you write a paper, give a speech or
complete a project for class, you are going to
do some research
statistics, quotes, definitions, case
studies, business reports, etc.
research and ideas about a topic
are the sources you must cite!
the reader understand the basis for
information presented in your paper
of your paper might want further
information on your topic…your references
will lead your reader to that information
should give credit to the person who
conducted the original research
yourself from plagiarism
"To present the ideas or words of
another as one's own" -- Merriam-Webster's
Dictionary & Thesaurus 2007
can be intentional or unintentional
occurs anytime you quote, reference or use
someone else’s work (article, book, photo,
information on a website, etc.) and you don’t
cite your source
if you paraphrase but use too much of the
styles were created to provide a
guide for authors/writers to properly
reference another person’s work
styles have a very specific set of
capitalization, parentheses – IT ALL PLAYS A
APA (American Psychological Association) style is
most often used in the social sciences and
APA provides writers of research papers a style
to properly reference their sources, using
parentheses in their essays and a References
page at the end.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association (6th edition)
In-text citations require an entry on the
point Times New Roman font
margins all around
indents ½” from left margin
numbers – in header, flush right
– all caps, flush left
not hyphenate a word at the end of a line
spaces after a period in text
Your instructor’s “Rules” override any official guidelines
in upper half of page
Contains Title of Paper, Author, Institutions
the word “Abstract”
page – center title of paper
Has in-text citations
A working bibliography consist of all sources used
in your research process.
It is always a good idea to capture the
information just in case it will need to appear in
your reference list or in a citation.
Basic source information for the reference
Date(s) that you accessed web pages
Page/paragragh information for key statistics, photos,
Page/paragragh information for potential quotes
References page lists only those sources cited in
to indicate the source of the fact or
idea or quote
is usually not source dependent
journals and web pages are all formatted
citation: (Author, Year)
70% of students going back to college feel
overwhelmed (Smith, 2009).
citation where the author is
According to Smith (2009), 70% of students going
back to college feel overwhelmed.
citation with multiple authors:
(Author1 & Author2, Year)
Deaths from HIV rose 58% between 1980 and
1992 (Weiner & Tyler, 1998).
citation: (Author, Year, Page
“70% of students going back to college feel
overwhelmed” (Smith, 2009, p. 16).
citation where the author is
According to Smith (2009), “70% of students
going back to college feel overwhelmed” (p. 16).
the end of the paper
work on the
References page should
appear in your paper
and vice versa
Smith, Rhonda. (2008). Getting ready to
work. New York, NY: Dell Publishing.
Washington, George. (2010, July 5). Cutting
down an apple tree. American Journal
of Psychology 34(3), 15-25. Retrieved
Zeller, Dan. (2009, April 4). Learning APA
style. American Journal of Writing.
sources alphabetically by author – if
there is no author by the first important
word in the title
Things to Note:
Book titles and Article titles: Only first word
capitalized unless the word is a proper nouns.
Also capitalize first word after certain types of
punctuation such as colon and dash.
Journal titles: All major words are capitalized.
Months are spelled out.
If a web site is used and the URL has upper and
lower case (e.g., youtube urls) use the upper
and lower case.
Last Name, First and Middle Initials. (Year). Title of
book. Place of publication: Publisher.
Smith, R. J. (2008). Getting ready to work. New
York, NY: Dell Publishing.
Article from Print Journal:
Last name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Title of
Journal, Volume number(Issue number), pages.
Snowden, M. (2013). ACOs set to expand cost savings. Health
Management Technology, 34(1), 12.
Article from Online Journal:
Last name, Initials. (Year, Month day). Title of article.
Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number),
pages. doi (if available, if not URL)
Ansen, D. (2012, December 31). A lost generation. Newsweek, 62.
Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com
Article from Web Page:
Last name, Initials. (Date). Title of article. Retrieved
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013, February 11).
Vaccine virus selection for the 2012-2013 influenza season.
Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/about/season/vaccineselection.htm
doi - digital object identifier
Usually appears on the first page of an article
Purpose is to provide a way to locate an article
that is not dependent upon a URL or changes to
doi string may be numeric or alphanumeric
If the doi string does not exist use the format
Retrieved from http://URL
Provide a doi if available – even if you used a print
Websites – include as much information as
you can find.
Information for the citation might be on a
different page. This is especially true if the
page(s) is part of a larger work (i.e., the author
is treating it like a chapter)
Check out the home page or the contact us page
(especially if you’ve Googled to find the page)
OWL online http://owl.english.purdue.edu
Databases – generate citations
Citation Machine http://citationmachine.net
Nobody memorizes ALL the rules, in fact most
people have to refer to the APA guidelines
every time they write a paper.
Remember even if a source provides an APA
reference you are ultimately responsible to
make sure it is in the correct format!