Women were property - Coverture• She was • She could not covered by her go to court in male relatives her own right• She could not • She could not divorce her have custody husband of her children• Her property • She could not did not belong vote to her She was dependent upon men
KATE SHEPPARD AND THE VOTE FOR WOMEN IN NEW ZEALAND Challenge Nowhere in the world was it considered appropriate for women to vote! Challenge Many people, especially men, did not want to give women the vote. Challenge Parliament had to pass a Bill in order for women to vote and it only had men in it!! HOW DID THEY OVERCOME THESE CHALLENGES??
FIRST – SOME HISTORY FOR A LONG TIME NO MAN NO WOMAN COULD VOTE THERE WAS NO SUCH THING!! BUT PEOPLE’S IDEAS ABOUT HOWSOCIETY SHOULD WORK BEGAN TO CHANGE
MAKE A FLOW DIAGRAM SYMBOLS – E.G. IS A SYMBOL FOR MONARCHY IDEAS DEMOCRACY? A FLOW DIAGRAM – CHANGING POLITICAL IDEAS SYMBOL SYMBOL SYMBOL
IDEAS CHANGED MONARCHY • Some wealthy men got the vote • Some less wealthy men got the vote. • All men got the vote DEMOCRACY So women wanted the vote too. They started to get involved.
WOMEN CARED ABOUT THINGS TOO A C C A T R I E O SO N THEY TAKE
ABOLITION MOVEMENT was an International Movement WOMEN BOYCOTEDSIGNED SLAVE GROWN WROTE RAISED FUNDSPETITIONS SUGAR SPOKE
WOMEN CARED ABOUT THINGS TOO. FOR INSTANCE THE ABOLITION MOVEMENT THE ABOLITION MOVEMENT WAS… WHAT WOMEN DID… In the centre of your page draw a silhouette of a woman. CUT OUT PICTURES AND PASTE THEM AROUND THE WOMAN.
BUT WOMEN ONLY HAD INFLUENCE. THEY HAD NO POWER TO CHANGE THINGS HOW DID WOMEN CHANGE THAT?
IMPORTANT WORDS1. ABOLITION2. PETITION3. SUFFRAGE (FRANCHISE)4. COVERAGE5. DEMOCRACY6. MONARCHY
HOW DO WE CONSTRUCT A BAR GRAPH BOTH AXIS ARE DRAWN WITH A RULER BOTH AXIS HAVE A LABEL THE GRAPH HAS A TITLE THE GRAPH HAS A KEY
BAR GRAPH CHECKLIST Graph is drawn with a ruler with even gaps between bars. Countries on the horizontal (x) axis Years on the vertical (y) axis Both axis are labeled. Title Key – Male and Female Suffrage
MALE AND FEMALE SUFFRAGE BY YEAR AND COUNTRYCOUNTRY MALE SUFFRAGE FEMALE SUFFRAGEU.S.A 1870 1920NEW ZEALAND 1879 1893NORWAY 1898 1913U.K. 1914 1928FRANCE 1848 1944MEXICO 1917 1953SWITZERLAND 1848 1971
HOW COME NEW ZEALAND WAS FIRST IN THE WORLD TO ACHIEVE WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE?? FLOW DIAGRAM NEW IDEAS IN EUROPE AND AMERICA PEOPLE WITH NEW IDEAS MIGRATED TO NEW ZEALAND NEW ZEALAND AS A SELF GOVERNING COLONY – DID NOT HAVE TO DO THE SAME AS BRITAIN
KATE SHEPPARDHAND-OUT – MAKE A POSTER IN YOUR BOOK’S REPRESENTINGHER LIFE. WRITE AT LEAST ONE FACT ABOUT EACH TIME BORN 1848 EARLY LIFE CHRISTCHURCH WCTU AFTER 1893 DIED 1934 YOU CAN USE A DIFFERENT SHAPE IF YOU LIKE
WHAT INSPIRED HER? SHE HEARD MARY LEAVITT FROM THE AMERICAN WOMEN’S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION SPEAK ON THE NEED FOR WOMEN TO HAVE THE VOTE TO EFFECT CHANGE. (1885) SHE SAW WHAT COLONIAL LIFE WAS LIKE FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN. SHE RECOGNISED THERE WAS A GREAT OPPORTUNITY BECAUSE OF THE NEWNESS OF NEW ZEALAND’S POLITICAL SCENE.
w.c.t.u. Womens Christian Temperance Union Women felt gettingAlcohol took a the vote wouldterrible toll on enable them tofamilies have some control Remember women and children had no rights except in relationship to the adult male relatives they had.
