Curriculum Development Kelli Cordova EDU652 Instructional Design & Delivery Dr. Ashley Berger August 13, 2012
Basic 3 Star Requirements• Average score of 4 on the Environmental Ratings Scale ( ECERS, ITERS, SACERS, FCCERS) ~ a word about ERS scoring and use as self-assessment• Evidence of Curriculum Spiral, documented and maintained as part of the daily rhythm of the childcare setting.
3 Star 3 Star Licensure is based on practices that are consideredto be a higher quality level than basic licensing. Thesepractices are defined in the Essential Elements.• Essential Element 3A: Staff Qualifications, Evaluation and Communication• Essential Element 3B: The Program’s Environment• Essential Element 3C: Observation and Documentation of Children’s Progress and Curriculum Planning• Essential Element 3D: Staff Professional Development• Essential Element 3E: Family Involvement• Essential Element 3F: Administrative Policies• Essential Element 3G: Employee Compensation and Benefits
3 Star This presentation willfocus on Essential Element3B and 3C; theenvironment, curriculumand assessment. Theseelements encompass TheCurriculum Spiral- which isthe heart and soul of the 3Star quality rating.
Essential Element 3B: The Learning Environment The environment affectsthe way children behave,develop and learn. It also affects the quantity and quality of interactions between adults and children. It includes tangible aspects, such as appropriate materials and equipment.
The Learning Environment For a program to beverified at the 3 Star level,the program must achieveand maintain an averagescore of 4 on theapplicable EnvironmentalRating Scale. Staff musthave knowledge andfamiliarity with thesescales, and refer to themfor ongoing guidance inprogram and environmentdesign.
Materials and Equipment Materials and equipment should be rotated and adapted on a regular basis to conform to curriculum goals and to meet the needs of children with various abilities.
Essential Element 3C: Curriculum and Assessment The 3 Star Level denotes an advanced levelof quality in all areas of Child Care, especially inthe area of Curriculum and Assessment.Programs that achieve and maintain the 3 Starlevel have incorporated a system of planningthat is based on the children’s individualdevelopmental stages and needs.
Curriculum Development Spiral The Curriculum The components:Development Spiral is • Assess/observe a continuous process • Develop short and long of observing, term goals documenting, • Develop activities planning, • Implement activities implementing, • Observe outcomesactivities and routines, • Re-assess/observe observing and • Redo goals and or redo assessing outcomes. activities.
Commercial Curriculum and Assessment Systems There are many these systems are generic andcommercial Curriculum and not modified to reflect theAssessment systems that can individual program’s specificbe purchased. These are goals, values or areas ofbased on the ideas presented emphasis.in the CurriculumDevelopment Spiral. These Some popular commercialsystems usually include forms,checklists and milestone systems include:charts. However, since they are • Focused Portfolioscreated for commercial use by • Creative Curriculumany child care provider,
Basis for 3 Star 3 Star Curriculum isbased on evidencegathered from teachersusing the informationgained from the use ofan assessment instrumentto plan curriculum basedon the individual children’sneeds.
Gathering Evidence “For infants and toddlers, anecdotal observationsshould be completed three times a year and adevelopmental checklist completed three times a yearaccompanied with written observations conductedduring the interim time period.” – 3 Star Verification Tool
Gathering Evidence developmental checklist completed at least twice a year accompanied with written observations that are conducted during the interim time period.” – 3 Star Verification Tool“For preschoolers,anecdotal observationsshould be completed(at least) two times a yearand a
Communicating Information regarding each child’s assessment and development must be shared with parents. This can be in the form of: • Family handbook • Letters to families • Family conferences • Children’s portfolios
Weekly Lesson Plans Weekly lesson plans must be posted andorganized around an appropriatecurriculum that incorporates a posted dailyschedule and written description of therole of the teachers and the teachingstrategies used.
