WARMUP
*Have your Vocab Sheets laying out so I can
check them*
What percentage of earth do you think is covered
by water?
EXPLORING THE OCEANS
Earth Science: Book H, Chapter 2
SECTION 1: EARTH’S OCEANS
By the end of this section, you should be able to:
 List

the major divisions of the global oce...
DIVISIONS OF THE GLOBAL OCEAN
 The

largest ocean is the Pacific Ocean.

 The

other oceans, listed from largest to
smal...
HOW DID THE OCEANS FORM?
 About

4.5 billion years ago, there were no
oceans.

 Sometime

before 4 billion years ago, wa...


Need Pangaea image here
CHARACTERISTICS OF OCEAN WATER
 Nitrogen,

oxygen, and carbon dioxide are the
main gases dissolved in ocean water.

 Sod...
CHARACTERISTICS OF OCEAN WATER
 Salinity

is a measure of the amount of dissolved
salts in a given amount of liquid.

 I...
CHARACTERISTICS OF OCEAN WATER
 Climate

and water movement affect salinity.

 Coastal

water in cool, humid places has ...
CHARACTERISTICS OF OCEAN WATER
 The

temperature of ocean water decreases as
depth increases.
CHARACTERISTICS OF OCEAN WATER
 Surface-zone

temperatures vary with latitude
and the time of year.

 Surface

temperatu...
THE OCEAN & THE WATER CYCLE
 The

water cycle is the continuous movement of
water from the ocean to the atmosphere to the...
A GLOBAL THERMOSTAT
 The

ocean regulates atmospheric
temperatures.

 The

ocean absorbs and releases thermal
energy muc...
SECTION REVIEW

p.45 #2-6, 8
WARMUP

If you walked off the edge of North America into
the depths of the Atlantic Ocean what would you
see?
SECTION 2: THE OCEAN FLOOR
By the end of this section, you should be able to:
 Describe

technologies for studying the oc...
STUDYING THE OCEAN FLOOR
 Scientists

depth.

use sonar to determine the ocean’s
STUDYING THE OCEAN FLOOR
 Scientists

use images from the satellite Seasat
to study ocean currents.

 Scientists

use th...
REVEALING THE OCEAN FLOOR
 The

two regions of the ocean floor are the
continental margin and the deep-ocean basin.

 Th...
REGIONS OF THE OCEAN FLOOR
 Continental

margin is subdivided into the
continental shelf, continental slope, and
continen...
REGIONS OF THE OCEAN FLOOR
 The

deep-ocean basin consists of the abyssal
plain, mid-ocean ridges, rift valleys, and ocea...
REGIONS OF THE OCEAN FLOOR
 On

parts of the deep-ocean basin not near
plate boundaries, there are thousands of
seamounts...
EXPLORING THE OCEAN
 Alvin

and Deep Flight are two research vessels
that can reach some of the deepest parts of the
ocea...
SECTION REVIEW

p.51 #2-7, 11
WARMUP

Imagine you are a marine biologist who must
classify marine life into 3 groups.
What criteria would you use for yo...
SECTION 3: LIFE IN THE OCEAN
By the end of this section, you should be able to:
 Identify

the three groups of marine lif...
THREE GROUPS OF MARINE LIFE
 Organisms

that float or drift freely near the
ocean’s surface are called plankton.

 Organ...
THE BENTHIC ENVIRONMENT
 The

benthic environment is the region near the
bottom of a pond, lake, or ocean.

 The

benthi...
THE BENTHIC ENVIRONMENT
 The

intertidal zone is where the ocean meets the
land.

 The

intertidal zone is exposed to ai...
THE BENTHIC ENVIRONMENT
 The

sublittoral zone begins at the low-tide limit
and extends to the continental shelf, which i...
THE BENTHIC ENVIRONMENT
 The

bathyal zone extends from the continental
shelf to the abyssal zone. The depth of this zone...
THE BENTHIC ENVIRONMENT


The abyssal zone is the largest ecological zone of
the ocean and can reach 4,000 m in depth.

...
THE BENTHIC ENVIRONMENT
 The

hadal zone consists of the floor of the ocean
trenches and any organisms found there. The
d...
THE PELAGIC ENVIRONMENT
zone near the ocean’s surface and at the
middle depths is called the pelagic
environment.

 The

...
THE PELAGIC ENVIRONMENT
 The

neritic zone is a warm, shallow zone that
covers the continental shelf.

