Dr. Q Sebastian Welcome and introductions Brief demonstration
I studied participatory drumming and speech and language delay, specifically whether or not participatory drumming could improve expressive oral language for children with a diagnosis of speech-language delay. Physiologic causes include malformation of the ear or mouth, TBI and CVA. We will look at ear anatomy later. Most common malformation of the mouth that can lead to speech-language delay is cleft lip, where the hard palate does not fuse. If it is not surgically repaired in the first year of life, then delays can occur. A prevalent neurologic disorder is autism, with an occurrence rate of one in 110 births—one in 70 is male. Autism falls under the heading of Pervasive Developmental Delay. The communicative abilities of a child with a Pervasive Developmental Delay vary with the severity of the delay. Music therapy is basic and fundamental medicine in that it is aimed at the brain and its functions. Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) is a treatment to help retrain patients for purposeful movement. Using Neurologic Music Therapy, Dr. Michael Thaut Colorado State University—Ft. Collins has successfully implemented a program for Parkinson’s patients and TBI patients for gait training using the rhythmic cueing of a metronome. In a review of current research by Drs. Thaut and Abiru, they found that RAS is more effective than other cueing therapies and physical rehabilitation. Melodic Intonation Therapy was developed in 1973 and is used mainly for stroke patients with expressive aphasia. <Brain areas>Often stroke patients can’t speak but they can sing. Rehabilitation using music is an effective way to help them communicate. Three or four-word phrases are sung, while tapping the syllables on the non-dominant hand. Slowly the cadence returns to that of speech rather than song, and the tapping decreases once the patient has mastered that phrase. OPERA is the newest theory--This hypothesis theorizes that musical training improves the way the brain encodes speech, in these 5 conditions: Overlap: there is anatomical overlap in the brain networks that process pitch and volume in both music and speech; Precision: music places a greater demand on these shared brain networks than speech does; Emotion: the musical activities that engage this network elicit strong positive emotion, Repetition: the musical activities that engage this network are frequently repeated, and Attention: the musical activities that engage this network are associated with focused attention. Music puts greater demands on the network than does speech, but since speech also uses this network, it also improves.
Participatory drumming will improve the expressive oral language of speech-language delayed children by 10% in average words spoken Participatory drumming will not improve the expressive oral language by 10% or the improvement will be less than 10% Research questions--What components of participatory drumming significantly predict an improvement in oral language? To what degree will student show improvement in oral language? What are teacher beliefs and attitudes toward music therapy? Limitations—Maturation, history, and conditioning are all possible threats to validity. During the course of the study the participants may show an increase in expressive oral language coincidental to this study. Because the students are at an age when they are expanding their vocabularies, this is at least possible. It is also possible that the language skills of the participants could improve for reasons other than the proposed intervention. There are many language arts learning systems on the market. If the student is using one, then the increase could be attributed to the learning system. The pre-test/post-test design may condition participants to the answers. Using a Solomon Four-Group pretest/post-test design reduces these threats to validity. I lost some participants because mom and/or dad stop attending school, illness, vacation. Delimitations—only conducted at an urban, Northern CA daycare center, only 3-5 year-olds and not tied to a specific Speech-Language disorder. A request was made by the daycare center director that all children be tested and allowed to participate, not just those who were identified as speech-language delayed. Significance—The use of participatory drumming may increase as instructors are exposed to the benefits to the students. Participatory drumming may be used as an adjunct or alternative teaching modality. In applying the theory of multiple intelligences, kinesthetic and musical learners may benefit. A deeper understanding of the relationship between the cadence of music and the cadence of speech may be added to the knowledge base.
This is the intersection of the 3 great passions in my life
This is my grandson, Sebastian who was diagnosed with Speech delay at age 3 holding his little brother, David. Familial.