This picture has three parts 1- A family happily at home together The family is warm and happy. The man, woman and children are all provided for. 2 - The family signing “The Pledge” not to drink. The family take the pledge not to touch alcohol. This picture stands between the happy and sad family. 3 – The family begging the man not to go to the pub. The family are outside in the cold and dressed in rags. The husband has a bottle of alcohol in his hand. Alcohol is the difference between the two scenarios. MESSAGE: Alcohol is bad for family life and especially for women and children.
Her Personal Qualities No Sectarian Narrowness Well Educated Good Judgment Excellent Public Speaker Tolerance Committed Charm Very Feminine Woman
What she did… WROTE PAMPHLETS WROTE LETTERS TO THE PRESS GAVE TALKS PERSONAL CONTACT WITH POLITICIANS ORGANISED PETITIONS AND OPENED THEM TO ALL WOMEN TRAVELLED THE COUNTRY KEPT CONTACT WITH OVERSEAS MOVEMENT Led the push for Women’s Franchise
OTHER GROUPS and PEOPLE INVOLVED Women’s Franchise League Canterbury Women’s Institute Polly Plum (Mary Colclough) WCTU of America (Mary Leavitt) John Stuart Mill Mary Muller Dunedin Tailoresses’ Union Politicians such as… William Fox John Hall Robert Stout
Kate Sheppard’s Ideas- Kate Sheppard “Ten Reason’s Why Women Should Vote.” 1. “Because a democratic government like that of New Zealand already admits the great principle that every adult person, not convicted of crime, nor suspected of lunacy, has an inherent right to a voice in the construction of laws which all must obey.”
LETS LOOK AT WHAT NUMBER 1ON KATE’S LIST SAYS “Because a democratic government like that of New Zealand already admits the great principle that every adult person, not convicted of crime, nor suspected of lunacy, has an inherent right to a voice in the construction of laws which all must obey. What does she mean? Table Groups Discuss Write a definition for these words:INHERENT RIGHT – CONSTRUCTION OFLAWS
WHY DID WOMEN WANT THE VOTE?2. Because it has not yet been proved that theintelligence of women is only equal to that of children, northat their social status is on a par with that of lunatics orconvicts.3. Because women are affected by the prosperity of theColony, are concerned in the preservation of its liberty andfree institutions, and suffer equally with men from allnational errors and mistakes4. Because women are less accessible than men to mostof the debasing influences now brought to bear uponelections, and by doubling the number of electors to bedealt with, women would make bribery and corruption lesseffective, as well as more difficult.
WHY DID WOMEN WANT THE VOTE5. Because in the quietude of homewomen are less liable than men to beswayed by mere party feeling, and areinclined to attach great value touprightness and rectitude of life in acandidate.6. Because the presence of women atthe polling-booth would have a refiningand purifying effect.7. Because the votes of women wouldadd weight and power to the more settledand responsible communities.
WHY DID WOMEN WANT THE VOTE8. Because women are endowed with a more constantsolicitude for the welfare of the rising generations, thusgiving them a more far-reaching concern for somethingbeyond the present moment.9. Because the admitted physical weakness of womendisposes them to exercise more habitual caution, and tofeel a deeper interest in the constant preservation ofpeace, law, and order, and especially in the supremacy ofright over might.10. Because women naturally view each question from asomewhat different standpoint to men, so that whilst theirinterests, aims, and objects would be very generally thesame, they would often see what men had overlooked,and thus add a new security against any partial or one-sided legislation.
IN DESK GROUPS List the important words for each point. Take each point Kate Sheppard made and summerise it. What did she mean? • WHAT DO YOU THINK?• DO YOU THINK HER POINT WAS VALID?• IS THE POINT TRUE TODAY?• DO YOU THINK EVERYTHING TURNED OUT THE WAY SHE WANTED?
Women’s suffrage -A New Zealand Time-lineNew Zealand a Self 1843 Mr Alfred Saunders 1884 MarriedGoverning Colony 1853 and Mr William Fox Women’s advocate Women’s Property Act Suffrage 1879 Male 1885 NZ Women’s 1893 petition 1869 Mary Muller wrote Suffrage Maori Christian 1891 petition 30,000+ signatures pamphlet advocating Male suffrage Temperance 10,085 signatures – women get the Women’s Suffrage 1867 Movement vote 1933 First 1997 First Percentage of female woman MP’s woman Prime 1919 Women MP same as 1947 First Minister allowed to be percentage of female women in MP Cabinet population Member
Make a time-line 1900 Women 1893 get the vote Ruled vertical line Even scale- (Decades) Short horizontal line for each event Brief descriptions An appropriate title NZ self- 1853 governing 1850 colony
WHO OPPOSED VOTES FOR WOMEN? LIQUOR LOBBY SOME CONSERVATIVE WOMEN’S GROUP RICHARD SEDDON and MANY OTHER POLITICIANS INDIVIDUAL MEN such as; Henry Smith Fish Henry Wright
WHAT WERE THEIRIDEAS? It would “Unsex” women. WOMEN TALKING POLITICS WOULD BE TOO DISRUPTIVE. Women had a vote through their husbands. Woman’s place was in the home. Families would suffer. Women voting is against God’s order. Women who want the vote are too masculine. Women are not physically suited to vote.
