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Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010
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Linking Data: The Legal Implications - SemTech2010

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To date most of the focus on the Semantic Web has, quite rightly, been focused on the enabling technologies. However, as the technologies are becoming more mainstream, and as ever increasing volumes …

To date most of the focus on the Semantic Web has, quite rightly, been focused on the enabling technologies. However, as the technologies are becoming more mainstream, and as ever increasing volumes of Linked Data is produced, the implications of linking this data becomes more of an issue. This presentation highlights some of the current thinking as to the possible legal implications of linking data while discussing some solutions that are emerging.

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  • Interested in ANY types of linking. Not specifically Semantic Web & Ontologies.
  • Common Law is precendent based – case builds on case. It is primarily in English speaking countries. Civil Law, or Roman Law, a collection of laws that Judges must follow. Main thing is that European law is complex and made of many state laws and different legal systems.
  • Mix os State statute law and common law. 'actual malice' needs to be proved only in cases concerning public figures.
  • Transparency : Data subject has the right to be informed when her personal data is being processed. Data can only be processed when: Consent is given Entering into a contract Compliance with a legal obligation Protecting the vital interests of the subject Necessary in public interest Necessary for legitimate interests Legitimate purpose: Data can only be processed for a specified explicit and legitimate purpose. Proportionality : Data can only be processed insofar as it is adequate.
  • Most Las deals with the government.
  • The elipsis is the important thing. The two statements are 'stiched' together and presented as a single fact.
  • Google use the defence of being a 'neutral third party' or 'carrier' Google Brazil, own Orkut, therefor it was difficult for Google to argue 'neutrality'
  • The rock star Pete Townshend was yesterday cautioned by police and placed on the sex offenders register for five years following his admission that he accessed child pornography on the internet. Townshend, 57, received the caution at Kingston police station in south-west London for "accessing a website containing child abuse images". Guardian, 08 May 2003
  • Disclosure : provide accurate information about benefits and harms Comprehension : Persons interpretation of what is being disclosed Voluntariness : Can this person reasonably resist? Competence : Mental, emotional, and physical capabilities needed to give informed consent? Agreement : Clear opportunity to accept or decline Minimal Distraction : Meet the above without distracting the user from the task at hand.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Linking Data: The Legal Implications Mark Leyden, Bill McDaniel – DERI Applied Innovations June 24th 2010
    • 2. IANAL (I Am Not A Lawyer) TINLA (This Is Not Legal Advice) First things first...
    • 3. Background <ul><li>This talk is based on a paper published in the Journal of the Society for Computers and Law: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>'The Semantic Web: Legal Challenges', Brian Harley 1 , Philip Nolan 1 , Liam Ó Móráin 2 and Mark Leyden 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Mason Hayes+Curran, Dublin, Ireland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Digital Enterprise Research Institute, Galway, Ireland </li></ul></ul>
    • 4. Define: Linked Data <ul><li>'The term Linked Data is used to describe a method of exposing , sharing , and connecting data via dereferenceable URIs on the Web. 1 ' </li></ul><ul><li>1 – Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linked_Data </li></ul>
    • 5. The Problem? Linking data, storing it, moving it, sharing it, analyzing it, inferring things from it and presenting it, without understanding the implications , can get you into a whole lot of legal bother...
    • 6. Legal Overview <ul><li>Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of Legal Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common Law (England, Ireland) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Law (France, Germany etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European Directives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set 'Legal Objectives' to be met by Member States </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not detail how these objectives should be met </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each State implements their own version </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libel / Defamation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must prove truth of statement (Ireland / England) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 7. Legal Overview <ul><li>US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common Law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Rough equivalent to EU Directives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libel / Defamation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must prove 'actual malice' </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fair Comment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less 'Plaintiff Friendly' than EU </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 8. Where are we now? <ul><li>Computers give us 1 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New scales of information gathering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New scales of information distribution and exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amplification of Effect of erroneous information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information may endure much longer than ever before </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. 'Computer Ethics', 3 rd ed., Johnson, Deborah G., Prentice Hall </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. And with the Semantic Web? <ul><li>Linked Data gives us 1 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inference over all data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater Identifiability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence of data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. 'Informed Consent on the Semantic Web - Issues for Interaction and Interface Designers', Paul Shabajee </li></ul>
    • 10. Result? Greater speed , greater scale , greater interconnections , greater impact
    • 11. Our Focus for Today... Privacy & Accuracy
    • 12. Privacy <ul><li>EU Data Protection Directive </li></ul><ul><li>http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/privacy/index_en.htm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>' Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>' Directive 97/66/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 December 1997 concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the telecommunications sector' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>' Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 July 2002 concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector (Directive on privacy and electronic communications)' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>' Directive 2006/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 on the retention of data generated or processed in connection with the provision of publicly available electronic communications services or of public communications networks and amending Directive 2002/58/EC' </li></ul></ul>
    • 13. Privacy <ul><li>EU Data Protection Directive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing of Personal Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free movement of Personal Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates with EU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Processing of Personal Data except where there is: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transparency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimate Purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proportionality </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 14. Result? Lots to be aware of...
