Amount of particles/material in a
Movement of particles from an area of
high concentration to an area of lower
Permeable membrane: membrane that
lets molecules pass through it
Cell membranes are selectively
permeable because only certain
molecules can pass through
Cells need materials from their
environment, such as food, water,
They also need to get rid of waste
molecules and move materials to
other parts of organism
Cells don’t need to use energy for
particles to diffuse
Osmosis: diffusion of water through a
selectively permeable membrane (cell
2 types of transport
1.Passive transport: particles are
moved from areas of high
concentration to areas of lower
concentration without the cell having
to use any energy to do it
Water and Oxygen can diffuse right
through the cell membrane because of
their small size
Sugar and amino acids aren’t small
enough so they have to go through
protein “doorways” in the cell
2. Active Transport: movement of
particles from areas of low
concentration to an area of high
Cells must use energy (ATP) to do this
type of transport
Gases diffuse approximately 10,000
times faster in air than in water. If a gas
diffuses to fill a room completely in 6
How long would it take the gas to fill a
similar volume of still water?
How many hours would that be?
How many days?
Endocytosis: cell membrane
surrounds a particle and encloses it
in a vesicle
This is how large particles, even other
cells, can be brought into a cell
Exocytosis: vesicles are formed at the
ER or Golgi and carry particles to the
This allows large particles to be
removed from the cell
Nearly all of the energy that fuels life
comes from the Sun
Process by which plants are able to
capture light energy from the sun and
change it into food
Chlorophyll captures the energy and
the plant cell uses it to change CO2
and H20 into food, the simple sugar
Glucose is a carbohydrate
When plants make glucose, they’re converting
the sun’s energy into energy that can be stored
6CO2 +6 H2O + Light energy C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Food has to be broken down so that the
energy it contains can be converted into a
form your cells can use
Glucose is broken down into CO2 and H2O and
energy is released
A lot of the energy is stored in the form of ATP but
most of the energy is released in the form of heat.
This helps to maintain the body’s temperature
Takes place in mitochondria
Uses oxygen to break down the food
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6H20 + energy (ATP)
Occurs when your muscle cells don’t get enough
oxygen to produce ATP through cellular
Fermentation releases energy from sugar
molecules without using oxygen
Produces 18x less ATP than cell respiration
Also produces Lactic Acid instead of CO2 and H20
Lactic acid is what causes the burning sensation
and fatigue in your muscles
You have been given the assignment of restoring
life to a barren island.
What types of organisms would you put on the
If you want to have animals on the island, what
other organisms must be on the island as well?
Explain your answer.
1. Why are producers important to the survival of all
2. How do the processes of photosynthesis and
cellular respiration relate to each other?
3. What does breathing have to do with cellular
4. How are respiration and fermentation similar?
How are they different?
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.