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Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
Explaining Causes & Effects
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Explaining Causes & Effects

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Explaining Causes & Effects Chapter 8
    • 2. Explaining Causes & Effects
    • 3. Explaining Causes & Effects
    • 4. Explaining Causes & Effects
    • 5. Explaining Causes & Effects
    • 6. Explaining Causes & Effects + =
    • 7. Explaining Causes and Effects <ul><li>Understanding the cause effect relationship requires: </li></ul><ul><li>Observation Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking Skills </li></ul>
    • 8. Explaining Causes and Effects <ul><li>We move from asking “What happened?” to . . . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why did it happen?” and “ What will happen?” </li></ul><ul><li>It requires moving from the concrete to the abstract, from specific to general, and moving among levels of abstraction. </li></ul>
    • 9. Explaining Causes and Effects ?
    • 10. Explaining Causes and Effects
    • 11. Explaining Causes and Effects
    • 12. Explaining Causes and Effects Ockham’s Razor: “ Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate” Translation: “Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily.”
    • 13. Explaining Causes and Effects Ockham’s Razor: In other words. . . The explanation requiring the fewest assumptions is most likely to be correct.
    • 14. Explaining Causes and Effects <ul><li>One should not make more assumptions than needed. When multiple explanations are available for a phenomenon, the simplest version is preferred. </li></ul>
    • 15. Explaining Causes and Effects <ul><li>DEDUCTIVE REASONING AND </li></ul><ul><li>INDUCTIVE REASONING </li></ul>
    • 16. Explaining Causes and Effects <ul><li>ISHIKAWA FISHBONE DIAGRAM </li></ul>Effect Causes
    • 17. Explaining Causes and Effects <ul><li>ISHIKAWA FISHBONE DIAGRAM </li></ul><ul><li>Causes are usually listed in Four major categories: </li></ul>For Manufacturing: M anpower M ethods M aterials M achinery For Administration/Service: E quipment P olicy P rocedures P eople
    • 18. Explaining Causes and Effects <ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul><ul><li>Rising Crime rate in Minneapolis </li></ul><ul><li>Business experiencing poor sales figures </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Dishonesty </li></ul><ul><li>Child-resistant lighters </li></ul>
    • 19. Explaining Causes and Effects <ul><li>For Thursday (2/12): </li></ul><ul><li>  Read “Invisible Women” (pg. 127-129) </li></ul><ul><li>and be prepared to answer the “Questions to Start You Thinking” (pg. 129) at the end of the essay.  </li></ul>

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