QualityManagementRomanStyle (138/138)

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The management skills and Emotional Intelligence of Julius Caesar and seven Roman emperors are evaluated while taking a virtual walking tour through ancient Rome.

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QualityManagementRomanStyle (138/138)

  1. 1. Mott L.L. Groom © September 2005 Annual Meeting INAA Rome
  2. 2. Today, we are going to take a walk around Rome and see what lessons the past has to offer. Because Romans live with one foot in the past ^
  3. 3. And yesterday’ challenges are still challenges 2000 years later, Because In Rome^
  4. 4. Via S. Chiara People still live in the same buildings, like the 2000 year old baths of Agrippa ^
  5. 5. they park their vehicles next to the 2400 year old Servian Wall
  6. 6. they maneuver around ancient structures on their way to work^AND
  7. 7. . . .they jog along the ancient aqueducts, Hollywood . . .
  8. 8. . . . likes to emphasize the bizarre, with Gladiator combats and orgies particularly by these two jokers. Palazzo Massimo But, the most amazing thing about ancient Rome and its people is not the bizarre, but the similarities with the present. So today we’ll talk about Rome, and some of its leaders in business terms, and for this I have borrowed an article . . .
  9. 9. Reprint, March/April 2000 Daniel Goleman, Rutgers University In this article, the author Daniel Goleman says good leadership gets results and good leadership results from a persons use of his or her^
  10. 10. “the ability to manage ourselves and our relationships effectively”. Emotional Intelligence consists of . . .
  11. 11. Self-Awareness: Social Awareness: Social Skill: Self-Management: A manager needs to know his strengths and weaknesses in each of these areas. Briefly they are . . .
  12. 12. Self-Awareness: Self-confidence Accurate self - assessment Emotional self- awareness Self Awareness is knowing yourself and your emotional situation
  13. 13. Self Awareness: Self-Management: Self-Control Adaptability Initiative Trustworthiness Conscientiousness Self Management, is how you act toward others
  14. 14. Self Awareness: Social Awareness: Empathy Organizational Self-Management: Awareness Service Orientation Social Awareness, is how you perceive social situations and interactions
  15. 15. Self Awareness: Social Awareness: Self-Management: Social Skill: Visionary Leadership Influence Communication skill Organization Conflict Management And Social Skill is how you motivate, organize and produce results. Then a manager selects a management style for given situation. there are six styles according to Goleman^
  16. 16. 1. Coercive . . . forcing
  17. 17. 1. Coercive . . . forcing 2. Authoritative . . . leading, “follow me”
  18. 18. 1. Coercive . . . forcing 2. Authoritative . . . leading, “follow me” 3. Affiliative . . . People oriented Affiliative, which involves people motivating one another
  19. 19. 1. Coercive . . . forcing 2. Authoritative . . . leading, “follow me” 3. Affiliative . . . People oriented 4. Democratic . . . Consensus Democratic which builds consensus
  20. 20. 1. Coercive . . . forcing 2. Authoritative . . . leading, “follow me” 3. Affiliative . . . People oriented 4. Democratic . . . Consensus 5. Pacesetting . . . Goal setting and achieving Pacesetting which works against targets and goals
  21. 21. 1. Coercive . . . forcing 2. Authoritative . . . leading, “follow me” 3. Affiliative . . . People oriented 4. Democratic . . . Consensus 5. Pacesetting . . . Goal setting and achieving 6. Coaching . . . mentoring Today, Our survey will cover the period . . .
  22. 22. from Julius Caesar in 48 BC to Constantine in 337 AD, and we’ll talk about 1 dictator and 7 emperors. We’ll look at a 20th century style leader like…
  23. 23. Palazzo Massimo Augustus ^ and Rome’s first auditor Emperor . . .
  24. 24. and an Iraqi invader. . . Vatican Palazzo Massimo
  25. 25. and see how they succeeded or failed in their management challenges. These men didn’t pass their days in orgies or feasting at the vomitorium. They spent full time managing an empire with techniques and skills which aren’t very different than those practiced today. The Roman empire^ they built . . .