Lesson PlansFor infants: lesson plans are written to beflexible and meet the individual needs.For toddlers: lesson plans continue to be flexiblewhile introducing consistency in schedule androutines.For preschoolers: schedule and routinescontinue to be consistent
Role of Teacher in Lesson PlansLesson plans should include a descriptionof what the teacher does with thechildren. Examples include:• Teacher will provide choices…• Teacher will challenge children to solve problems…• Teacher will demonstrate…• Teacher will interact in dramatic play… • Teacher will ask open-ended questions… • Teacher will model balance in block area… • Teacher will read aloud… • Teacher will nurture and provide children with a sense of purpose and belonging… • Teachers will observe, document and assess to support children’s learning • Teachers will plan activities…
Classroom Rules Together with older toddlers, preschool and school-age children, teachers will identify appropriate classroom rules. Some examples include: • We use inside voices • We use walking feet inside • We use gentle touches Teachers will establish and enforce clear rules, limits and consequences for behavior. Classroom rules are posted and reviewed often.
Knowledge of Child Development Evidence of knowledge of Staff provide experienceschild development is that match children’sdemonstrated by having developmental abilities.appropriate expectations for Teachers will repeat activitieschildren, including those with for children who need tospecial needs. master a skill. Increase Milestone charts are posted complexity of activities forin each classroom children who are ready for Curricular themes are more challenge.relevant and of interest tochildren and are centered onchildren’s real life experiences.
Areas of Development The following areas of Multiple areas of developmentdevelopment must be evident in the can be incorporated into an activity. An example of this coulddaily program: be a child-centered dramatic play• Physical: Fine and Gross Motor area where children learn to (including health) communicate and negotiate with• Social (including self and others) peers and use props to learn about their world. A dramatic• Emotional (including self-help) play activity could encompass all• Language (including of the areas of development. communication, literacy and numeracy)• Cognitive (including problem solving, thinking, and reasoning)
A Variety of Learning Experiences A 3 Star program must offer a variety of learning experiences appropriate for the age of the children. Examples may include: • Sand/water play • Literacy activities such as reading , writing, storytelling, puppet play • Art activities with different media such as crayons, pens/pencils, watercolors, easel painting, chalk , glue, paper recycle items, exploration, etc.
A Variety of Learning Materials 3 Star curriculumshould incorporate materialsthat range from simple tocomplex and involve causeand effect. Examples of thismay include:• Gradual increase in number of pieces in puzzles• Addition of props in the block area over time.• Addition of writing instruments to writing area
Opportunities to Make Choices Children develop a sense of autonomy through opportunities to make choices. • Daily schedule has designated time where children can choose from a variety of interest centers. • Children are allowed to Children need to have make choices that areopportunities to make choices. meaningful to them theyThis promotes reasoning and are not forced to play in allself- help skills. centers.
Transitions Teachers ensure • Transition activities are builtsmooth transitions from one into programming soactivity to another. This can be children do not have toverified by: spend excessive time not• Teachers provide warning to engaged or waiting children prior to transition• Classrooms utilize visual schedules, cues and prompts• The schedule is maintained and deliberately taught to children• Children are taught the expectations associated with the transitions
Opportunities to Experiment and Explore Part of children’s opportunity to make choices involve experimentation and exploration. The learning environment and the curriculum should have materials and activities set out that encourage children to expand their experiences. For toddlers and preschoolers, this can often be achieved by offering a variety of sensory and science experiences.
Daily Schedule The daily schedule • Quiet activities includeshould offer a balance of cozy area for books oractive/quiet, storytellingindividual/small group/ • Small group activitieslarge group activities and consist of 2-3 toddlersindoor/outdoor time. or 4-6 preschoolers.• Active activities include • Large group or Circle gross motor skill Time should be activities like dancing, determined by the jumping, running, and specific age of the hopscotch group and children’s cues.
Social Emotional Foundations A positive Caregivers support positivesocial/emotional foundation emotional development by:is valued as essential for the • Being consistentlydevelopment of lifelong responsive to children’spositive interpersonal needsrelationships and the • Giving comfort to childrengrowth in all other when they appear hurt,developmental domains. upset, afraid or disappointed • Creating an environment where children are not belittled, teased or mistreated.
Social skills are intentionally taught.• Teachers create • Teachers promote structures and identification and labeling activities to of emotions in self and encourage and teach others. sharing, turn taking, • Teachers use posters, requesting items, photographs and pictures working that portray people in cooperatively various emotional states.• Teachers model • With children, teachers appropriate social explore the nature of skills through role- feelings and the appropriate playing ways they can be expressed.
Peer Learning 3 Star Curriculum places • Space for small group ofan emphasis on the value of children to work togethersocial interaction through • Teachers help childrenpeer learning. This value can express their feeling tobe seen in how the room is each otherarranged and the • Staff model conflictinteractions. resolution • Staff only intervenes in children’s conflict when it appears that they can’t solve it on their own.
