet started to become round.  As the Earth was changing shape, it was also heating up. As planetesimals continued to collide with the Earth, the energy of their motion heated the planet.  Radioactive material, which was present in the Earth as it formed, also heated the young planet.
  • Formation of the Solid Earth  After Earth reached a certain size, the temperature rose faster than the interior could cool, and the rocky material inside began to melt.  Today, the Earth is still cooling from the energy that was generated when it formed.  Volcanoes, earthquakes, and hot springs are effects of this energy trapped inside the Earth.
  • How Earth’s Layers Formed  As the Earth’s layers formed, denser materials, such as nickel and iron, sank to the center of the Earth and formed the core.  Less dense materials floated to the surface and became the crust.
  • How Earth’s Layers Formed  The crust is the thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantle. It is 5 to 100 km thick.  Crustal rock is made of materials that have low densities, such as oxygen, silicon, and aluminum.
  • How Earth’s Layers Formed  The mantle is the layer of rock between the Earth’s crust and core. It extends 2,900 km below the surface.  Mantle rock is made of materials such as magnesium and iron. It is denser than crustal rock.
  • How Earth’s Layers Formed  The core is the central part of the Earth below the mantle. It contains the densest materials, including nickel and iron.  The core extends to the center of the Earth— almost 6,400 km below the surface.
  • How Earth’s Layers Formed
  • Formation of Oceans and Continents  Scientists think that the oceans probably formed during Earth’s second atmosphere, when the Earth was cool enough for rain to fall and remain on the surface.  After millions of years of rainfall, water began to cover the Earth. By 4 billion years ago, a global ocean covered the planet.
  • Formation of Oceans and Continents  After a while, some of the rocks were light enough to pile up on the surface. These rocks were the beginning of the earliest continents.  The continents gradually thickened and slowly rose above the surface of the ocean. These continents did not stay in the same place, as the slow transfer of thermal energy in the mantle pushed them around.
  • Formation of Oceans and Continents  About 2.5 billion years ago, continents really started to grow. By 1.5 billion years ago, the upper mantle had cooled and had become denser and heavier.  At this time, it was easier for the cooler parts of the mantle to sink. These conditions made it easier for the continents to move in the same way they do today.
  • Section 3 Review p.
  • Warmup A mnemonic device is a phrase, rhyme, or anything that helps you remember a fact. Create a mnemonic device that will help you differentiate between planetary rotation and revolution.
  • Section 4: Planetary Motion By the end of this section, you should be able to:  Explain the difference between rotation and revolution.  Describe three laws of planetary motion.  Describe how distance and mass affect gravitational attraction.
  • A Revolution in Astronomy  Each planet spins on its axis. The spinning of a body, such a planet, on its axis is called rotation.  The orbit is the path that a body follows as it travels around another body in space.  A revolution is one complete trip along an orbit.
  • A Revolution in Astronomy  Johannes Kepler made careful observations of the planets that led to important discoveries about planetary motion.  Kepler’s First Law of Motion: Kepler discovered that the planets move around the sun in elliptical orbits.
  • Ellipse
  • A Revolution in Astronomy  Kepler’s Second Law of Motion: Kepler noted that the planets seemed to move faster when they are close to the sun and slower when they are farther away.  Kepler’s Third Law of Motion: Kepler observed that planets more distant from the sun, such as Saturn, take longer to orbit the sun.
  • Newton to the Rescue  Kepler did not understand what causes the plans farther from the sun to move slower than the closer planets.  Sir Isaac Newton’s description of gravity provides an answer.
  • Newton to the Rescue  Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that the force of gravity depends on the product of the masses of the objects divided by the square of the distance between the objects.  According to this law, if two objects are moved farther apart, there will be less gravitational attraction between them.
  • Newton to the Rescue  Inertia is an object’s resistance to change in speed or direction until an outside force acts on the object.  Gravitational attraction keeps the planets in their orbits. Inertia keeps the planets moving along their orbits.
  • Section 4 Review p.