Concepts in Artin the Classroom Mining Bridging Making
Mining• Develop the idea by searching for the meaning within the image or object being observed.• Ask the basic questions: – Who is it? – What is it for? – When was it made? – Where is it? – Why is it there?
Bridging• Convey the idea by finding a similarity or relationship that connects the two objects.• Example: – Same color, shape, and size – Similar habitat or environment – Same or opposite function
Making• Connect and Convey. Create a three- dimensional environment or art piece that both objects can relate to.• Maybe…. – They will both ski with people they have in common – They will share toys they both bought at the same store – They will both be a species of endangered life on earth – They will help each other do a similar task
“Godzilla and Yoda inaWar in Outer Space”Boy, age 10Godzilla and Yoda both fight intergalactic enemies, so they joined forcesin a stellar battle
“Yoda Connecting With Godzilla”Boy, age 11Yoda and Godzilla connect by transmitting to each other on a walkie-talkie, attempting to get together at a restaurant.
• “Mining, Bridging, and Making” is an article written by Art Educators, Melissa Vashe and Julia Marshall, who organized an experimental art program at a middle school in California. They felt that students needed more “clarity” about how to cognitively produce work and manipulate it. Students learned how to conceptualize visual arts mentally and apply them physically. They supported their beliefs by adopting established theories on conceptual skills and strategies used in art that were published by referenced art educators. Vashe and Marshall’s observations found that higher level thought processes were overall successful.• Melissa Vashe, a middle school art teacher at the River School in Napa, California, collaborated with Julia Marshall, an art education professor at San Francisco State University, to research new ways to challenge art students’ imaginations. They felt that methods of teaching conceptual skills and strategies for higher-grade level students could be applicable in lower grade levels. In theory, students would be enabled to cognitively theorize relationships by utilizing investigative skills. Practice of these skills would enable students to confront the problem of organization and then lay out their ideas in order to reach a solution.• This art program was designed to refine ways of enhancing the middle and high school art students’ abilities to absorb and process information needed to establish ideas. Vashe and Marshalls focused on their belief that in art education there are “skills of idea generation and concept development”. These skills could be enhanced through the technique of “mining, bridging, and making”. Through the process of taking two or more objects, conceiving ideas, connecting them, and then producing a relative object, students managed to function using skills common in higher educational.
• "Mining, bridging, and making" are methods that Vashe and Marshall developed to help students learn advanced levels of thought processes. First is the process of conceptualizing the idea by "Mining". This is the process of carefully developing the concept by looking for unique characteristics and meanings of the images referred to as a brainstorming spider. Bridging is the next step that applies strategies using metaphors, such as a bridge, then mapping out the ideas by means of both writing and drawing examples. Making is the process of applying the developed ideas and relationships and transforming them into dioramas or sculptures.• Art educators established this philosophy by means of publications, namely C. Dorn, A. Efland, K. Freedman, and C. Roland. All had mutual philosophies maintaining that higher-level thinking is fundamental of making art. The body of Vashe and Marshalls art program was based upon two main ideas: 1.Examining and promoting what and how students learn by making art (Roland, 1992), 2.Emphasizing the conceptual skills and strategies involved in making art (Freedman, 2003b: Gude, 2004). The references used by Vashe and Marshall present that the noted educators agreed that students should be capable of comprehending the relationship of joining these two thought processes. Throughout the article, the two authors exemplify how conceptual skills are as equally important to learning as the use of composition, media and materials, etc. Perfecting the conceptual skills should be applied concurrently with those other abilities.• This experimental art program at River School was limited to and recommended for middle or high school ages. The observation results were generally positive. Some students found the assignment to be too complex but most achieved the goal. An example of one of the successful projects was "The Lamp". This was a combination of ideas derived from a sneaker, an ornamental Indian elephant figurine, and a Chinese, jade necklace. The three art students created a round colored glass and paper-mache lampshade with holes at continental points for light and color to shine through. The students focused on these details to signify "the true vibrancy of cultures around the world". Vashe and Marshall concluded, "this project helped students develop conceptual skills…deeper levels of inquiry…(and) fundamental insight into creative process".• .••
Bibliography:Marshall, J. &Vashe, M. (2008). "Mining, Bridging, and Making: Developing and Conveying Concepts in Art". Art Education, Vol. 61, No. 1, pp 6-12Gude, O. (2004). Postmodern principles: In search of a 21st century art education. Art Education, In J. Marshall, & M. Vashe, "Mining, Bridging, and Making: Developing and Conveying Concepts in Art". pp 6-12, Art Education, Vol. 61, No. 1,Freedman, K. (2003b). The importance of student artistic production in teaching visual culture. Art Education, In J. Marshall, & M. Vashe, "Mining, Bridging, and Making: Developing and Conveying Concepts in Art". 6-12, Art Education, Vol. 61, No. 1, ppRoland C. (1992). Improving student thinking through elementary art instruction. In Johnson, A. (Ed.), Art education: Elementary. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. In , J. Marshall& M. Vashe, "Mining, Bridging, and Making: Developing and Conveying Concepts in Art". , pp 6-12,Art Education, Vol. 61, No. 1