Curriculum for Infants Curriculum for infantsis unlike that for preschoolchildren. It is based on theirdaily routines. Infantcurriculum is based onroutines first and thencaregivers add activities andgames to stimulate and thechallenge the infant to thenext stage of development.
Curriculum for Infants • Routines are used for Awake time teaching. Teachers talk, should be balanced and sing during feeding, between child- bathing, and diapering. initiated exploration of the environment • Caregivers describe (toys and other what is taking place materials) and one- during routines, (“I am on-one play/interaction with going to pick you up.”) the caregiver. • Caregivers have eye contact with infants. • Teachers play simplified games with infants, imitating baby’s sounds, facial expressions and names body parts and other items.
Curriculum for Infants Appropriate toysare introduced at eachstage of development.Toys and other materialsare rotated on a regularbasis, maintaining a mix ofthe familiar and the novel.
Curriculum for Toddlers Curriculum for toddlers is similar to that for Preschool, with a few exceptions. There is more flexibility in the daily schedule to accommodate each toddler’s needs (for eating, sleeping, toileting.) Teachers must be familiar with the development of toddlers. Milestone charts should be posted in the room.
Curriculum for Toddlers Duplicate toys and otheritems are recommendedbecause of toddler’sinability to share. Enoughtoys, based on enrollmentand children’s needs, areavailable. Toys should berotated. Classroom shouldbe arranged into learningareas that allow the childrento explore.
3 Star Curriculum 3 Star Curriculum, when created followingthe Curriculum Spiral, is a developmentallyappropriate, individualized learning plan foreach child. It is inherently inclusive. It iseducation that meets children where they areand provides the next developmental challengewhile creating a foundation for more advancedlearning in each of the learning domains.
3 Star Curriculum Development Step 1: Create a file for each child thatincludes:• Developmental milestones for the child’s age group• Developmental checklist• Examples of the child’s work, art and photos.This file will grow as the yearprogresses.
Developmental Milestones Developmental Milestones New Mexico Children, Youth andare lists of skills that typically Families Department has created thedeveloping children will attain NM Early Learning Guidelines: Birth through Kindergarten.within a given age range. Anexample of a skill on the list These Guidelines “givewould be, “sits unsupported reasonable expectations for children at different ages so that teachers andfor short periods of time” for a others can have criteria to refer to as6-8 month old baby. they observe children in action, determine their levels of Developmental Milestone performance and plan curricularlists can be found in published interventions to help them grow, develop, and learn to their fullestcurricula, such as Focused potential.”Portfolios or Creative - NM Early Learning Guidelines: Birth through Kindergarten.Curriculum.
NM Early Learning Guidelines These guidelinesprovide a commonvocabulary to describedevelopment andlearning. They areformatted as a continuumto remind us that childrendo not develop at thesame rate or pace, butrather that each does soin his or her unique way.
NM Early Learning Guidelines The guidelines reflectcurrent research on braindevelopment and bestpractices. They represent agrowing consensus amongearly childhood professionalsthat a greater emphasis beplaced on young children’sconceptual learning, social andemotional development andparticipation in relevant andmeaningful learningexperiences.
Developmental Checklists Developmental Checklists As teachers observeare similar to milestones or children attain mastery ofguidelines. The checklists are skills, the date that mastery isworking documents for use by observed is noted on theteachers which contain a checklist. Over time a recordsampling of key competencies of the child’s development is(milestones) for a given age created. From this record, agroup. Teachers use these teacher can identify the nextchecklists to document when a skills toward which the child isskill or behavior is observed as developing.“in progress” or “mastered”. Developmental Checklists can also help teachers and parents to spot “red flags” in development- areas of development that may be delayed.
Demonstration of Competency Each child’s file shouldcontain examples of:• Art work• Writing samples• Photographs• Dictated speech• And any other tangible form of demonstration of competency or mastery of skills.
Focused Observations Step 2: Begin conducting Conduct weekly informal,ongoing focused anecdotal observations onobservations for each child. sticky pads for each child. If there is support (planning (For more information about the time and/or supervisiondifferent types of observations,see Focused Observations by coverage) schedule moreGronlund and James, Redleaf formal observations toPress, 2005.) target specific skills or domains. These observations get transferred to the Developmental Checklists to form a long term picture of development for each child.
