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Explaining Causes & Effects

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Explaining Causes & Effects Chapter 8
    • 2. Explaining Causes & Effects
    • 3. Explaining Causes & Effects
    • 4. Explaining Causes & Effects
    • 5. Explaining Causes & Effects
    • 6. Explaining Causes & Effects + =
    • 7. Explaining Causes and Effects
      • Understanding the cause effect relationship requires:
      • Observation Skills
      • Critical Thinking Skills
    • 8. Explaining Causes and Effects
      • We move from asking “What happened?” to . . .
      • “ Why did it happen?” and “ What will happen?”
      • It requires moving from the concrete to the abstract, from specific to general, and moving among levels of abstraction.
    • 9. Explaining Causes and Effects ?
    • 10. Explaining Causes and Effects
    • 11. Explaining Causes and Effects
    • 12. Explaining Causes and Effects Ockham’s Razor: “ Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate” Translation: “Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily.”
    • 13. Explaining Causes and Effects Ockham’s Razor: In other words. . . The explanation requiring the fewest assumptions is most likely to be correct.
    • 14. Explaining Causes and Effects
      • One should not make more assumptions than needed. When multiple explanations are available for a phenomenon, the simplest version is preferred.
    • 15. Explaining Causes and Effects
      • DEDUCTIVE REASONING AND
      • INDUCTIVE REASONING
    • 16. Explaining Causes and Effects
      • ISHIKAWA FISHBONE DIAGRAM
      Effect Causes
    • 17. Explaining Causes and Effects
      • ISHIKAWA FISHBONE DIAGRAM
      • Causes are usually listed in Four major categories:
      For Manufacturing: M anpower M ethods M aterials M achinery For Administration/Service: E quipment P olicy P rocedures P eople
    • 18. Explaining Causes and Effects
      • Effects:
      • Global Warming
      • Rising Crime rate in Minneapolis
      • Business experiencing poor sales figures
      • Academic Dishonesty
      • Child-resistant lighters
    • 19. Explaining Causes and Effects
      • For Thursday (2/12):
      •   Read “Invisible Women” (pg. 127-129)
      • and be prepared to answer the “Questions to Start You Thinking” (pg. 129) at the end of the essay. 

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