Who were these people– Winston Churchill– Franklin D Roosevelt– Truman– Stalin
• Winston ChurchillPrime Minister of Britain in 1945• Franklin D RooseveltPresident of the USA in February 1945• Trumanbecame president of the USA in 1945• Stalinleader of Russia in 1945
What was the COLD WAR?• The end of the Second World War saw theemergence of two superpowers, the USA and theUSSR, who were locked in a struggle which lastedfor 45 years. This was known as the Cold War.
• The term Cold War was first used in 1947 todescribe the conflict. It was a war ofwords, of propaganda and of threat betweenthe USA and the USSR, but it did not involvethe two Superpowers in direct confrontation.They both took part in proxy wars – that is theyhelped their allies to fight the other Superpoweror their allies but did not become directlyinvolved in the conflict themselves.
Why did the Cold War begin?• Four causes– Beliefs– Aims– Resentment about History– Events
Long Term Causes:• Differing ideologies• Stalin’s suspicions of the West• The USA’s change in policyShort Term Causes:• Tensions between the leaders at Yalta andPotsdam• The A Bomb began an arms race• Personality clash between Truman and Stalin
Group work timeGet in 6 groups and prepare a shortpresentation on the causes of theCold War.
NATO• The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)was formed in April 1949 by the Western powers.This was during the period of the Berlin Blockade,and was partly in response to Stalin’s aggression.• The original twelve members of NATO in 1949were the United States, the United Kingdom,Canada, France, Denmark, Iceland, Italy,Norway, Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands, andLuxembourg.
• NATO was a military alliance that committed allmembers to the defence of all the others.• But NATO was more than a promise of Americanhelp in an emergency. The alliance was to besupported by large numbers of troops on theground.• In particular, there were a large number of troopsin West Germany. By 1953, 5 divisions of UStroops were permanently based there.• Stalin, unsurprisingly, saw NATO as a threat tothe USSR and Eastern Europe.
What was the WARSAW PACT?• The Warsaw Pact was set up in 1955.• The Warsaw Pact was a defensive militaryalliance of the USSR and its satellite states inEastern Europe.• It was intended as a counter-force to NATO,which was a military alliance of western powers.
• The Warsaw Pact, like NATO, relied on collectivesecurity – if one nation was attacked, the otherswould come to its support.• The Warsaw Pact helped to make Eastern European effective ‘buffer zone’ for the USSR against theWest.
The WARSAW PACT vs NATOFor the nextthree decades,NATO and theWARSAW Pactforces facedeach other andprepared forwar.
The Cambridge SpiesA world of shadows• The early years• Failure to trust• Looking for discrepancies• Dealing with suspicion
A world of shadows• The hardest and most bitterly foughtconfrontation between the Soviet Union and thewestern democracies during the 50 years of theCold War was on the espionage front. In thisarena the KGB, the sword and the shield of theUSSR, pitted its wits against its principaladversaries - the Central Intelligence Agency ofthe United States (CIA) and the British SecretIntelligence Service (SIS)....all of whom operated in a world of shadows,where deception and betrayal flourished.
Aims• was to steal the secrets of the other side• to try to peer inside the mind of the enemy• to fathom his intentions• to neutralise them before they could beexecuted.
The four most remarkable spies of theCold War• HAR (Kim) Philby• Guy Burgess• Donald Maclean• Anthony Bluntall of whom betrayed their country to spy forMoscow.
Group work time• Get in 4 groups and prepare ashort presentation on each of thedifferent spies.
Effects• Both the United States of America and theSoviet Union built up huge arsenals of atomicweapons and ballistic missiles.• The military blocs, NATO and the Warsaw Pactwere formed.• It led to destructive conflicts like the VietnamWar and the Korean War.• The Soviet Union collapsed due to economicweaknesses.
• The Berlin Wall was demolished and the twoGerman nations were unified.• The Warsaw Pact disintegrated.• The Baltic States and some former SovietRepublics achieved independence.• America became the sole superpower of theworld.• Communism collapsed worldwide.