Volcanos

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Volcanos

  1. 1. Introduction to Volcanology November 2009
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>1.- Volcano . </li></ul><ul><li>Concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Origin. </li></ul><ul><li>Parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanology. </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanism. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Volcano <ul><li>An opening in the earth’s surface through which lava, hot gases, and rock fragments erupt. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Origin of Volcanos <ul><ul><li>1.- Magma 50-100 miles below the earth’s surface slowly begins to rise to the surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.- As the magma rises it melts gaps in the surrounding rock. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.- As more magma rises a large reservoir forms as close as 2 miles below the surface (magma chamber) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.- Pressure from the surrounding rock causes the magma to blast or melt a conduit (channel) to the surface where magma erupts onto the surface through a vent (opening). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.- The magma, now called lava, builds up at the vent forming a volcano. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.- Often the volcano sides will be higher than the vent forming a depression called a crater </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Volcano Mount Saint Helen Eruption, May 18th 1980
  6. 6. Magma chamber conduit mantle Parasitic Cone Ash Cloud/Gases Vent Lava Flow Crater Parts of a Volcano
  7. 7. “ Ring of Fire” Volcanic arcs and oceanic trenches partly encircling the Pacific Basin form the so-called , a zone of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
  8. 8. Volcanoes and earthquakes <ul><li>The distribution of earthquakes provides information about magma pathways and the structure of volcanoes and they also can have a lot to do with generating tsunami. Any time that you can somehow displace a large amount of ocean water you generate a large wave or group of waves that goes rushing across the ocean at great speed. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Volcanology <ul><li>Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the branch of geology that studies volcanoes, lava, magma and related geological phenomena. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Volcanism <ul><li>Volcanism is part of the process of bringing material from the deep interior of a planet and spilling it forth on the surface. In many cases, eruptions build up a </li></ul><ul><li> piled of material, a mountain what is called volcano. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Heat Source <ul><li>The heat from a volcano comes from deep within the earth. Many miles underground, the earth is hot. Rocks beneath the earth are so hot they turn into a liquid called lava. </li></ul>When a volcano erupts, the steam and ash is caused by lava that is forcing its way toward the surface of the earth.

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