Music is a universal feature across all human societies and the ability to appreciate music is innate, much like the need to communicate. Melody in vocal communication, according to Wermke & Mende (2006) is derived from the early roots of oral language and can be traced in tandem with human development. Music and language seem to share special features that allow music to improve and shape language processing (Moreno, 2008). In a study by Miranda & Ullman, (2007) the researchers found that at least 2 systems of the brain help process both music and language. Language acquisition begins before birth. The child is already acclimated to the voice of the mother while still in the womb. Language acquisition theories include imitation, innate, understanding and social interaction. Imitation theory, as proposed by B. F. Skinner, argues that children learn language by imitating their parents. As children learn more words, their speech becomes more like an adult. Linguist Noam Chomsky proposed the innate theory. By observing children from different cultures, Chomsky noted that all the children learned the rules of syntax and grammar of their native language far more quickly that can be described by imitation alone. Paul did a study of hearing twins of deaf parents. Even in the absence of the mother tongue, the twins developed their own language. According to Piaget, language development is related to cognitive development, in that, the development of the child’s thinking determines when the child can learn to speak and what the child can say. For example, before a child can say, “This car is bigger than that one”, s/he must have developed the ability to judge differences in size. In Piaget’s view, children learn to talk ‘naturally’ when they are ‘ready’ without any deliberate teaching by adults. Pinker, like Chomsky, believes in the innateness of language, but says that music is just a happy byproduct and not the same as language.
Research reviews indicate that drumming enhances recovery from addiction through inducing relaxation and enhancing theta-wave production (relaxed) and brain-wave synchronization. Drumming produces pleasurable experiences, release of emotional trauma, and reintegration of self. Drumming alleviates self-centeredness, isolation, and alienation, creating a sense of connectedness with self and others. Alzheimer’s patients are better able to connect with loved ones, symptoms of depression are eased and autistic children communicate more and in more acceptable ways. Entrainment is the use of rhythmic sounds to bring about synchronicity of the brain. If you listen to sounds in your right ear at 200 mgH and sounds in your left ear at 240 mgH, you brain will synchronize at the difference between the two, or 40 mgH. Forty mgH indicates that you are in a very relaxed state. Fourteen mgH is optimal for learning. Drumming has a history almost as long as people have been on earth. It has been used for centuries for healing in all of the ancient cultures, as proven by archeological evidence from Thailand, Africa and South America. Murray Gell-Mann is a physist who won the Nobel prize in 1969. He is the man who gave us quarks, one of 2 elements necessary for life. He said this about language: Modern language must be older that the cave paintings and the cave engravings and the cave sculptures and dance steps in soft clay I the caves of Western Europe in the Aurignacian Period some 35,000 years ago, or more. I can’t believe they did all those things and didn’t also have a modern language.
Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe "what exists" with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. I sought a deeper understanding of speech-language delay and how to help those who have this diagnosis through the intervention of participatory drumming. Design--this is the preferred method for comparing participant groups and measuring the amount of change occurring as a result of interventions. This design allows for a comparison of the four groups, measuring the overall effectiveness of the intervention. This design also shows the researcher how the groups have changed and whether or not any of them improved. The participants are preschool students ages 3-5 and preschool teachers. Student S was put into the treatment group but was not part of the study because she has selective mutism. This is not a speech-language delay or disorder. It is a social anxiety disorder. She was the first person I ever worked with who had this condition, so I took an extra day to test her receptive language skills. I created cards similar to the ones used in the EOWPVT-4 but put out several and then asked her to identify the same items that are on the picture cards shown to the other participants. I only did objects and actions, not concepts. Out of 70 cards, she got 61 correct.
Group A is the treatment group. The other 3 control for validity and experimental design.
EWOPVT-4. 4 th edition. Norm-referenced using data from 2,394 students across the US. There were 117 3-yearolds; 100 four-year-olds and 86 5-year-olds in the normative sample distribution. There were 1,343 females and 1,051 males, which roughly approximates the distribution in the US. Teacher survey has 16 questions both qualitative and quantitative from the Arts Education in Elementary and Secondary schools, a survey that is conducted by the US Dept of Education, Westat and the Office of Management and Budget. Westat is a research corporation consulting in statistical design, data collection and management, and research analysis work.