 The

neritic zon...
THE PELAGIC ENVIRONMENT
 The

neritic zone receives more sunlight than
other ocean zones, allowing plankton to grow
and s...
THE PELAGIC ENVIRONMENT
 The

oceanic zone includes the volume of water
that covers the entire sea floor except for the
c...
THE PELAGIC ENVIRONMENT
 Organisms

zone.

are more spread out in the oceanic
SECTION REVIEW

p.57 #1-5,7,9
WARMUP
Samantha drove her car to the market to buy a
tuna steak for dinner. When she got home she
poured herself a glass o...
SECTION 4:
RESOURCES FROM THE OCEAN
By the end of this section, you should be able to:
two ways of harvesting the ocean’s ...
LIVING RESOURCES
 Fish

are the largest group of organisms taken
from the ocean.

 People

have begun to raise ocean fis...
LIVING RESOURCES
 Many

types of seaweed are harvested from the
ocean for use as food.
NONLIVING RESOURCES
 Oil

and natural gas are used for energy and are
found under layers of impermeable rock.

 Scientis...
NONLIVING RESOURCES
 Fresh

water can be collected for human use by
desalination, the process of removing the salt
from o...
NONLIVING RESOURCES
 Scientists

estimate that 15% of the ocean floor
is covered with mineral-rich nodules.
However, mini...
NONLIVING RESOURCES
 The

constant motion of waves is a
clean, renewable energy resource.

 Researchers

have found cert...
SECTION REVIEW

p.63 #2-7
WARMUP

How do you contribute to ocean pollution in your
daily lives?
SECTION 5: OCEAN POLLUTION
By the end of this section, you should be able to:
 Explain

the difference between point-sour...
NONPOINT-SOURCE POLLUTION
 Pollution

that comes from many sources rather
than from a single site is called nonpoint-sour...
POINT-SOURCE POLLUTION
 Dumping

trash in the deeper parts of the ocean
is a common practice in many countries.

 Trash
...
POINT-SOURCE POLLUTION
 Sludge

is the solid waste removed from raw
sewage. Sludge can pollute beaches and kill
marine li...
POINT-SOURCE POLLUTION
 If

not handled properly, oil transports can cause
oil spills.
POINT-SOURCE POLLUTION
 Oil

spills can harm or kill many plants and
animals.
POINT-SOURCE POLLUTION
 New

technology is being used to safeguard
against oil spills. Oil tankers are now being built
wi...
SAVING OUR OCEAN RESOURCES
 Many

international agreements and laws
restrict ocean pollution.

 People

have demanded th...
SAVING OUR OCEAN RESOURCES
 The

U.S. has passed laws to control local
pollution.

 Some

of these laws include the Clea...
SECTION REVIEW

p.69 #2-6
Exploring the Oceans
Exploring the Oceans
Exploring the Oceans
Exploring the Oceans
Exploring the Oceans
Exploring the Oceans
Exploring the Oceans
Exploring the Oceans
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Exploring the Oceans

