Eukaryotic
  Cells
 The Inside Story
2 Types of
        Cells

 Prokaryotic             Eukaryotic
    Cells                  Cells
• No nucleus           • Nu...
Which is which?
Cells come from..
    1 of the 3 parts of the Cell Theory states

    that
        All cells come from pre-existing cells...
So What is Inside a Cell?
    It turns out that there is a lot more inside a cell

    than Robert Hooke or Anton von Lee...
Holding It All Together
    All cells have outer coverings that separate

    what’s inside the cell from what is outside...
Holding It All Together
         Wall
Cell
     Only found in plant and bacteria(prokaryotic) cells
 



     Cell wall ...
The Cell’s Library
Nucleus
   Largest and most visible organelle
 

  Covered by a membrane

  Control center of cell
...
Protein Factories
Ribosomes
        Smallest but most abundant organelles
    



        Their job is to hook together ...
The Cell’s Delivery System
                    Reticulum
Endoplasmic
   Internal delivery system of a cell
 

  Is divi...
Difference Between
 Rough and Smooth ER
 Smooth      ER
     Does not have ribosomes attached
 



     Has different fu...
The Cell’s Power Plants
Mitochondria
  Convert the chemical energy stored in food into ATP
   which is the molecular fue...
The Cell’s Power Plants
Chloroplasts
   Additional kind of energy-converting organelle
 
   found in plants and algae
 ...
The Cell’s Packaging Center
         Apparatus
Golgi
   Looks like ER but is located closer to the cell
 
   membrane
 ...
The Cell’s Storage Centers
Vacuoles
      Very large in plant cells, much smaller in animal
    
      cells
     Store...
The Cell’s Storage Centers
Vesicles
     Some form when part of the membrane
 
     pinches off the ER or Golgi

     Ot...
Packages of Destruction
Lysosomes
     Special vesicles in animal cells that contain
   
     enzymes that digest food p...
Plant or Animal?
Plant or Animal?
Homework
    You are going to create a drawing of a

    eukaryotic cell.

    However, instead of making it a realistic
...
Organelles
Organelles
Organelles
Organelles
Organelles
Organelles
Organelles
Organelles
Organelles
Organelles
Organelles
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Organelles

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Organelles

  1. 1. Eukaryotic Cells The Inside Story
  2. 2. 2 Types of Cells Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Cells Cells • No nucleus • Nucleus • No membrane- DNA • Membrane - Cells covered covered organelles organelles • Linear DNA • Circular DNA • All other cells • Bacteria
  3. 3. Which is which?
  4. 4. Cells come from.. 1 of the 3 parts of the Cell Theory states  that All cells come from pre-existing cells  So just as large multicellular organisms  like humans, dogs, and trees reproduce, your cells do as well
  5. 5. So What is Inside a Cell? It turns out that there is a lot more inside a cell  than Robert Hooke or Anton von Leeuwenhoek probably would have guessed. Everything, from the structures covering the  cells to the structures inside, perform tasks to help keep the cells alive. These structures are called organelles. 
  6. 6. Holding It All Together All cells have outer coverings that separate  what’s inside the cell from what is outside. Membrane Cell Covers all cells, both eukaryotic and prokaryotic   Duties include keeping cytoplasm inside  Allow nutrients in and waste products out  Also interacts with things outside the cell
  7. 7. Holding It All Together Wall Cell Only found in plant and bacteria(prokaryotic) cells  Cell wall in plants is made of cellulose  Provides strength and support to the cell membrane  The strength of billions of cell walls in plants  enables a tree to stand tall and its limbs to defy gravity
  8. 8. The Cell’s Library Nucleus Largest and most visible organelle   Covered by a membrane  Control center of cell  Stores the DNA Nucleolus Dark spot inside the nucleus   Stores the materials that will be used later to make ribosomes in the cytoplasm
  9. 9. Protein Factories Ribosomes Smallest but most abundant organelles  Their job is to hook together amino acids to make proteins  Found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells  Not covered by a membrane  All cells have ribosomes because all cells need protein  to live.
  10. 10. The Cell’s Delivery System Reticulum Endoplasmic Internal delivery system of a cell   Is divided into Smooth and Rough ER based on appearance and function  Rough ER Ribosomes are attached making it look pebbled   Specializes in protein synthesis  Connected to nuclear membrane  Proteins synthesized by ribosomes collect in the ER for transport throughout the cell
  11. 11. Difference Between Rough and Smooth ER  Smooth ER Does not have ribosomes attached  Has different functions depending on the cell type  Can be responsible for lipid and hormone synthesis  Breaks down drugs and certain other chemicals that  could damage the cell
  12. 12. The Cell’s Power Plants Mitochondria  Convert the chemical energy stored in food into ATP which is the molecular fuel that cells use to do work  Inner membrane of mitochondria that has many folds is where most of the ATP is made.  The reason you breathe air is so that mitochondria have the oxygen they need to make ATP Highly active cells, like those in the liver and  heart, may have thousands of mitochondria while other cells may have only a few.
  13. 13. The Cell’s Power Plants Chloroplasts Additional kind of energy-converting organelle  found in plants and algae  Contain flattened, membrane-covered sacs that look like stacks of coins which contain chlorophyll  Chlorophyll is what makes plants green and also traps the energy in sunlight which plants use to make sugar  The sugar that is produced is used by
  14. 14. The Cell’s Packaging Center Apparatus Golgi Looks like ER but is located closer to the cell  membrane  Receives and modifies lipids and proteins sent from the ER  Final products are then enclosed in a piece of the Golgi’s membrane that pinches off to form small compartment  Compartment transports contents to other parts of cell or outside the cell
  15. 15. The Cell’s Storage Centers Vacuoles Very large in plant cells, much smaller in animal  cells  Store water and other liquids  If full of water they help support the cell Store the liquids that make roses red and  violets blue  Contain the juices you associate with oranges and other fruits
  16. 16. The Cell’s Storage Centers Vesicles Some form when part of the membrane  pinches off the ER or Golgi Others are formed when part of the cell  membrane surrounds an object outside the cell
  17. 17. Packages of Destruction Lysosomes Special vesicles in animal cells that contain  enzymes that digest food particles and wastes  Destroy worn-out or damaged organelles  Get rid of waste materials and protect cell from foreign invaders  If lysosome membrane breaks, the enzymes spill out into the cytoplasm which
  18. 18. Plant or Animal?
  19. 19. Plant or Animal?
  20. 20. Homework You are going to create a drawing of a  eukaryotic cell. However, instead of making it a realistic  cell, your cell should be made of drawings of objects that represent the organelle’s job. For example, the Golgi Apparatus, which  transports materials, could be a bus or a car.
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