Infection control, communicable disease, universal precaution volunteers

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  • Infection Control and Universal Precautions for preventing the spread of communicable diseases, presented to you by CCFI. Research provided by Linda Soper.
  • Infection: Caused by human pathogens (bacteria, viruses or microorganisms) which can invade the body and compromise its well-being.
    Any situation that brings people together (such as the workplace) provides an opportunity for the transmission of infectious agents.
  • How does stuff spread?
    Direct or indirect
    droplets from sneezing or coughing can spread or carry infectious agents through the air from one person to another.
  • 80% of germs are spread via direct contact with an infected person or the person’s body fluid/tissues.
    Infection can also be transmitted through indirect contact when a non-infected person touches the surface of an object that was touched by an infected person, like the sick person using a phone, then some other unlucky person coming along and using the same, germy phone.
  • It is best practice to treat all blood and body fluids as potentially infectious.
    It is impossible to tell who is infected with hepatitis or HIV by appearances.
    Many have no knowledge or symptoms of their diseases.
  • Good personal hygiene is the first line of defense.
    Basic techniques include regular hand washing and keeping the workplace clean.
    Wash hands frequently.
    Dry your hands with disposable paper towels
    Use waterless hand cleaner only if no soap and water is available
    You should thoroughly wash your hands with water and soap for at least 15 seconds
    Before and after touching someone or something potentially infectious
    After removing gloves
    After handling potentially infectious material
    After using the bathroom
    Before eating, smoking, applying cosmetics, handling contact lens
  • Cover any cuts or abrasions with a waterproof dressing.
    Wear gloves if you are handling body fluids or equipment containing body fluids or if you are touching someone else's broken skin or mucus membrane
    Make a point of not sharing personal items
    Don't share towels, clothing, cups which haven’t been washed or other personal items. If at all possible, users should have personal telephones, and telephones should be regularly cleaned and sterilized.
  • Bloodborne Pathogens are infectious microorganisms present in blood that can cause disease in humans.
    Workers exposed to bloodborne pathogens can be at risk for serious or life-threatening illnesses.
  • Pathogens you should be aware of are Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS.
  • Hepatitis B is an Infection of the liver
    It Can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer and death
    There is a 20% risk of infection with a contaminated sharp object
    The Virus can survive in dried blood up to 7 days
    Vaccination is Recommended for all high risk groups
    The vaccine is 3 shots- initial , 1 mo., 6 mo.
    The vaccine offers Life-long immunity
  • Hepatitis C is the Most common chronic blood borne infection in US
    It Causes liver damage, cirrhosis and liver cancer
    There is a 2% risk of infection by contaminated sharp
    There are 50,000 needlesticks annually related to HCV infected patients
    There is NO vaccine and NO cure for Hepatitis C
  • HIV/AIDS Attacks the body’s immune system
    Suffers of this disease are Unable to fight off other infections, and there are 6,000 new infections every day.
    This disease Can be contracted through accidental occupational exposure
    There is No vaccine and no cure
  • What are your chances of HIV infection?
    If you are exposed to HIV infected blood/body fluids by:
    A dirty needle/sharp: you have a 3 in 1000 chance
    Mucous membrane splash: 1 in 1000
    Non-intact skin: 1 in 1000 chance
    Prompt antiviral treatment after exposure can reduce risk of infection by 60 – 80%
  • Who is at risk for infection from bloodborne pathogens?
    Anyone who comes in contact with human blood or body fluids which may contain blood
    Anyone who touches potentially contaminated surfaces or equipment
  • How do bloodborne pathogens enter your body?
    Open cuts and nicks
    *Skin abrasions
    *Mucous membranes of eyes, nose or mouth
  • How can you reduce your risk of exposure?
    Wearing Personal protective equipment
    Using Engineering controls
    Following Work Practice Controls
    Getting the Hepatitis B vaccine
  • What are some examples of Personal protective equipment?
    Gloves- use them any time contact with blood or other body fluids may occur—these are located in the first aid kit
    Masks and eye protection- use them if there is any chance of splashing into the mouth nose or eyes; a CPR mouth guard is located in CCFI first aid kits
    Gowns/lab coats, shoe covers- use them if there is a risk of splattering or spilling on clothes or skin
  • Engineering controls are Devices that reduce employee risk by isolating or removing the hazard
    Examples include:
    Sharps containers
    and Biosafety cabinets
  • Work Practice controls include:
    proper handling of sharps
    proper disposal of infectious waste
    wearing appropriate PPE
    And Handwashing- (the single most important means of preventing the spread of infection from BBP)
  • What should you do with biohazard waste? Discard contaminated sharps in approved sharps containers
    Discard all other infectious material in biohazard trash bags to be picked up by biohazard waste technicians and incinerated
  • What should you do with spill of body fluids?
    Isolate the area.
    Wear appropriate PPE (gloves, a plastic apron and eye protection, such as goggles).
    Soak up the fluid with disposable paper towels
    Mix one part bleach to 10 parts water and apply to the area for 10 minutes
    Wash with hot water and detergent.
    Remember not to store bleach with water for extended periods of time
  • What should you do with a body fluid spill?
    Dry the area.
    Dispose of paper towels and gloves appropriately
    Wash your hands
    Rinse any contaminated clothing in cold running water, soak in bleach solution for half an hour, then wash separately from other clothing or linen with hot water and detergent
  • When is someone considered exposed? Anyone who comes in contact with human blood or body fluids which may contain blood
    Anyone who touches potentially contaminated surfaces or equipment
    What should you do if you are exposed?
    Wash area with soap and water
    Splash to mucous membranes- rinse or flush with water for 15 min
    Have source of infection remain available
    Immediately inform your supervisor of the incident
    Seek medical attention. A medical professional will provide you with appropriate testing, treatment and education
  • Thanks for watching!


  • 1. Infection Control and Universal Precautions for Preventing the Spread of Communicable Diseases
  • 2. INFECTION Gross.
  • 3. How does stuff spread?
  • 4. Contact I’m covered in diseases! Direct Indirect
  • 5. Treat all blood and body fluids as potentially infectious … I don’t know if you have something or not …
  • 6. Wash your hands! Use soap and warm water
  • 7. Cover up that cut! Wear gloves when handling body fluids!
  • 8. What are Bloodborne Pathogens?
  • 9. Pathogens of concern… • Hepatitis B • Hepatitis C • HIV/AIDS
  • 10. Hepatitis B Man, I don’t feel so good …
  • 11. Hepatitis C I’m the most common chronic, bloodborne infection the U.S.!
  • 12. HIV/AIDS Anyone can get HIV …
  • 13. Chances of HIV Infection – A dirty needle/sharp: in 1000 (0.3%) – Mucous membrane splash: in 1000 (0.1%) – Non intact skin: in 1000 (0.1%)
  • 14. Who is at risk for infection from bloodborne pathogens? EVERYONE
  • 15. How do bloodborne pathogens enter your body? Mom, I need a bandage—stat..
  • 16. How can I reduce my risk of exposure? Vaccines Engineering controls Gloves
  • 17. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  • 18. Engineering Controls Sharp containers reduce risk
  • 19. Work Practice Controls Properly dispose The workplace should have guidelines in place for you to … Wash hands Wear PPE
  • 20. Biohazardous Waste Disposal
  • 21. Dealing with spills of body fluids
  • 22. What do I do with a body fluid spill?
  • 23. What if I am exposed?
  • 24. Thanks for watching!