21st Century Enlightenment
      Scholars Project
    Australia: East or West?
East or West? Questions or issues you
                   raised
•   geographically                   •   food – traditions...
Age of Enlightenment
• The Age of Enlightenment or The
  Enlightenment is an overarching term
  used to describe a phase i...
Where did it start?
• The movement was developed in
  Europe and spread its influence
  throughout Europe, including Russi...
What is Enlightenment?

“Enlightenment is man’s emergence
 from his self-incurred immaturity.”
       (Immanuel Kant, 1784)
“

  Sapere aude”! – Dare to be
            wise!
• Immaturity is self-inflicted not from a
  lack of understanding, but f...
Immanuel Kant on why people
   remain unenlightened
• ‘The majority of people are lazy cowards who gladly
  remain in this...
Kant (continued)
• For “the largest part of mankind
  (including the entire fair sex)”, not only
  is thinking difficult, ...
Enlightenment principles and
          attitudes
• The American Declaration of
  Independence, the United States Bill of
 ...
Excerpt from the French Declaration
        of the Rights of Man
• All the citizens, being equal in [the eyes
  of the law...
Who was left out of this
           declaration?
• The Declaration, as originally understood, recognized
  most rights as ...
American Declaration of Independence

• We hold these truths to be self-evident, that
  all men are created equal, that th...
Ongoing influence of the
        Enlightenment
• the Enlightenment represents the basis
  for modern ideas of liberalism a...
Declaration of Human Rights
• Article 1
  All human beings are born free and
  equal in dignity and rights. They are
  end...
Article 2
• Everyone is entitled to all the rights and
  freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without
  distinction of ...
Critiques of The Enlightenment
 • Valuing of reason at the expense of
   emotions and feelings - a very
   instrumental vi...
So what’s the enlightenment
   got to do with 21st century
           Australia?
• It’s the basis of our democratic system...
You are modern Australia
Year 11 MLC girls - Where do
      you come from?
•   Australia              •   Hong Kong
                           •   ...
What do you believe?
The religious affiliations of
          Year 11 at MLC
•   Anglican                •   Muslim
•   Buddhist                ...
The languages you speak




• English, Mandarin, Greek, Italian, Japanese,
  Korean, Bahasa Indonesian, French, Arabic,
  ...
Women as global citizens in the 21st
            century
                Young Australians can
                consider an...
We are all involved in a unique experience
    in the history of the human race
                     • Sex discrimination ...
Women as global citizens
            • Economic independence can
              be enjoyed by most women
            • You ...
Challenges ahead
• We live in one world
  - climate change
  and International
                                      Quick...
Australia - the future?
• What will Australia expect of its citizens in
  50 years time?
• Cultural intelligence will be a...
Your generation is Australia’s future




                        QuickTimeᆰ and a
                           decompressor...
Putting it all together
English - what issues has your              Humanities - why is it important to
literature study r...
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Final presentation.ppt