HAND-OUT Cut out the faces. In your own words write why each thought women could not vote.Underneath Add The economy would suffer Women did not want the Vote
WHAT IS A POLITICALCARTOON?A political cartoon is a mixture of visual and written evidence. Political cartoons are normally drawn to show the cartoonist’s point of view about an issue which is seen as important at the time. Cartoonists often use humour or sarcasm to emphasise their point of view about a particular issue.
Remember this? How did we go aboutdeciding what it was about?
Interpreting Cartoons We decided what the illustration was about? - Temperance We decided what was happening in the illustration? Husband at home with happy family; husband going to pub with unhappy family. We looked at the way the illustration was set out? Taking the Pledge was between the other two pictures. The message?TOPIC - ACTION –WORDS – LAYOUT -CHARACTERS
Here is an example from the Christchurch Press
LETS PRACTICE ANALYSING A POLITICAL CARTOON handout IS THE CARTOONIST PRO- OR ANTI- WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE? HOW CAN YOU TELL? -words -pictures IS IT FUNNY? OR IS IT DEMEANING? WHAT DO YOU THINK?
ANALYSE THE FOLLOWING CARTOONS BY ANSWERINGTHESE QUESTIONS. 1- What is the Cartoon about? 2- What characters/types can you identify? 3- What idea/s does it portray? 4- What clues lead you to your identification of the characters/idea(s)? 5- Which perspective is the cartoon being depicted from?
The household The woman is dressed and is in chaos. acting like a man and the But something man is dressed and acting is wrang. like a woman. This cartoon is against votes for women .Because thehousehold isunhappy
Heading in your booksHow to Write about Cartoons1 Briefly describe the cartoon.2 Write a because sentence.3 Write…The cartoonist is trying to say that…
1) Write a sentence to very briefly describe the cartoon. 2) Write a because sentence.This cartoon has two parts Because the women in the second picture are The first part is not behaving in a women sewing very ladylike way – together. this cartoon is against Votes for Women. 3) Write what the The second cartoonist is trying to say. picture The cartoonist shows is saying that women giving women smoking the vote will and talking “unsex” them together. or make them too masculine..
WHAT IS THIS CARTOON Briefly describe the SAYING? cartoon. Because the woman is Write a because washing the man from aA woman is sentence. bowl labeled Votes forwashing a Women this cartoon ischild. for Votes for Women. The child Write a is not sentence enjoying to say it. what the cartoonist is trying to say.The childhas amoustache. The cartoonist is trying to say that giving women the vote will be good because it will clean-up politics.
Write a brief Write…The description cartoonist of the is trying to cartoon. say that… Write a because sentenceFemale Voters: “Come,Come my boy you have to take this nicemedicine. It will be good for you.”Young NZ: “I don’t like your medicine, and am feeling alright. But Iguess I have to have it. Maybe it won’t hurt.”
WHAT IS THIS CARTOONSAYING?“You permit this gentleman to influence your Elections. Surelyyou might permit me to have a voice in the matter too?”
WHO IS THIS CARTOONTARGETING AND HOW? The men are; • Political Boss. • White Slaver. • Child Labour Exploiter. • Food Doper. • Saloon Keeper.
Other activities Collage a) colonial life for women b) life for the modern woman c) life for women in 19th Century England.Expert Groups – 1 Liquor Lobby 2 Conservative Women’s Lobby 3 Pro Women’s Suffrage 4 Politics too rough Lobby 5 WCTU LobbyDevelop a short speech containing each p-o-v to deliverto the class by a spokes man. Parliamentary Debate
Photograph of Pioneer Women by Ruth DallasYou can see from their facesLife was not funnyThe streets, when there were streets,Tugging at axles,The settlement ramshackle as a stack of cards.And where there were no streets, and so houses,Save their own roof of calico and thatch,The cows coming morning and afternoonFrom the end-of-world swamp,Udders cemented with mud.
Photograph of Pioneer Women by Ruth DallasVerse 2There is nothing to equal pioneering labourFor wrenching a woman out of shape,Like an old willow, uprooted, thickening.See their strong arms, their shoulders broadenedBy the rhythmical swing of the of the axe, or humpedUnder loads they donkeyed on their backs.Some of them found time to be photographed,With their bearded husbands, and twelve or thirteen children,Looking shocked, but relentless,After first starching the frills on their caps.