  1. 1. WARMUP *Have your Vocab Sheets laying out so I can check them* What percentage of earth do you think is covered by water?
  2. 2. EXPLORING THE OCEANS Earth Science: Book H, Chapter 2
  3. 3. SECTION 1: EARTH’S OCEANS By the end of this section, you should be able to:  List the major divisions of the global ocean.  Describe the history of Earth’s oceans.  Identify the properties of ocean water.  Describe the interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere.
  4. 4. DIVISIONS OF THE GLOBAL OCEAN  The largest ocean is the Pacific Ocean.  The other oceans, listed from largest to smallest, are:     the Atlantic Ocean the Indian Ocean the Arctic Ocean the Southern Ocean
  5. 5. HOW DID THE OCEANS FORM?  About 4.5 billion years ago, there were no oceans.  Sometime before 4 billion years ago, water vapor in the atmosphere condensed and fell as rain. rain filled the deeper levels of Earth’s surface and the first oceans began to form.  The  The shape of the oceans has changed over time.
  6. 6.  Need Pangaea image here
  7. 7. CHARACTERISTICS OF OCEAN WATER  Nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are the main gases dissolved in ocean water.  Sodium chloride, or table salt, is the most abundant dissolved solid in the ocean. Other solids are also found in ocean water.
  8. 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF OCEAN WATER  Salinity is a measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid.  If you evaporated 1 kg of ocean water, 965 g of fresh water would be removed and 35 g of salts would remain.
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS OF OCEAN WATER  Climate and water movement affect salinity.  Coastal water in cool, humid places has a low salinity.  Slow-moving bodies of water, such as bays, gulfs, and seas, have higher salinity than other parts of the ocean do.
  10. 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF OCEAN WATER  The temperature of ocean water decreases as depth increases.
  11. 11. CHARACTERISTICS OF OCEAN WATER  Surface-zone temperatures vary with latitude and the time of year.  Surface temperatures range from 1ºC near the poles to about 24 ºC near the equator.  The surface zone is heated more in the summer.
  12. 12. THE OCEAN & THE WATER CYCLE  The water cycle is the continuous movement of water from the ocean to the atmosphere to the land and back to the ocean.  The ocean is an important part of the water cycle because nearly all of Earth’s water is in the ocean.
  13. 13. A GLOBAL THERMOSTAT  The ocean regulates atmospheric temperatures.  The ocean absorbs and releases thermal energy much more slowly than dry land does.  The circulation of warm water causes some coastal lands to have warmer climates than they would have without the currents.
  14. 14. SECTION REVIEW p.45 #2-6, 8
  15. 15. WARMUP If you walked off the edge of North America into the depths of the Atlantic Ocean what would you see?
  16. 16. SECTION 2: THE OCEAN FLOOR By the end of this section, you should be able to:  Describe technologies for studying the ocean floor.  Identify the two major regions of the ocean floor.  Classify subdivisions and features of the two major regions of the ocean floor.
  17. 17. STUDYING THE OCEAN FLOOR  Scientists depth. use sonar to determine the ocean’s
  18. 18. STUDYING THE OCEAN FLOOR  Scientists use images from the satellite Seasat to study ocean currents.  Scientists use the Geosat satellite to measure slight changes in the height of the ocean’s surface.
  19. 19. REVEALING THE OCEAN FLOOR  The two regions of the ocean floor are the continental margin and the deep-ocean basin.  The continental margin is made of continental crust and the deep-ocean basin is made of oceanic crust.
  20. 20. REGIONS OF THE OCEAN FLOOR  Continental margin is subdivided into the continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise.  These divisions are based on depth and changes in slope.
  21. 21. REGIONS OF THE OCEAN FLOOR  The deep-ocean basin consists of the abyssal plain, mid-ocean ridges, rift valleys, and ocean trenches. of these form near the boundaries of Earth’s tectonic plates.  All
  22. 22. REGIONS OF THE OCEAN FLOOR  On parts of the deep-ocean basin not near plate boundaries, there are thousands of seamounts.  Seamounts are submerged volcanic mountains on the ocean floor.
  23. 23. EXPLORING THE OCEAN  Alvin and Deep Flight are two research vessels that can reach some of the deepest parts of the ocean.  JASON II and Medea are a robotic team. JASON II explores the ocean floor. Medea is attached to JASON II with a tether and explores above the sea floor.
  24. 24. SECTION REVIEW p.51 #2-7, 11
  25. 25. WARMUP Imagine you are a marine biologist who must classify marine life into 3 groups. What criteria would you use for your classification system?
  26. 26. SECTION 3: LIFE IN THE OCEAN By the end of this section, you should be able to:  Identify the three groups of marine life.  Describe the two main ocean environments.  Identify the ecological zones of the benthic and pelagic environments.
  27. 27. THREE GROUPS OF MARINE LIFE  Organisms that float or drift freely near the ocean’s surface are called plankton.  Organisms that swim actively in the open ocean are called nekton.  Organisms that live on or in the ocean floor are called benthos.
  28. 28. THE BENTHIC ENVIRONMENT  The benthic environment is the region near the bottom of a pond, lake, or ocean.  The benthic environment is divided into ecological zones based on where different types of benthos live.
  29. 29. THE BENTHIC ENVIRONMENT  The intertidal zone is where the ocean meets the land.  The intertidal zone is exposed to air for part of the day. Organisms found in this zone include starfish, sea anemones, barnacles, crabs, and seaweed.