  26. 26. Imperial Forum was a hugely successful organization that at its peak by 160 AD, spanned 3 continents, a land area approximately the size of the 48 United States. Today, we will take a virtual walk around Rome and learn some lessons from the people who built and ran it.
  27. 27. Julius Caesar effectively ended the Republican period in 48 BC. As a Roman general he conquered Gaul and ended the running battles with Rome’s neighbors.
  28. 28. Imperial Forum He then took his legions beyond his authorized territory, crossed the Rubicon river and marched on Rome. Like any good takeover artist, he headed straight . . .
  29. 29. . . .for the cash that had been stashed as a reserve against an invasion by Gaul, which was no longer needed. ^ He then headed down the Via Appia
  30. 30. To pursue the deposed leader Pompey who was fleeing to set up a government in exile. Caesar, always an innovator, understood how to use modern^ technology and he had his engineers design machines^.
  31. 31. EUR to attack Pompey’s fleeing ships. But, like so often happens today, the technology failed him and he had to resort to traditional warfare to defeat Pompey’s army Then, after traveling to Egypt and having a son with its queen Cleopatra, Caesar returned to Rome to manage his empire . . .
  32. 32. Palazzo Altemps and in the Inferno, Dante describes his management style as “falcon eyed and fully armed” But like a lot of takeover artists, Caesar didn’t’ have the disposition for management, First there was managing at headquarters rather than in the field ^ which meant that . . .
  33. 33. Skilled politicians like Cicero were able to promote their Capitoline own agenda and oppose Museum Caesar’s dictatorship. Caesar also surrounded Himself with sycophants, like Marc Antony who wanted him to declare himself King. While Caesar did make some reforms in fundamental areas such as . . .
  34. 34. Palazzo Massimo . . .a new solar calendar of 365 days, his ego kept getting in his way, he even named the 5th month July, after himself. Caesar was guilty of two classical management mistakes. He was vulnerable to flattery and he never appreciated the strength and determination of his opposition. so on the ides^ of march . . .
  35. 35. E tu Brutus ? March 44 BC, he was slain at this point in the Pompey theatre by 23 knife wounds. Every year at the altar of the divine Julius in the Forum . . .
  36. 36. flowers are still placed on his tomb. So, How do we judge Caesar ? As a manager . . .
  37. 37. Marc Antony stood here and said “I come to bury Caesar not to praise him”, according to Shakespeare. But instead of literature, we’ll use Professor Goleman’s criteria.
  38. 38. Emotional Intelligence 10 9 9 8 7 6.5 7 6 6 Julius Caesar 5 4 4 3 2 1 Self Aware Self Mngt. Social Social Avg. Aware Skills I give Caesar low scores in social awareness and social skills, He was a good talker but a lousy listener and as a result he didn’t appreciate the strength and conviction of his opponents and therefore didn’t employ his social awareness and social skills to win them over , he paid the price, he was assassinated And he was certainly . . .
  39. 39. 1. Coercive . . . forcing 2. Authoritative . . . leading, “follow me” 3. Affiliative . . . People oriented 4. Democratic . . . Consensus 5. Pacesetting . . . Goal setting and achieving 6. Coaching . . . mentoring A coercive leader with his opposition and detractors, although a very authoritative leader with his troops and supporters who idolized him.
  40. 40. Octavian So having dispatched Caesar, lets turned to his adopted son and successor, Octavian. After Caesar’s assassination, there was a long succession struggle, The 3 contenders 31 BC- 14 AD (MA, Octavian , Lepidus) agreed to power sharing, and divided
  41. 41. And divided . . . the empire up amongst themselves as you all well know, power sharing is not effective management The lust for power was strongest in Octavian who in 31 BC ^ Historical Atlas . . . Scarre
  42. 42. Palazzo Massimo Launched a naval strike against the Egyptian fleet commanded by his rival MA and Cleopatra, Octavian quickly won and went on to add Egypt and Dalmatia to the Roman Empire He returned to Rome to manage . . .
