Cell Function


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Cell Function

  1. 1. Chapter 5
  2. 2. Section 1
  3. 3. Amount of particles/material in a certain area
  4. 4. Movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration
  5. 5. Permeable membrane: membrane that lets molecules pass through it Cell membranes are selectively permeable because only certain molecules can pass through
  6. 6. Cells need materials from their environment, such as food, water, minerals. They also need to get rid of waste molecules and move materials to other parts of organism Cells don’t need to use energy for particles to diffuse
  7. 7. Osmosis: diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane (cell membrane)
  8. 8. How can osmosis prevent a plant from wilting?
  9. 9. 2 types of transport 1.Passive transport: particles are moved from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration without the cell having to use any energy to do it
  10. 10. Water and Oxygen can diffuse right through the cell membrane because of their small size Sugar and amino acids aren’t small enough so they have to go through protein “doorways” in the cell membrane
  11. 11. 2. Active Transport: movement of particles from areas of low concentration to an area of high concentration Cells must use energy (ATP) to do this type of transport
  12. 12.  Gases diffuse approximately 10,000 times faster in air than in water. If a gas diffuses to fill a room completely in 6 minutes..  How long would it take the gas to fill a similar volume of still water?  How many hours would that be?  How many days?
  13. 13. Endocytosis: cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it in a vesicle This is how large particles, even other cells, can be brought into a cell
  14. 14. Exocytosis: vesicles are formed at the ER or Golgi and carry particles to the cell membrane This allows large particles to be removed from the cell
  15. 15. Section 2
  16. 16. Nearly all of the energy that fuels life comes from the Sun
  17. 17. Process by which plants are able to capture light energy from the sun and change it into food Chlorophyll captures the energy and the plant cell uses it to change CO2 and H20 into food, the simple sugar Glucose (C6H12O6)
  18. 18.  Glucose is a carbohydrate  When plants make glucose, they’re converting the sun’s energy into energy that can be stored  6CO2 +6 H2O + Light energy  C6H12O6 + 6 O2
  19. 19. Food has to be broken down so that the energy it contains can be converted into a form your cells can use
  20. 20.  Glucose is broken down into CO2 and H2O and energy is released  A lot of the energy is stored in the form of ATP but most of the energy is released in the form of heat.  This helps to maintain the body’s temperature
  21. 21. Takes place in mitochondria Uses oxygen to break down the food C6H12O6 + 6 O2  6 CO2 + 6H20 + energy (ATP)
  22. 22. Occurs when your muscle cells don’t get enough oxygen to produce ATP through cellular respiration Fermentation releases energy from sugar molecules without using oxygen
  23. 23. Produces 18x less ATP than cell respiration Also produces Lactic Acid instead of CO2 and H20 Lactic acid is what causes the burning sensation and fatigue in your muscles
  24. 24. You have been given the assignment of restoring life to a barren island. What types of organisms would you put on the island? If you want to have animals on the island, what other organisms must be on the island as well? Explain your answer.
  25. 25.  1. Why are producers important to the survival of all other organisms?  2. How do the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration relate to each other?  3. What does breathing have to do with cellular respiration?  4. How are respiration and fermentation similar? How are they different?
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