Medieval Japan Early Japan
Japan’s Geography <ul><li>Japan is a chain of islands in the northern Pacific Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>The four largest isl...
Japan’s Geography (cont.) <ul><li>Japan is covered by mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Only 20% of Japan’s land can be farmed <...
Japan’s Geography (cont.) <ul><li>The vast ocean kept the Japanese isolated. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, Japan develope...
The First Settlers <ul><li>Japan’s earliest people came from northeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>30,000 – 10,000 B.C. </li></...
The First Settlers (cont.) <ul><li>Yayoi culture  300 B.C. – A.D. 300 </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestors of the Japanese people <...
The First Settlers (cont.) <ul><li>@ A.D. 300, the Yayoi organized into clans </li></ul><ul><li>Clans – headed by small gr...
The First Settlers (cont.) <ul><li>Yamato Clan </li></ul><ul><li>Creation myth </li></ul><ul><li>@ A.D. 500, the Yamato br...
Prince Shotoku’s Reforms <ul><li>A.D. 600, Shotoku took charge of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted a strong government, l...
Prince Shotoku’s Reforms (cont.) <ul><li>Japan learned about Buddhism, Chinese art, medicine, and philosophy </li></ul><ul...
What is Shinto? <ul><li>Early Japanese believed that all natural things are alive and have their own spirit. </li></ul><ul...
Expository Writing <ul><li>Imagine you are visiting Japan sometime in the A.D. 300’s.  Write a letter to a friend describi...
Shoguns and Samurai
Nara Japan <ul><li>A.D. 700’s – New capital at Nara </li></ul><ul><li>Had Chinese characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>The ce...
Emperor’s Government <ul><li>Organized the officials into ranks </li></ul><ul><li>Did not use examinations to hire officia...
Buddhism Spreads in Japan <ul><li>Buddhism came from China through Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Religion spread rapidly </li></...
The Government Weakens <ul><li>A.D. 800’s – the emperor’s power declines </li></ul><ul><li>Emperors were still children – ...
Who were the Samurai? <ul><li>Warriors in private armies formed by the nobles </li></ul><ul><li>Fought on horseback, wore ...
What is a Shogun? <ul><li>Powerful families fought each other (Taira/Minamoto) </li></ul><ul><li>Minamoto won, emperor fea...
The Mongols Attack <ul><li>1274 and 1281 – Mongols set to invade Japan </li></ul><ul><li>They failed because typhoons dest...
The Daimyo Divide Japan <ul><li>After 1331, Japan divided into small territories </li></ul><ul><li>Each territory was head...
Life in Medieval Japan
Japanese Religion <ul><li>Believed in Shinto and Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Land Buddhism – happy life after death </...
Japanese Culture <ul><li>Borrowed ideas from China and Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Art – love of beauty and simplicity </li></...
Japan’s Economy and Society <ul><li>Japan’s wealth – came from farming </li></ul><ul><li>Grew rice, wheat, barley, millet ...
The Role of Women <ul><li>Despite lack of freedom, women contributed to Japan’s culture </li></ul><ul><li>Writers </li></u...
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Chapter 14 Notes

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Material adapted from "Journey Across Time" by Glencoe, 2005.

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Transcript of "Chapter 14 Notes"