  43. 43. He was named Augustus by the Senate (Excellency and holiness) He immediately drew up a business plan which Peter Drucker would have been proud of.
  44. 44. Augustus’ Objectives • Consolidation not Growth
  45. 45. Augustus’ Objectives • Consolidation not Growth • Unify the People around common culture
  46. 46. Augustus’ Objectives • Consolidation not Growth • Unify the People around common culture • Peace and military downsizing He then set up an Executive committee of 4 key advisers, his closest friend, the General . . .
  47. 47. Whose name you see inscribed, on the Pantheon which can be found right in front of MacDonalds, Agrippa,
  48. 48. Who often entertained Augustus in this auditorium Who often entertained Augustus in this auditorium adjacent adjacent to his house, to his house, The non political poet and philosopher Virgil ^ The non political poet and philosopher Virgil …
  49. 49. but very importantly, his wife. . . Vatican Museum
  50. 50. Centrale Montemartini
  51. 51. *He divided the city into regions and wards [14 Urbs]. Placing the former under the control of magistrates chosen annually by lot, while the wards were under supervisors elected by the people in each neighborhood. Against fires he organized water companies and firemen: against flood he cleaned and scoured the channel of the Tiber . . . and he constructed a very large number of public buildings. Suetonius
  52. 52. And he ordered a census of the empire to identify his taxpaying base^
  53. 53. He then commissioned Virgil to write a story to establish a Roman culture
  54. 54. “Now fix your sights, and stand intent, to see Your Roman Race, and Julian progeny The mighty Caesar waits his vital hour Impatient for the world, and grasps his promis’d power” Aeneid
  55. 55. Palazzo Massimo
  56. 56. Naples For his # 3 objective that Peace must prevail, he issued new currency^
  57. 57. Palazzo Massimo
  58. 58. Palazzo Massimo He de-comissioned the armies and offered soldiers land and retraining, and promoted this program with a marketing pitch using Virgil’s books the Georgics, to extol the idyllic pastoral life and the skills of a Roman farmer
  59. 59. To build a city the people could be proud of, Maecenas convinced Augustus to start a building program which produced the huge basilica Julia in the Forum, ^
  60. 60. The temple of Mars Ultor to celebrate Augustus’ military victories ^
  61. 61. The public gardens and libraries in the PO, dedicated to his sister, the teatro Marcello and Temple of Appollo^
  62. 62. And many public infrastructure projects, like fire stations and new roads from Rome to the outlying areas of the empire. Augustus also planned for the expansion of the port of Ostia,
  63. 63. Shown in the Vatican museum map room, later executed under Claudius and^
  64. 64. new water supplies to bring waters from the east to Rome, also completed under Claudius. All these programs are recorded by Augustus in his memoirs^
  65. 65. To insure that he would be remembered at least once a year for all time he renamed the sixth month of the year after himself, and to ensure his equality with Caesar’s July, he borrowed a day from February to give his namesake August, 31 days. Palazzo Massimo
  66. 66. 1. Coercive 2. Authoritative . . . Visionary, “come with me” 3. Affiliative . . . People oriented 4. Democratic 5. Pacesetting . . . Goal setting and achieving 6. Coaching . . . mentoring
  67. 67. Emotional Intelligence 10 9 8.5 8 7 6.5 6 Julius Caesar 5 Augustus 4 3 2 1 0 Self Self Social Social Avg. Aware Mngt. Aware Skills
  68. 68. Julius Csr. Augustus Coercive Authoritative Affiliative Democratic One thing he did not do well was to have a succession plan in place, so his wife, who is Pacesetter also suspected by some of being responsible for the death of his two adopted sons and Coaching even of Augustus himself.