  1. 1. 21st Century Enlightenment Scholars Project Australia: East or West?
  2. 2. East or West? Questions or issues you raised • geographically • food – traditions/diversity • culturally • politics – are we with America – who are we aligned with? • relations with other countries • Music – influences • immigration • Film – Bollywood influences • United Nations • Life-styles • where do you want to go to the future • Position of women in East/West • ‘our future career direction’ • Stereotypes/prejudices • Literature – • Language • Manga/anime • ‘what is the central part of the world? • Graphic novels • What about indigenous Australians? • Fashion – influences • Physical environment • Beliefs – different faiths • Medicine – east/west • Sports around the world • Nationality • Rich and poor – haves and have nots • Maps – perspective – the way aust is positioned
  3. 3. Age of Enlightenment • The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is an overarching term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century, in which Reason was advocated as the primary source and basis of authority.
  4. 4. Where did it start? • The movement was developed in Europe and spread its influence throughout Europe, including Russia and Scandinavia, the new United States of America and even to Australia which some people hoped would be a new utopia.
  5. 5. What is Enlightenment? “Enlightenment is man’s emergence from his self-incurred immaturity.” (Immanuel Kant, 1784)
  6. 6. “ Sapere aude”! – Dare to be wise! • Immaturity is self-inflicted not from a lack of understanding, but from the lack of courage to use one’s reason, intellect, and wisdom without the guidance of another. Our fear of thinking for ourselves.
  7. 7. Immanuel Kant on why people remain unenlightened • ‘The majority of people are lazy cowards who gladly remain in this immature state for their entire lives.’ Why? • Simply because ‘immaturity is convenient.’ • Why is it convenient? Because “guardians” such as books, doctors, spiritual advisors, and anyone whom we can pay to think for us, does the heavy mental lifting and tells us how to think.
  8. 8. Kant (continued) • For “the largest part of mankind (including the entire fair sex)”, not only is thinking difficult, but it is dangerous. • we are fearful of taking that first step into thinking for ourselves.
  9. 9. Enlightenment principles and attitudes • The American Declaration of Independence, the United States Bill of Rights and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen were motivated by quot;Enlightenmentquot; principles
  10. 10. Excerpt from the French Declaration of the Rights of Man • All the citizens, being equal in [the eyes of the law], are equally admissible to all public dignities, places, and employments, according to their capacity and without distinction other than that of their virtues and of their talents.quot;
  11. 11. Who was left out of this declaration? • The Declaration, as originally understood, recognized most rights as belonging only to males; • the declaration did not revoke the institution of slavery • Women were finally given these rights with the adoption of the 1946 Constitution of the French Fourth Republic
  12. 12. American Declaration of Independence • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.
  13. 13. Ongoing influence of the Enlightenment • the Enlightenment represents the basis for modern ideas of liberalism against superstition and intolerance. • eg the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights (Dec 1948)
  14. 14. Declaration of Human Rights • Article 1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
  15. 15. Article 2 • Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty
  16. 16. Critiques of The Enlightenment • Valuing of reason at the expense of emotions and feelings - a very instrumental view of science (eg application of ‘rationality’ for destructive purposes) • Exclusion of particular groups of people from its principles (eg women, slaves) • Universal assumptions
  17. 17. So what’s the enlightenment got to do with 21st century Australia? • It’s the basis of our democratic system of government • It’s the basis of our promotion of freedom, tolerance and inclusiveness • It’s the basis of our system of universal education
  18. 18. You are modern Australia
  19. 19. Year 11 MLC girls - Where do you come from? • Australia • Hong Kong • Indonesia • China • Italy • Japan • Korea • Sri Lanka • Malaysia • India • Phillipines • Greece • Egypt • Singapore • The United States of • New Zealand America
  20. 20. What do you believe?
  21. 21. The religious affiliations of Year 11 at MLC • Anglican • Muslim • Buddhist • Jehova’s Witness • Catholic • Methodist • Coptic • Church of England • Christian • Sikh • Greek Orthodox • Presbyterian • Judaism • Uniting Church • Seventh Day Adventist • Agnostic
  22. 22. The languages you speak • English, Mandarin, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Bahasa Indonesian, French, Arabic, Cantonese. Vietnamese, Spanish, Urdu
  23. 23. Women as global citizens in the 21st century Young Australians can consider and participate in our debates about Australian citizenship. This year marks the 60th anniversary of the UN Declaration of Human Rights. An American woman, Eleanor Roosevelt, was largely responsible for the declaration. An Australian woman, Jesse Street, was also directly involved in the seminal document. (Susan Ryan AO)
  24. 24. We are all involved in a unique experience in the history of the human race • Sex discrimination has been illegal for the past 25 years • Women are not officially barred from any occupations, professions, coures of study or training. • Range of lifestyles wider than ever before • You may marry,remain single, have children, or remain without children • You will live longer than at any time in recorded history
  25. 25. Women as global citizens • Economic independence can be enjoyed by most women • You can see women in political leadership, at the top of all the professions, a woman who is CEO of a major bank, and the first female Governor-General (Quentin Bryce). This is the top role available to an Australian citizen under our constitution
  26. 26. Challenges ahead • We live in one world - climate change and International QuickTimeᆰ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. terrorism, as well as the current global financial crisis have surely made us all aware of that QuickTimeᆰ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  27. 27. Australia - the future? • What will Australia expect of its citizens in 50 years time? • Cultural intelligence will be a core skill in the 21st century. What is it exactly? • What will YOU do?
  28. 28. Your generation is Australia’s future QuickTimeᆰ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  29. 29. Putting it all together English - what issues has your Humanities - why is it important to literature study raised about cultural understand our past, the beliefs & differences? Whose voices were values of different cultures and the expressed in the texts? How do you current relationships between think students in Asian countries would countries in our region? How do you respond to these texts? think the world stage will look in 20 years time? Science/Design/PDH/IT/Design - LOTE - how can the study of How do these subjects demonstrate that different languages give an insight ideas are not restricted to borders within into different cultures? Is it just a a country? Does Science have all the matter of words? answers for the future? The Arts - how does the study of art, Maths - how is maths a way of music and dance help explore the thinking and not just a set of impact of different traditions & formulae? Is there beauty in maths? influences? Will we continue to see How? more of a cultural fusion in these areas?

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