  1. 1. Medieval Japan Early Japan
  2. 2. Japan’s Geography <ul><li>Japan is a chain of islands in the northern Pacific Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>The four largest islands are </li></ul><ul><li>Hokkaido </li></ul><ul><li>Honshu </li></ul><ul><li>Shikoku </li></ul><ul><li>Kyushu </li></ul>
  3. 3. Japan’s Geography (cont.) <ul><li>Japan is covered by mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Only 20% of Japan’s land can be farmed </li></ul><ul><li>Like ancient Greece, the Japanese turned to the sea for a living. </li></ul><ul><li>Early settlers formed villages along the coast and fished for food. </li></ul><ul><li>The sea encouraged people to become merchants </li></ul>
  4. 4. Japan’s Geography (cont.) <ul><li>The vast ocean kept the Japanese isolated. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, Japan developed its own independent society with its own religion, art, literature and government. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The First Settlers <ul><li>Japan’s earliest people came from northeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>30,000 – 10,000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Jomon culture(cord marks) 5, 000 – 300 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>This culture made pottery using knotted cords to make designs </li></ul><ul><li>Settled in fishing villages along the coast. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The First Settlers (cont.) <ul><li>Yayoi culture 300 B.C. – A.D. 300 </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestors of the Japanese people </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced farming to Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Made pottery on a potter’s wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Grew rice </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled in metal working </li></ul><ul><li>Iron – knives, axes </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze - swords, spears, bells </li></ul>
  7. 7. The First Settlers (cont.) <ul><li>@ A.D. 300, the Yayoi organized into clans </li></ul><ul><li>Clans – headed by small group of warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Below the warriors - farmers, artisans, and servants </li></ul><ul><li>Clan warrior chiefs protected people in return for a share of the yearly harvest. </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefs were buried in large mounds filled with personal belongings </li></ul>
  8. 8. The First Settlers (cont.) <ul><li>Yamato Clan </li></ul><ul><li>Creation myth </li></ul><ul><li>@ A.D. 500, the Yamato brought Japan under it’s rule </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefs claimed lineage to the sun goddess </li></ul><ul><li>Right to rule </li></ul><ul><li>Jimmu – founded a line of emperors in Japan that has never been broken. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Prince Shotoku’s Reforms <ul><li>A.D. 600, Shotoku took charge of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted a strong government, like China </li></ul><ul><li>He created a constitution </li></ul><ul><li>It listed rules for working in the gov’t, and gave all power to the emperor </li></ul><ul><li>The rules were taken from Confucian ideas </li></ul><ul><li>He created a bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>He sent officials to China to study </li></ul>
  10. 10. Prince Shotoku’s Reforms (cont.) <ul><li>Japan learned about Buddhism, Chinese art, medicine, and philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>After Shotoku, other officials continued to use Chinese ideas. Ex. The Great Change </li></ul><ul><li>Japan was divided into provinces run by officials who reported to the emperor. All land was under the emperor’s control. </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is Shinto? <ul><li>Early Japanese believed that all natural things are alive and have their own spirit. </li></ul><ul><li>This idea is animism </li></ul><ul><li>Nature spirits – kami </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese honored the kami by worshipping in shrines </li></ul><ul><li>These beliefs developed into the religion of Shinto. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Expository Writing <ul><li>Imagine you are visiting Japan sometime in the A.D. 300’s. Write a letter to a friend describing what you have observed and learned about the Shinto religion. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Shoguns and Samurai
  14. 14. Nara Japan <ul><li>A.D. 700’s – New capital at Nara </li></ul><ul><li>Had Chinese characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>The center of government and religion </li></ul>
  15. 15. Emperor’s Government <ul><li>Organized the officials into ranks </li></ul><ul><li>Did not use examinations to hire officials </li></ul><ul><li>Gave jobs to nobles </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs could be inherited </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor controlled land and crops </li></ul><ul><li>Census – measured wealth </li></ul>
  16. 16. Buddhism Spreads in Japan <ul><li>Buddhism came from China through Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Religion spread rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Buddhist and Buddhist nobles fought to control the gov’t. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Government Weakens <ul><li>A.D. 800’s – the emperor’s power declines </li></ul><ul><li>Emperors were still children – had regents </li></ul><ul><li>Regents refused to give up power </li></ul><ul><li>Most regents were from the Fugiwara clan </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles gained control of land </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles paid no taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles collected taxes from peasants </li></ul>
  18. 18. Who were the Samurai? <ul><li>Warriors in private armies formed by the nobles </li></ul><ul><li>Fought on horseback, wore armor </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai means “one who serves” </li></ul><ul><li>Bushido – code of conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty – would rather die in battle than betray his lord. </li></ul><ul><li>Seppuku </li></ul>
  19. 19. What is a Shogun? <ul><li>Powerful families fought each other (Taira/Minamoto) </li></ul><ul><li>Minamoto won, emperor feared being replaced </li></ul><ul><li>Minamoto named shogun (commander of the emperor’s military force) </li></ul><ul><li>This create two gov’ts in Japan (emperor/shogun) </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor had no power </li></ul><ul><li>Shogunate – military gov’t </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Mongols Attack <ul><li>1274 and 1281 – Mongols set to invade Japan </li></ul><ul><li>They failed because typhoons destroyed fleet of ships </li></ul><ul><li>Kamikaze – divine wind </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Daimyo Divide Japan <ul><li>After 1331, Japan divided into small territories </li></ul><ul><li>Each territory was headed by a daimyo </li></ul><ul><li>He ruled his land as a independent kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>He created armies from the samurai </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai became vassals and served their daimyo in return for land (feudalism) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Life in Medieval Japan
  23. 23. Japanese Religion <ul><li>Believed in Shinto and Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Land Buddhism – happy life after death </li></ul><ul><li>Zen Buddhism – find inner peace through self-control and a simple way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Martial arts – control bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation – inner peace </li></ul>
  24. 24. Japanese Culture <ul><li>Borrowed ideas from China and Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Art – love of beauty and simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>Used lacquer </li></ul><ul><li>Origami </li></ul><ul><li>Zen gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Calligraphy </li></ul><ul><li>Tanka </li></ul><ul><li>Tale of Genji – first novel </li></ul><ul><li>Noh plays </li></ul>
  25. 25. Japan’s Economy and Society <ul><li>Japan’s wealth – came from farming </li></ul><ul><li>Grew rice, wheat, barley, millet </li></ul><ul><li>Better irrigation = more crops </li></ul><ul><li>Traded goods – weapons, armor, tools, pottery, paper, textiles, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Guilds were formed </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Role of Women <ul><li>Despite lack of freedom, women contributed to Japan’s culture </li></ul><ul><li>Writers </li></ul><ul><li>Artists </li></ul><ul><li>Warriors </li></ul>
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