Explaining Causes & Effects

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  • 1. Explaining Causes & Effects Chapter 8
  • 2. Explaining Causes & Effects
  • 3. Explaining Causes & Effects
  • 4. Explaining Causes & Effects
  • 5. Explaining Causes & Effects
  • 6. Explaining Causes & Effects + =
  • 7. Explaining Causes and Effects
    • Understanding the cause effect relationship requires:
    • Observation Skills
    • Critical Thinking Skills
  • 8. Explaining Causes and Effects
    • We move from asking “What happened?” to . . .
    • “ Why did it happen?” and “ What will happen?”
    • It requires moving from the concrete to the abstract, from specific to general, and moving among levels of abstraction.
  • 9. Explaining Causes and Effects ?
  • 10. Explaining Causes and Effects
  • 11. Explaining Causes and Effects
  • 12. Explaining Causes and Effects Ockham’s Razor: “ Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate” Translation: “Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily.”
  • 13. Explaining Causes and Effects Ockham’s Razor: In other words. . . The explanation requiring the fewest assumptions is most likely to be correct.
  • 14. Explaining Causes and Effects
    • One should not make more assumptions than needed. When multiple explanations are available for a phenomenon, the simplest version is preferred.
  • 15. Explaining Causes and Effects
    • DEDUCTIVE REASONING AND
    • INDUCTIVE REASONING
  • 16. Explaining Causes and Effects
    • ISHIKAWA FISHBONE DIAGRAM
    Effect Causes
  • 17. Explaining Causes and Effects
    • ISHIKAWA FISHBONE DIAGRAM
    • Causes are usually listed in Four major categories:
    For Manufacturing: M anpower M ethods M aterials M achinery For Administration/Service: E quipment P olicy P rocedures P eople
  • 18. Explaining Causes and Effects
    • Effects:
    • Global Warming
    • Rising Crime rate in Minneapolis
    • Business experiencing poor sales figures
    • Academic Dishonesty
    • Child-resistant lighters
  • 19. Explaining Causes and Effects
    • For Thursday (2/12):
    •   Read “Invisible Women” (pg. 127-129)
    • and be prepared to answer the “Questions to Start You Thinking” (pg. 129) at the end of the essay.