    • 15. Privacy <ul><li>US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USA PATRIOT Act - Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>' The United States has largely avoided legislation governing the treatment of sensitive personal information in records systems held by sources other than the federal government. ' 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Data Protection and Privacy in the United States and Europe, IASSIST Quarterly, Fall 1998 </li></ul></ul>
    • 16. Result? Not so much to worry about!
    • 17. Examples... <ul><li>Direct Energie vs. Google.fr </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May 7 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Court of Paris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google suggest resulted in Direct Energie being associated with 'arnaque' meaning 'scam / swindle' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sued under Civil code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Won – Google had to modify suggested search terms </li></ul></ul>
    • 18. Examples... <ul><li>CNFDI vs. Google.fr </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jul 10 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centre National Prive de Formation a Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google.fr suggest resulted in CNFDI also being associated with 'arnaque' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sued Google under Libel (Criminal code) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost – freedom of speech </li></ul></ul>
    • 19. Examples... <ul><li>Zwartepoorte vs. Klup.nl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>June 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google provided search for Klup.nl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zwartepoorte searched on Klup.nl for ' Zwartepoorte bankrupt ' and got: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Complete name: Zwartepoorte Specialiteit: BMW…This company has been declared bankrupt, it has been acquired by the motordealer I have worked for Boat Rialto…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Won - € 500 per day until search results were removed </li></ul></ul>
    • 20. Examples... <ul><li>Swedish Citizen vs. Google Sweden </li></ul><ul><ul><li>April 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small business owner suing because Google have been showing search results that suggest he is a paedophile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-going </li></ul></ul><ul><li>JR vs. Google Brazil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>April 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priest accused of being a paedophile on Orkut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Won - $8,500 compensation </li></ul></ul>
    • 21. Examples... <ul><li>Google Street View WiFi Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google collected public SSID, MAC Address & Payload Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>'On Friday May 14 [2010] the Irish Data Protection Authority asked us to delete the payload data we collected in error in Ireland. We can confirm that all data identified as being from Ireland was deleted over the weekend in the presence of an independent third party. We are reaching out to Data Protection Authorities in the other relevant countries about how to dispose of the remaining data as quickly as possible.' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EU has requested deletion be stopped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany has launched a criminal investigation into the Data collection... </li></ul></ul>
    • 22. Examples... <ul><li>Which Kenneth Starr? </li></ul>
    • 23. Privacy and Linked Data <ul><li>Friend Of A Friend (FOAF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A bundle of Personal Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each person has a unique Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of people I know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can gather all the personal data from list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I am, in effect, publishing private data about my 'friends' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I have permission to gather this data? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I have permission to share my list of 'friends'? </li></ul></ul>
    • 24. Privacy and Linked Data <ul><li>SIOC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantically Interlinked Online Communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses FOAF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects your identities across Blogs / Wikis / Forums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web no longer anonymous </li></ul></ul>
    • 25. Accuracy and Linked Data <ul><li>Libel / Defamation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>'... is the communication of a statement that makes a claim, expressly stated or implied to be factual, that may give an individual, business, product, group, government, or nation a negative image. ', wikipedia.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>' In law, a contract is an agreement between two or more parties, that if it contains the elements of a valid legal agreement is enforceable by law or by binding arbitration. That is to say, a contract is an exchange of promises with a specific remedy for breach. ', wikipedia.org </li></ul></ul>
    • 26. Accuracy and Linked Data <ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triples are small facts of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displaying subset of data may result in defamation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pete Townshend </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A -> B, B -> C therefore A -> C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Price Comparison Website with incorrect result leads to a user entering a contract they would not have entered into </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you qualify these statements? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 'Lee Harvey Oswald' 'killed' 'John F. Kennedy' </li></ul></ul>
    • 27. Privacy Solutions? <ul><li>Informed Consent 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you fully understand what you are about to do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central to medical practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informed Consent and Interface Design, from the Value Sensitive Design Research Lab 2 : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disclosure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntariness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal Distraction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1. 'Informed Consent on the Semantic Web - Issues for Interaction and Interface Designers', Paul Shabajee </li></ul><ul><li>2. http://depts.washington.edu/vsdesign/ </li></ul>
    • 28. Privacy Solutions? <ul><li>Machine Readable Licenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy Aware Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparent Accountable Datamining Initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P) Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use OWL to create Access Policies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair Rights Management 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. 'FRM: Towards a Semantic Platform for Fair Content Distribution', Slawomir Grzonkowski, Bill McDaniel </li></ul>
    • 29. Accuracy Solutions? <ul><li>Terms and Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disclaim any responsibility for accuracy of the information provided </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clearly identify automatically generated data </li></ul><ul><li>Add Provenance Data </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertaintity Reasoning 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link vocabulary – 'UncertainLinkSet' </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imprecise value vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. 'Position paper: Uncertainty reasoning for linked data', Dave Reynolds </li></ul>:London :population [a :ImpreciseValue; :samplevalue [:value 7700000; :source :s1; :context :y2009] :samplevalue [:value 7900000; :source :s2; :context :y2008] :estimatedValue 785123]
    • 30. Thank You... Questions & Answers

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