Participants in Groups A and B were given the test according to the instructions and then scored. After 16 participatory drumming sessions, the same test was to the participants all groups. The scores from each administration of the test were compared. The participating teachers were given the survey to complete and return to me. Daily activities for the treatment groups included watching a 4-6 minute segment from the DVDs Stomp Out Loud and Stomp Live and playing on the instruments either provided or made. STOMP is a rhythm group that uses anything and everything to make rhythmic beats. They also listened to CDs of drummers Mickey Hart and Babatunde Olatunji. Mr. Olatunji was a virtuoso of West African percussion. He received a Grammy Award in 1991 for his collaboration with Grateful Dead drummer Mickey Hart on their Planet Drum album. He was also the founder of the Voices of Africa foundation. Mickey Hart is the former drummer for Jefferson Starship and author of the books, Song Catchers, Spirit into Sound, Planet Drum and Drumming on the Edge of Magic.
Mean # of words shows a increase of 6.5 words. A 10% increase is 4.54 words, so the treatment group improved by 14% Group A had one 3 year old, 1 four-year-old and 3 five year olds. There was one female and 4 males.
No intervention. Mean difference is 4.3 words, or 8.5%. Group B had no three year olds, four 4year olds and 2 five year olds 4 males 2 female
Intervention and Posttest. Mean # of words is 55.2 Group C had one 3 year old, one 4 year old and one 5 year old 1 male and 2 females
Posttest only. Mean # of words is 48.2 Group D had one 3three year old, one 4 year old and three 5 year olds four were males and 1 was female
The pretest for Group A should be similar to the posttest in D. The difference is 2.8 words.
The difference is 3 words; There was a small effect of pretesting on posttesting
Priming—occurs when the pre-test helps the subject predict what to expect in the post-test. Learning--occurs when the pre-test acts as a practice, such that the subject increases his/her skill at doing this type of test.
I would expect to see this incremental improvement among the ages—3 year olds have a vocabulary of 900 to 1,000 words 4 year olds have a vocabulary of 1500 to 1600 words Five year olds have a vocabulary of 2100 to 2200 words.
A check on the design of the experiment compares Groups A and C posttests. The difference is small at 3.3 words.
Q1--75% of teachers surveyed had a high level of confidence in the use of adjunct therapies with speech-language disordered children. Q2--Traditional adjunct therapies were not listed but 50% of respondents indicated some type of speech therapy. Q3--While all of the surveyed teachers believe that other adjunct therapies merit closer examination because there are indications that they may prove effective in addition to traditional therapies, no one gave examples of what the other adjunct therapies could be. This was worded as a yes-no question and should have been stated as a “what” question to provide more insight to their beliefs about adjunct therapies. Q4--75% have been in education over 20 years. Q5--100% were female
Q6-16-21 Q7 4 Q8 many accommodations listed, but not how they feel about inclusion, leading me to wonder how it might have been worded differently. Q9-sit with the child, read to the child, play with letters, pictures, movement, singing, touching Q10- Very Important, Important, Neutral, Not important, 75% said very important 25% were neutral
Q11-Agree, disagree NA-100% agree Q12-75% disagree, 25% agree Q13-50% agree and 50% disagree Q14-75% agree and 25% disagree Q15-25% strongly agree, 50 % agree, and 25% disagree Q16 – 100% said playing
If any speech sound disorders are going to disappear, they do by age 5
Participatory Drumming and Expressive Oral Language A Dissertation Defense Mary K. Lespier
What to Expect TodayWhat I didWhy I did itHow I did itWhat I foundWhat conclusions I reachedWhat I recommend
Overview of the Study--What I DidIntroduction Speech and Language Delay Causes Physiologic and Neurologic Theoretical Underpinnings Music Therapy Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation Melodic Intonation Therapy OPERA (Patel, 2011)
What I DidHypothesisResearch QuestionsLimitationsDelimitationsSignificance of the Study
Why I Did it Family Dissertation Music Education
How I did itReview of Literature Music and Language Wermke & Mende, 2006; Moreno, 2008; Miranda and Ullman, 2007 Language Acquisition Piaget, Chomsky, Paul, Pinker Music and the Brain Genes to Cognition Online http://www.3dscience.com/3D_Models/Human_Anatomy/ Sensory/Inner_Ear.php
How I did it Music Therapy addiction, Alzheimer’s, depression, autism Entrainment Drumming History
How I did itMethodology Descriptive, ontological, mixed methodologyDesign Solomon Four-Group Pretest/posttestParticipants Students—mention student S Teachers
How I did itInstrumentation Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-4 th edition Teacher survey—The Arts Education in Elementary and Secondary Schools—U. S. Dept. of Education, Westat and Office of Budget and Management.
