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Classification
 

Classification

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    Classification Classification Presentation Transcript

    • CLASSIFICATION
    • OBJECTIVES Explain why and how organisms are classified.  List the eight levels of classification.  Explain scientific names.  Describe how dichotomous keys help in  identifying organisms.
    • WHY CLASSIFY? The classification of living things makes it  easier for biologist to answer many important questions such as: How many known species are there?  What are the defining characteristics of each  species? What are the relationships between these  species?
    • HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATION Greeks  Aristotle  English  John Ray  Swedes  Carolus Linnaeus  Taxonomy: science of describing, naming, and  classifying things Binomial Nomenclature 
    • HOW DO SCIENTISTS CLASSIFY ORGANISMS? Taxonomists use the eight-level system to  classify living things based on shared characteristics. On a branching diagram, several  characteristics are listed along the line that points to the right. Each characteristic is shared by the organisms to the right of it.
    • LEVELS CLASSIFICATION OF The eight levels of classification are:  Domain  Kingdom  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species 
    • SCIENTIFIC NAMES A scientific name is always the same for a  specific kind of organism no matter how many common names there might be. Ex: Mountain lion, puma, cougar, panther are  all the Puma concolor The first part of a species' name is the genus  name which is always capitalized. The second part of the name is the species name.
    • DICHOTOMOUS KEYS A dichotomous key is a tool for identifying  organisms that uses a series of paired descriptive statements. By working through the statements in a  dichotomous key in order, a person can eventually identify an unknown organism.
    • A GROWING SYSTEM People are still discovering and classifying  organisms. Sometimes new organisms are found that are  so different from other known organisms that new classes, phyla, and so on must be formed.
    • THINK/PAIR/SHARE Why do scientists classify organisms?  What are the eight levels of classification?  How does a dichotomous key help scientists  identify organisms?
    • BELLRINGER List seven musical artists or bands.  Categorize the names on your list by style of  music. Describe in your notebook the categories you  chose and explain which bands might fit into more than one category.
    • OBJECTIVES Explain how classification developed as  greater numbers of organisms became known. Describe the three domains.  Describe four kingdoms in the domain  Eukarya
    • WHAT IS IT? Organisms are classified by their  characteristics. As scientists continue to learn about living  things, they add classification categories that account for the characteristics of different organisms.
    • DOMAINS: ARCHAEA AND BACTERIA Archaea are one of two kinds of prokaryotes.  Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that do not have a nucleus. Most are known to live in extreme environments. Bacteria are another kind of prokaryote but  they usually have a cell wall. Bacteria can be found in soil, water, and even on and inside the human body.
    • DOMAIN EUKARYA: KINGDOM PROTISTA Today members of the kingdom Protista  commonly called protists, are single-celled or simple multicellular organisms. Protista contains many kinds of organisms,  including protozoans, algae, and euglenoids.
    • DOMAIN EUKARYA: KINGDOM FUNGI Molds and mushrooms are examples of the  complex, multicellular members of the kingdom Fungi. Fungi do not perform photosynthesis or eat  food. Instead, fungi absorb nutrients from substances in their surroundings.
    • DOMAIN EUKARYA: KINGDOM PLANTAE The kingdom Plantae consists of organisms  that are eukaryotic, have cell walls, and make food through photosynthesis. Examples: Sequoia trees, roses, grasses, ferns,  and more
    • DOMAIN EUKARYA: KINGDOM ANIMALIA The kingdom Animalia contains complex,  multicellular organisms that don’t have cell walls, are usually able to move around, and have specialized sense organs. Examples : Ants, beetles, lizards, fish, birds,  apes, elephants, and more Most animals are able to move, but sponges,  a simple animal, cannot move.
    • THINK/PAIR/SHARE What are the characteristics of each of the  three domains? What are the four kingdoms of the domain  Eukarya?
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 Reading Read each of the passages. Then, answer the questions that follow each passage. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 Passage 1 When organizing life on Earth into categories, we must remember that organisms are not equally distributed throughout the categories of our classification system. We often think of Earth’s living things as only the plants and animals that live on Earth’s surface. However, the largest domains in terms of mass are the domains Archaea and Bacteria. And a common home of archaea and bacteria may be deep within the Earth’s crust. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 1. In the passage, what does distributed mean? A divided B important C visible D variable Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 1. In the passage, what does distributed mean? A divided B important C visible D variable Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 2. According to the passage, what are most of the organisms living on Earth? F plants G animals H fungi I archaea and bacteria Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 2. According to the passage, what are most of the organisms living on Earth? F plants G animals H fungi I archaea and bacteria Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A All organisms are equally distributed over Earth’s surface. B Plants are the most important organisms on Earth. C Many bacteria may live deep within Earth’s crust. D Archaea and bacteria are equally distributed over Earth’s surface. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A All organisms are equally distributed over Earth’s surface. B Plants are the most important organisms on Earth. C Many bacteria may live deep within Earth’s crust. D Archaea and bacteria are equally distributed over Earth’s surface. