First revised in 1986 to improve clinical usefulness and technical adequacy. No content changes were made. Sentence Sequencing, an optional subtest, was made a required subtest. In 2008 the test was revised to contain fewer subtests Relational Vocabulary Sentence Completion Paragraph Construction Text Comprehension Contextual Fluency and updated vocabulary.
If for some reason items are given above the ceiling, any items that are passed are scored as incorrect. Failure to apply the ceiling conventions in scoring will invalidate the results.
TORC-3 Test of Reading Comprehension- Third Edition Presentation by: Ashley Baginski & Emily Egan Fall 2010 Assessment in Special Education Dr. Barese
Environment: Test may be administered in a classroom setting. Ideal setting is in a comfortable and quiet room.
Special Equipment: No special equipment is required, just a pencil with an eraser.
Administrator Freedom: If need be, the students' responses may be modified as long as the modifications do not affect the content of the subtests. For example, a child who shows difficulty making the Xs as an answer, may respond verbally.
Relative to 3 sources of test error(content, time sampling & scorer differences), a high degree of reliability was calculated.
reliability coefficients must be .80 or higher to be considered reliable. In all subtests the coefficent is well above .80.
high content, criteron- related and contruct validity.
empirically demonstrated by item anaylisis procedures and high correlation w/other accepted reading tests(The California Achievement Test, The Peabody Individual Achievement Test.) (Brown, et al., 1995)
Raw scores for each individual subtest are calculated by hand.
For the general vocabulary, syntactic similarities, paragraph reading, math, social studies & science vocabulary and reading the directions of school work subtests, each correct answer is given a score of 1 and an incorrect answer is given a score of 0.
For the sentence sequencing subtest a score of 0,2,3,4,5 is possible for each item. For example, a student would receive 2 points if two sentences have been correctly sequenced together.
On all of the subtests, except for Reading the Directions of Schoolwork, readers begin with the first item and are tested until a ceiling is reached or until all the items have been answered(no basal).
On General Vocab, Syntactic Similarities, Math, Social Studies & Science Vocab a ceiling is reached when three items in any five-item sequence have been answered incorrectly.
On Paragraph Reading, a ceiling is reached when two or more questions for any story are answered incorrectly.
On Sentence Sequencing the ceiling is any two items in a row with scores of 3 or lower.
On Reading the Directions of Schoolwork, the examiner should attempt to administer all 25 items (no ceiling).
The raw scores themselves are not very useful because the total number of points varies from one subtest to another. For example, a raw score of 10 on one subtest may be average, while the same score on another subtest may be above average.
For test interpretation purposes grade & age equivalents, percentiles and standard scores should be used.
The majority of the test questions are answered by simply placing an X mark over the multiple choice answers of A-D. Subtest 4, sentence sequencing, requires the student to write the letter A-D in the correct order. Subtest 8 requires the student to write out the answer to the questions asked.
Depending on student needs, if student is unable to mark an X in the test booklet, they are able to verbally state their answers and the administrator will fill it out for them.
There are no non-verbal responses. All recorded answers are either written or verbally stated.
The TORC has been widely reviewed and has received positive feedback on the theoretical model and statistical characteristics.
Some negative critiques of the test were that it failed to describe the characteristics of the normative sample in regards to ethnicity, race and disabling condition. These critiques were addressed and corrected in the TORC-3.
The authors remind administers that test results must always be considered as one piece of information among data from several sources when used in making decides about a student. TESTS DO NOT DIAGNOSE! They show a performance level at a given time, in a particular situation.
Sharing the score results are on a need to know basis.