Nutrition intro cals and carbs ii (3)


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Nutrition intro cals and carbs ii (3)

  1. 1. Nutrition for Wellness Chapter 12
  2. 2. Why Do We Eat? Hunger Pleasure Comfort Social Energy Disease Prevention
  3. 3. Current Trends in Nutrition Rangers Ballpark Promote All You Can Eat Advertising: Conflicting Messages Our Pets are getting fatter, too!
  4. 4. FACTS: The U.S. Diet is too high in… …saturated fat, placing many Americans at an increased risk for atherosclerosis, CHD, obesity, and Type II diabetes. …sugar, resulting in risk for developing Type II diabetes and obesity. …sodium, resulting in high blood pressure (hypertension).
  5. 5. FACTS: The U.S. Diet is Lacking in: …fruit and vegetable intake, also resulting in lack of fiber intake. Nearly half of all people living in the U.S. eat no fruit and almost a fourth eat no vegetables! …MODERATION!---OVERCONSUMPTION is problem in U.S.
  6. 6. What is Good Nutrition? Proper nutrition means: Your diet is supplying all the essential nutrients to carry out normal tissue growth, repair, and maintenance; your diet is also providing nutrients necessary for physical activity, work and relaxation.
  7. 7. What are Essential Nutrients? I. Macronutrients: - Carbohydrates (4calories/gram) - Fats (9 calories/gram) - Protein (4 calories/gram) - Water (zero calories) II. Micronutrients: - Vitamins (zero calories) - Minerals (zero calories) **Alcohol (7 calories/gram)
  8. 8. What is a calorie?  A unit of energy;  The amount of energy or heat necessary to raise one gram of water 1 degree Centigrade.  We measure the energy value of food and the cost of physical activity in calories.
  9. 9. Nutrient Density Foods can be classified as high-nutrient density, meaning high in nutrients, low or moderate in calories; Example: Broccoli, Spinach, Carrots OR low-nutrient density, meaning low in nutrients, but high in calories, thus termed, “junk foods”-French Fries, chips
  10. 10. Carbohydrates - Each gram of carbohydrate provides the body with 4 calories (4cal/g.) - Main energy source; provides body energy for work, cell maintenance, and heat. - Carbohydrates help to regulate fat and metabolize protein. - Should comprise 45-65% of daily caloric intake (1/2 of this = whole grains/legumes).
  11. 11. Major Sources of Carbohydrates  Fruits  Veggies  Breads  Cereals  Milk
  12. 12. Carbohydrates Classified as: 1. Simple (ex: candy, soda, cake) a. monosaccharides b. disaccharides 2. Complex (ex: starches found in seeds, corn, nuts, grains, roots, potatoes and legumes) a. Starches b. Dextrins c. Glycogens
  13. 13. Simple Carbohydrates Commonly known as SUGARS (candy, soda, cake) – less than 25% of carbohydrate intake Two types: 1. Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) 2. Dissaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose)
  14. 14. Complex Carbohydrates Starches: Commonly found in seeds, nuts, corn, grains, roots, potatoes, and legumes. Dextrins: Formed from breakdown of large starch molecules exposed to dry heat such as baked bread or cold cereal production. Glycogen: Animal polysaccaride synthesized from glucose and found in small amounts in meat.
  15. 15. Chemical Structure of Sugars
  16. 16. FIBER  A complex form of carbohydrate.  Fiber gives a feeling of fullness without added calories.  Fiber decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers.
  17. 17. Soluble vs. Insoluble FIBER Classified according to solubility in water. Soluble: Dissolves in water, forming a gel- like substance that encloses food particles, allowing it to bind and excrete fats from the body. Sources: Oats (oatmeal), fruits, barley, and legumes). Helps improve cholesterol (protective against heart disease) and blood sugar levels.
  18. 18. Insoluble Fiber  Insoluble: Not easily dissolved in water – body cannot digest this form. Sources: Skins of fruits, plant leaves, roots, and seeds.
  19. 19. More on FIBER FACTS: - Processing and refining foods removes almost all of the natural fiber. -Saturated fats often take the place of fiber in the American diet, which increases the absorption and formation of cholesterol. - Constipation, diverticulitis, hemorrhoids, gallblad der disease and obesity are all linked with diets low in Fiber.
  20. 20. The Breakdown FIBER SOLUBLE (Oatmeal, fruits, Barley, legumes) INSOLUBLE (Wheat, veggies, Skins of fruit)
  21. 21. The Breakdown Carbohydrates Simple Monosaccharides Glucose Fructose Galactose Dissacharides Sucrose Lactose Maltose Complex Starches Dextrins Glycogens FIBER
  22. 22. Fiber…How Much? 21-25 grams for women/day 31-38 grams for men/day (6-11 Servings of fruits and veggies each day) Most Americans eat only 10-12 grams/day! In contrast-China-up to 77 grams per day!
  23. 23. Carbohydrates: How Much Should I Eat?  Should comprise 45-65% of daily caloric intake. ½ of those should be whole grains & beans (non-processed).
  24. 24. GLYCEMIC INDEX  A measure of how fast and how far blood sugar rises after eating a carbohydrate.  Example: White Bread = High Glycemic Index/ Blood sugar spikes rapidly Versus: Brown Rice = Low Glycemic Index – slow, gentle rise in blood
  26. 26. Review of Carbohydrates  What is a carbohydrate?  What are some examples of carbohydrates?  Do all carbohydrates have the same effect on the body?
  27. 27. Calories  FAT 9 calories/gram  CARBOHYDRATES 4 calories/gram  PROTEIN 4 calories/gram  ALCOHOL 7 calories/gram