How I did itData collection Survey questions for teachers—16 qualitative and quantitative questions about music therapy in the curriculum Pretest and posttest scoresData Analysis Qualitative data—Small sample size allows for identifying over-arching themes and meaning from the responses without the need for qualitative software Quantitative data—SPSS Student version 20.0Procedures
Group AMean # of words = 45.4 Mean # of words = 51.9
Group BMean # of words = 50.5 Mean # of words = 54.8
What Does it All Mean?Test Pretest Intervention Posttest Pre result Post resultA X O X 45.4 51.9B X X 50.5 54.8C O X 55.2D X 48.2
What Does It All Mean?The mean of posttest of C and D scores = 56.3The mean of posttest of A and B scores = 53.3Difference between these scores should be small to demonstrate that the act of pretesting did not have an effect on the posttest scores.
What Does it All Mean?Comparing the Group B posttest with the Group D posttest speaks to priming and learning effects.Group B had a mean # of words of 54.8, which is 6.6 more words than Group D at 48.2.
What Does it All Mean?Posttest results by age:3 year olds –mean average of 51.3 words4 year olds –mean average of 53.6 words5 year olds –mean average of 57.5 wordsThe four students identified as having speech-language delay showed an improvement of 14%
What Does it All Mean?Comparing Group A posttest scores with the posttest scores of Group C should yield little deviation. This is a check on the design of the experiment.Group A posttest score is 51.9, while Group C posttest score is 55.2—a difference of 3.3 wordsNext up—the survey of teachers
What Does it All Mean?Question 1-level of confidence in the use of adjunct therapiesQuestion 2-what adjunct therapies are effective?Question 3 –What adjunct therapies merit more attention?Question 4 – How long in education?Question 5 - Gender
What Does it All Mean?Question 6- How many students?Question 7- How many identified as speech-language delayed?Question 8-perceive the inclusion of students?Question 9- Accommodations usedQuestion 10- the importance of listening to a piece of music
What Does it All Mean?Question 11- More arts activities in curriculumQuestion 12-Teaching time for artsQuestion 13- Access to music materialsQuestion 14- BudgetQuestion 15-Teaching urban childrenQuestion 16-component of participatory drumming predicts an improvement in expressive oral language
What Did I Conclude?The participatory drumming appeared to help all studentsThe 4 students identified as speech-language delayed showed a 14% improvementThe variation in age proved to be an important factor, because 3-year-olds don’t have the vocabulary of 4-year-olds or 5-year-olds. That difference alone could account for some of the variation in scores and averagesThe teacher survey did not ask the education level of the teacher. I would want to see if their answers correlate with their level of education. I suspect they would.
What Do I Recommend?Do the study with 7 years olds.0-7 years is when most of the diagnoses for speech and language delay occur.Get an adequate sample with less age variationFind ways to incorporate music in the classroom