  30. 30. THE BENTHIC ENVIRONMENT  The sublittoral zone begins at the low-tide limit and extends to the continental shelf, which is about 200 m below sea level.  The temperature, water pressure, and amount of sunlight remain fairly constant in this zone. Coral is found in this zone.
  31. 31. THE BENTHIC ENVIRONMENT  The bathyal zone extends from the continental shelf to the abyssal zone. The depth of this zone ranges from 200 m to 4,000 m below sea level.  Because of the lack of sunlight, few plants are found in this zone. Animals such as sea stars, sponges, and octopuses are found here.
  32. 32. THE BENTHIC ENVIRONMENT  The abyssal zone is the largest ecological zone of the ocean and can reach 4,000 m in depth.  No plants live in this zone. The few animals that can be found include crabs, sponges, sea cucumbers, and worms.
  33. 33. THE BENTHIC ENVIRONMENT  The hadal zone consists of the floor of the ocean trenches and any organisms found there. The depth can reach from 6,000 m to 7,000 m below sea level.  The only organisms that have been found in this zone include a type of sponge, a few species of worms, and a type of clam.
  34. 34. THE PELAGIC ENVIRONMENT zone near the ocean’s surface and at the middle depths is called the pelagic environment.  The  The pelagic environment is above the abyssal zone and beyond the littoral zone.  The two major zones of the pelagic environment are the neritic zone and the oceanic zone.
  35. 35. THE PELAGIC ENVIRONMENT  The neritic zone is a warm, shallow zone that covers the continental shelf.  The neritic zone contains the largest concentration of marine life.
  36. 36. THE PELAGIC ENVIRONMENT  The neritic zone receives more sunlight than other ocean zones, allowing plankton to grow and serve as a food supply.
  37. 37. THE PELAGIC ENVIRONMENT  The oceanic zone includes the volume of water that covers the entire sea floor except for the continental shelf.  The deeper parts of the oceanic zone have colder water temperatures and much greater pressure than the neritic zone.
  38. 38. THE PELAGIC ENVIRONMENT  Organisms zone. are more spread out in the oceanic
  39. 39. SECTION REVIEW p.57 #1-5,7,9
  40. 40. WARMUP Samantha drove her car to the market to buy a tuna steak for dinner. When she got home she poured herself a glass of water, and then fired up her gas grill to cook the tuna. What are 3 items or activities mentioned above that involve ocean resources?
  41. 41. SECTION 4: RESOURCES FROM THE OCEAN By the end of this section, you should be able to: two ways of harvesting the ocean’s living resources.  Identify three nonliving resources in the ocean.  Describe the ocean’s energy resources.  List
  42. 42. LIVING RESOURCES  Fish are the largest group of organisms taken from the ocean.  People have begun to raise ocean fish and other organisms in fish farms to help meet the demand for seafood.
  43. 43. LIVING RESOURCES  Many types of seaweed are harvested from the ocean for use as food.
  44. 44. NONLIVING RESOURCES  Oil and natural gas are used for energy and are found under layers of impermeable rock.  Scientists use seismic equipment to find oil and natural gas under the ocean floor.
  45. 45. NONLIVING RESOURCES  Fresh water can be collected for human use by desalination, the process of removing the salt from ocean water.
  46. 46. NONLIVING RESOURCES  Scientists estimate that 15% of the ocean floor is covered with mineral-rich nodules. However, mining them is costly and difficult.  Nodules form from dissolved substances in sea water that stick to solid objects, such as pebbles.
  47. 47. NONLIVING RESOURCES  The constant motion of waves is a clean, renewable energy resource.  Researchers have found certain areas of the world where wave energy can generate enough electrical energy to make building power plants worthwhile.
  48. 48. SECTION REVIEW p.63 #2-7
  49. 49. WARMUP How do you contribute to ocean pollution in your daily lives?
  50. 50. SECTION 5: OCEAN POLLUTION By the end of this section, you should be able to:  Explain the difference between point-source and nonpoint-source pollution  Identify three different types of point-source pollution.  Describe what is being done to control ocean pollution.
  51. 51. NONPOINT-SOURCE POLLUTION  Pollution that comes from many sources rather than from a single site is called nonpoint-source pollution.  Most ocean pollution is nonpoint-source pollution and can be difficult to regulate and control.
  52. 52. POINT-SOURCE POLLUTION  Dumping trash in the deeper parts of the ocean is a common practice in many countries.  Trash thrown in the ocean can be harmful to ocean organisms.
  53. 53. POINT-SOURCE POLLUTION  Sludge is the solid waste removed from raw sewage. Sludge can pollute beaches and kill marine life.
  54. 54. POINT-SOURCE POLLUTION  If not handled properly, oil transports can cause oil spills.
  55. 55. POINT-SOURCE POLLUTION  Oil spills can harm or kill many plants and animals.
  56. 56. POINT-SOURCE POLLUTION  New technology is being used to safeguard against oil spills. Oil tankers are now being built with two hulls instead of one.
  57. 57. SAVING OUR OCEAN RESOURCES  Many international agreements and laws restrict ocean pollution.  People have demanded that their governments work to solve ocean pollution and have begun organizing beach cleanups.
  58. 58. SAVING OUR OCEAN RESOURCES  The U.S. has passed laws to control local pollution.  Some of these laws include the Clean Water Act and the U.S. Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act.
  59. 59. SECTION REVIEW p.69 #2-6
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