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 Passage 2 When you think of an animal, what do you imagine? You may think of a dog, a cat, or a parrot. All of those organisms are animals. But the animal kingdom also includes some members that might surprise you, such as worms, insects, corals, and sponges. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 1. In the passage, what is coral? A a kind of animal B a kind of insect C a color similar to pink D an organism found in lakes and streams Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 1. In the passage, what is coral? A a kind of animal B a kind of insect C a color similar to pink D an organism found in lakes and streams Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 2. What can you infer from the passage? F All members of the animal kingdom are visible. G Parrots make good pets. H Not all members of the animal kingdom have DNA. I Members of the animal kingdom come in many shapes and sizes. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 2. What can you infer from the passage? F All members of the animal kingdom are visible. G Parrots make good pets. H Not all members of the animal kingdom have DNA. I Members of the animal kingdom come in many shapes and sizes. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 3. Which of the following can you infer from the passage? A Worms and corals make good pets. B Corals and cats have some traits in common. C All organisms are animals. D Worms, corals, insects, and sponges are in the same family. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 3. Which of the following can you infer from the passage? A Worms and corals make good pets. B Corals and cats have some traits in common. C All organisms are animals. D Worms, corals, insects, and sponges are in the same family. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 4. In the passage, what does members mean? F teammates G limbs H individuals admitted to a club I components Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 4. In the passage, what does members mean? F teammates G limbs H individuals admitted to a club I components Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 Interpreting Graphics The Venn diagrams below show two classification systems. Use the diagrams to answer the questions that follow. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 1. For Classification system A, which of the following statements is true? A All organisms in group 6 are in group 7. B All organisms in group 5 are in group 4. C All organisms in group 6 are in group 1. D All organisms in group 2 are in group 1. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 1. For Classification system A, which of the following statements is true? A All organisms in group 6 are in group 7. B All organisms in group 5 are in group 4. C All organisms in group 6 are in group 1. D All organisms in group 2 are in group 1. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 2. For Classification system A, which of the following statements is true? F All organisms in group 3 are in group 2. G All organisms in group 3 are in group 4. H All organisms in group 3 are in group 1. I All organisms in group 3 are in every other group. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 2. For Classification system A, which of the following statements is true? F All organisms in group 3 are in group 2. G All organisms in group 3 are in group 4. H All organisms in group 3 are in group 1. I All organisms in group 3 are in every other group. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 3. For Classification system B, which of the following statements is true? A All organisms in group 1 are in group 6. B All organisms in group 6 are in group 1. C All organisms in group 3 are in group 1. D All organisms in group 2 are in group 5. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 3. For Classification system B, which of the following statements is true? A All organisms in group 1 are in group 6. B All organisms in group 6 are in group 1. C All organisms in group 3 are in group 1. D All organisms in group 2 are in group 5. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 4. For Classification system B, which of the following statements is true? F All organisms in group 4 are in group 1, 2, and 5. G All organisms in group 4 are in groups 3 and 5. H All organisms in group 4 are in groups 5 and 6. I All organisms in group 4 are in groups 1, 5, and 6. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 4. For Classification system B, which of the following statements is true? F All organisms in group 4 are in group 1, 2, and 5. G All organisms in group 4 are in groups 3 and 5. H All organisms in group 4 are in groups 5 and 6. I All organisms in group 4 are in groups 1, 5, and 6. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 5. In Classification system B, which group contains organisms that are not in group 1? A2 B4 C5 D6 Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 5. In Classification system B, which group contains organisms that are not in group 1? A2 B4 C5 D6 Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 Math Read each question, and choose the best answer. Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 1. Scientists estimate that millions of species have not yet been discovered and classified. About 1.8 million species have been discovered and classified. If scientists think that this 1.8 million makes up only 10% of the total number of species on Earth, how many species do scientists think exist on Earth? A 180 million B 18 million C 1.8 million D 180,000 Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 1. Scientists estimate that millions of species have not yet been discovered and classified. About 1.8 million species have been discovered and classified. If scientists think that this 1.8 million makes up only 10% of the total number of species on Earth, how many species do scientists think exist on Earth? A 180 million B 18 million C 1.8 million D 180,000 Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 2. Sequoia trees can grow to more than 90 m in height. There are 3.28 feet in 1 meter. How many feet are in 90 m? F 27.4 ft G 95.2 ft H 270 ft I 295.2 ft Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
    • Standardized Test Preparation Chapter C7 2. Sequoia trees can grow to more than 90 m in height. There are 3.28 feet in 1 meter. How many feet are in 90 m? F 27.4 ft G 95.2 ft H 270 ft I 295.2 ft Chapter menu Resources Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.