  69. 69. Vatican Museum Stepped into the vacuum and made sure her son Tiberius, by a former marriage, succeeded Augustus, the beginning of an incompetent group
  70. 70. 69-79 . . . of several disastrous emperors which ended with the suicide of Nero and civil war in 68 AD. It took the Jewish war . . .
  71. 71. Portrayed on the arch of Titus with the victorious Romans bringing treasures from Jerusalem back to Rome, to end the civil war and bring General Vespasian to power.
  72. 72. Naples Palazzo Massimo
  73. 73. Capitoline Museum Vespasian was convinced by his fellow generals to march on Rome and demand that the Senate appoint him emperor, and designate by decree that his two sons would follow. Vespasian became the first walk around Emperor.
  74. 74. He actually joined in clearing rubble, and participating in work teams. He used the spoils from the Jewish war to finance a building program which began here in Vespasian’s forum to cover up the demolished remains of the gardens of Nero’s Golden Palace.
  75. 75. Responsive to the people, he built an entertainment complex, the largest amphitheatre in the world.
  76. 76. He encouraged new ideas, the arts, the theatre Centrale Montemartini and writings, During his reign, Pliny the elder dedicated his 37 books on the nature of things to the Emperor’s son. The New ideas he encouraged led from everything to new poetry to new taxes.
  77. 77. Placed on public urinals in the Largo Argentina. The historian Tacitus, a Senator during the time, said that . . .
  78. 78. Capitoline Museum
  79. 79. So much so that at his death the temple of Vespasian was built and placed on one of the most prominent places In the Forum
  80. 80. Emotional Intelligence 10 9 8.5 8 7.3 7 6.5 6 Julius Caesar 5 Augustus Vespasian 4 3 2 1 0 Self Self Social Social Avg. Aware Mngt. Aware Skills
  81. 81. 1. Coercive 2. Authoritative . . . Visionary, “come with me” 3. Affiliative . . . People oriented 4. Democratic 5. Pacesetting . . . Goal setting and achieving 6. Coaching . . . mentoring
  82. 82. Julius Csr. Augustus Vesp. Trajan Hadrian Marcus Sept.Sev. Dioc. Constant. Coercive Authoritative Affiliative Democratic Pacesetter Coaching
  83. 83. 98-117 AD Trajan’s hero was Julius Caesar and he wanted to emulate Caesar’s military successes.
  84. 84. So, to finance his building program, he conquered Dacia (now Romania) and then launched a probably unnecessary invasion of Parthia
  85. 85. (now Iraq) which degenerated into years of insurgency across the unstable middle east, and practically bankrupted the Roman Empire.
  86. 86. This column was sculpted in honor of Trajan’s victory in Romania and is probably Rome’s grandest piece of marble sculpture, it stands. . .
  87. 87. In front of Trajan’s Market, but there are no similar monuments to his Iraqi exploits. Instead he is honored . . .
  88. 88. Curia, Forum In this marble relief (Trajan is shown sitting) for his agricultural subsidies and welfare for the children of the Empire, and facing this . . .
  89. 89. Curia, Forum He is shown in another relief for his Tax reductions, shown here with people bringing tax records to him for destruction,^
  90. 90. Emotional Intelligence 10 9 8 7 Julius Caesar 6 5.5 Augustus 5 Vespasian 4 Trajan 3 2 1 0 Self Self Social Social Avg. Aware Mngt. Aware Skills
  91. 91. 1. Coercive 2. Authoritative . . . Visionary, “come with me” 3. Affiliative . . . People oriented 4. Democratic 5. Pacesetting . . . Goal setting and achieving 6. Coaching . . . mentoring He started coercively, got in trouble in Iraq, and then started listening to different advisers and became something of a pacesetter in his social programs.
  92. 92. Julius Csr. Augustus Vesp. Trajan Hadrian Marcus Sept.Sev. Dioc. Constant. Coercive Authoritative Affiliative Democratic Pacesetter Coaching
  93. 93. 117-138
  94. 94. Capitoline Museum The first globalist, Hadrian started his reign by reversing his predecessors policies in the middle east and withdrawing from the area. He then went on to strengthen Homeland Security by building defenses.