GoalsStep 3: Based on the Observations may revealdevelopmental picture that that there is a sub-group inemerges from the the class that needs toobservations and checklists, “work on holding a pencil increate long and short term writing position.”goals for each child. This fine motor skill mayIf the children are within the become a short term goalsame age-range, many of for these children. If thisthe children will have the skill is very challenging for asame developmental goals. child, “work on fine motorFor example, children skills” may become a longbetween 2 and 3 are term goal.developing fine motor skills.
Short Term GoalsStep 4: Create class lists ofchildren’s short term goals.Then group children’s goalsby learning domain/s. For example: Zoe’s goal- tobegin to utilize “please” and“thank you” at appropriatetimes. This goal is in the Languageand/or Social Emotionaldomain/s.
Learning DomainsStep 5: Number the Different sourcesdomains: identify the domains1- Language differently. Sometimes Language is called2- Fine Motor Communication, for3- Gross Motor example.4- Pre-literacy5- Social Emotional6- Cognitive/Reasoning
Goals by DomainStep 6: Group the 2- Fine Motor Skillschildren’s individual goals • Mara- learn to useby the domain number. scissorsExample: • Philip- learn to use1- Language scissors• Zoe- please/thank you • JT- learn to pick up• Chris- respond to verbal small items with pincer directions grasp.• Felicita- learn more vocabulary in English
Goals Guide Curriculum PlanningStep 7: On weekly curriculum, plan activities that willgive children opportunities to work toward theirindividual goals. On curriculum, put the number of thedomain next to the activity/ies in which that domainand goals will occur. Example: Art- Mother’s Day Cards Dramatic Play- Household Teacher will explain what a card is Teacher will interact with play to and show examples of different suggest expansion of activity (i.e. cards. Teacher will provide making pizza, shopping, giving the materials: paper, writing baby a bath) to expand and model materials, scissors, paint, collage language and role play. items. #1 and 2 #1 and 5
For each activity in the weekly curriculum, list thedomains addressed in the activity. Art- Mother’s Day CardsIn this activity, Art, the teacher is Teacher will explain what a card is and show examples of differentpresenting an opportunity for cards. Teacher will provide materials: paper, writingchildren to use materials that will materials, scissors, paint, collage items.utilize their fine motor skills. As #1 and 2The teacher works with the children to create thecards, she also engages with them in languageexpansion, which addresses the language goals for eachchild. So on the curriculum, #1 (language domain) and#2 (fine motor skills) are the learning domainsaddressed by this activity. On the back of the lessonplan, the list of children’s Goals by Domain can be kept.
Curriculum will then include: Art- Mother’s Day CardsLesson Plans (front) Teacher will explain what a card is• Content area and name of activity and show examples of different• Brief description and role of cards. Teacher will provide teacher materials: paper, writing materials, scissors, paint, collage• Materials list items.• Domains addressed within activity #1 and 2Short-term goals (back) 1- Language• Short-term goals for each child • Zoe- please/thank you grouped by learning domain• Each child should have two short • Chris- respond to verbal directions term goals in different domains• Each child should have multiple • Felicita- learn more vocabulary in English opportunities throughout the day 2- Fine Motor Skills to work on these goals• Short-term goals should be • Mara- learn to use scissors reviewed every two-three weeks • Philip- learn to use scissors • JT- learn to pick up small items with pincer grasp.
In the second activity, Dramatic Play- HouseholdDramatic Play, the teacher Teacher will interact with play toactively engages in play with suggest expansion of activity (i.e.the children. In doing so, she making pizza, shopping, giving the baby a bath) to expand and modelcan direct the play to expand language and role play.on language, model language #1 and 5and appropriatesocial/emotional interaction.The teacher can guide theinteractions through herinvolvement to address thelanguage and socialemotional short term goals ofthe children.
Short-term goals should be reevaluated at least monthly based on ongoing observations. Activities should be based on children’s short-term goals. The short-term goals should culminate in mastery of the long-term goals for each child.There should be a balance betweenteacher directed activities and freetime to explore learning centers.Teachers can still direct free time (andaddress short-term goals) by makingdeliberate choices about whatmaterials are placed in the centers.Teachers can also direct free time andaddress short-term goals by activelyinteracting in the learning centers withthe children.