  95. 95. Hadrian’s Wall BBC photos Like Hadrian’s wall in Britain to keep the Barbarians (Scots) who were terrorizing the Northern Empire, out.
  96. 96. The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome, Chris Scarre Hadrian Visited nearly every major city in the Empire, a 13 year tour that took him from Britain , Spain and throughout the middle east. And when he finished, issued new coins depicting every province, namingthem and showing a picture of the native dress and skills, thus for the first time acknowledging that the empire’s strength lay in its cultural diversity and diverse skills It is believed. . .
  97. 97. That this statue in porphry (Emperor’s) marble found near Jerusalem was of him and commemorated his visit to the area during his journeys. Hadrian fancied himself an architect and is responsible for Hadrian’s villa just outside Rome and . . .
  98. 98. Rome’s Pantheon. The largest diameter dome in history for 18 centuries, an architectural marvel in poured concrete
  99. 99. His mausoleum was also of his design, but the . . .
  100. 100. Temple of Hadrian whose remains can be seen in the side of a modern Roman building, was built by his successor^
  101. 101. Emotional Intelligence 10 9 8 8 7 Julius Caesar 6 Augustus 5 Vespasian Trajan 4 Hadrian 3 2 His gloablism 1 raises his social scores, 0 and his 13 yr Self Self Social Social Avg. walk proved self Aware Mngt. Aware Skills management.
  102. 102. 1. Coercive 2. Authoritative . . . Visionary, “come with me” 3. Affiliative . . . People oriented 4. Democratic 5. Pacesetting . . . Goal setting and achieving 6. Coaching . . . mentoring He brutally destroyed Jerusalem to withdraw from the middle east but then became a people oriented pacesetter, and the first to recognize the diversity of skills of his people.
  103. 103. Julius Csr. Augustus Vesp. Trajan Hadrian One of Hadrian’s most brilliant moves was his Coercive succession plan. He managed to Authoritative name his successor and his successor’s Affiliative successor through adoption, and thus Democratic was a major influence in what Gibbon Pacesetter describes as the “golden age” Coaching of the Roman Empire.
  104. 104. 193 Vatican Museum Drafted by the Praetorian guard when Commodus was slain by his concubines, Pertinax was a capable and ethical bureaucrat. He started his reign by taking an audit of the Empires resources. Machiavelli said . . .
  105. 105. “Reduced to order everything that had previously been irregular and confused; For he showed not only humaneness and integrity . . . but also the most economical management and the most careful consideration for the public welfare.” Machiavelli After 90 days he discovered that he did not have the resources to pay the Praetorian Guard the bonus he promised them for their support. So, being the forthright auditor that he was, he told them the bad news. This resulted with his head being placed on top of a pike and an announcement by the Praetorian Guard that there would be an auction for a new emperor.
  106. 106. 1. Coercive 2. Authoritative . . . Visionary, “come with me” 3. Affiliative . . . People oriented 4. Democratic 5. Pacesetting . . . Goal setting and achieving 6. Coaching . . . mentoring Candid to a fault. Now we jump ahead 100 years . . .
  107. 107. 284-305 The Empire was torn by disunity, rebellion and new religious dissension, particularly in the East. Diocletian was trained with the military elite, not in battle but in administration. He had a keen sense of Social awareness and knew how to organize to make things work.^
  108. 108. The Empire was too big, cultures too diverse, religious ideas were breaking out border invasion were occurring. Regions were becoming too powerful to control A turnaround was needed, so .. . .
  109. 109. He divided the Empire into East and West . He then . . .
  110. 110. established the title of Augustus for himself and a friend Maximian, to be on an equal footing, each taking one half of the divided empire^
  111. 111. Each Augustus then appointed a Chief operating Officer to be called a Caesar He then . .
  112. 112. divided job responsibilities The Augustus became chief of state and religion The Caesar became head of government and the military He then did the final move. . .
  113. 113. He elevated the Augustus to gods, gave then divine names and birthdays, it worked ! And its been repeated many times in 21st C american business, Then he re organized the provinces^
  114. 114. He divided each region into smaller provinces. He separated civil and military authority under separate leaders, AND overlapped provinces, so that no military leader had full military control over a single region. To control inflation . . The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome
  115. 115. Exhibition Trajan’s Market He introduced price controls. To stop dissension, he ordered persecution of the troublemaking Christians. And most effectively, he ignored the Senate in Rome, although he had the bath’s of Diocletian built for the Romans.
  116. 116. Order was restored, borders were secured, the turnaround worked. Diocletian then took one further move, . . .
  117. 117. He took early retirement and went back to Dalmatia to raise Cabbages.
  118. 118. Emotional Intelligence 10 9.3 9 8 Julius Caesar 7 Augustus 6 Vespasian 5 Trajan 4 Hadrian 3 Diocletian 2 A perfect 10 in 1 self awareness and 0 social skills. His divinity takes Self Self Social Social Avg. him down a Aware Mngt. Aware Skills few points.
  119. 119. 1. Coercive 2. Authoritative . . . Visionary, “come with me” 3. Affiliative . . . People oriented 4. Democratic 5. Pacesetting . . . Goal setting and achieving 6. Coaching . . . mentoring a little brusque, but he got results as a coercive pacesetter, and he saved the Empire.
  120. 120. Julius Csr. Augustus Vesp. Trajan Hadrian Marcus Sept.Sev. Dioc. Constant. Coercive Authoritative Affiliative Democratic Pacesetter Coaching Diocletian left some pretty big shoes to fill !
  121. 121. but fill them he did, with . . .
  122. 122. 307-337 After a few years of disputed succession, Constantine rose to the top
  123. 123. Capitoline Museum A man with many disguises, he was a sun worshiper who quickly came to the conclusion that the Christian opposition had a better organization than his own,
  124. 124. Capitoline Museum So instead of persecuting them, he issued the Edict of Milan recognizing Christianity and returned their property ^
  125. 125. he claimed to gain strength from the sign of the cross in the skies before the battle at Ponte Milvio in Rome, when he defeated his rival Maxentius^
  126. 126. Lateran Baptistry he stopped dissension and heresy by calling the council of Nice and presiding over it. He wasn’t even a Christian. He is shown here with the bishops burning heretical writings.
  127. 127. He began a church building program in Rome and Jerusalem and started St Paul’s outside the walls, Santa Croce dedicated to his mother Helen,^
  128. 128. He began the original St. Peters, St. John Lateran and . . .
  129. 129. The church of the holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Roman commuters remember him as They pass his arch . .
  130. 130. Emotional Intelligence 10 9 8 7.8 Julius Caesar 7 Augustus 6 Vespasian 5 Trajan Hadrian 4 Diocletian 3 Constantine 2 He turned his 1 opponent into 0 his strongest Allies, and Self Self Social Social Avg. Used their Aware Mngt. Aware Skills Organization. A merger?
  131. 131. 1. Coercive 2. Authoritative . . . Visionary, “come with me” 3. Affiliative . . . People oriented 4. Democratic 5. Pacesetting . . . Goal setting and achieving 6. Coaching . . . mentoring
  132. 132. Julius Csr. Augustus Vesp. Trajan Hadrian Marcus Sept.Sev. Dioc. Constant. Coercive Authoritative Affiliative Democratic Pacesetter Coaching
  133. 133. Technology Cash Succession Advisers Opposition The challenges of the 21st C manager are not very different than those of 2000 years ago.
  134. 134. Mott L.L. Groom mllgroom1@yahoo.com September 2005 Annual Meeting INAA Rome
  135. 135. Museums • Capitoline Museum • Vatican Museum • Palazzo Massimo alle Terme • Palazzo Altemps • Baths of Diocletian • Centrale Montemartini • Museum of Roman Civilization, EUR

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