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Anatomy of   Strategic Communication              from         The Public Relations         Practitioner’s Playbook       ...
Or…Why We Do What We Do         And How To Do It Better!                        2
Taken from…              3
You enter to learnYou leave to serve                     4
I am here to:           H E L P…Hear, Educate, Learn and Prepare[HELP – Hear what Prof. Litwin says so youcan be Educated ...
6
PR Is...•   “This is who we are;•   What we think about ourselves;•   What we want to do; and•   Why we deserve your suppo...
8
You Talk – We Listen        Hearing vs. ListeningThere is a reason why we have two ears and    one mouth – we must listen ...
Strategic/Public              Communication• Strategic/public communication is at the heart of  our economy, society and p...
Strategic Message       Commercial Persuasion                Or         Public Relations“The establishing of reciprocalund...
M A C T ria d                    M                  +P+T           A                CM = M essag e A = A u die nce C = C h...
MAC Triad Plus cont.• Informization  – Disseminating information (message) to    target audience through the proper channe...
Advertising is Synergy                         14
Strategic Message       Commercial Persuasion                Or         Public Relations“The establishing of reciprocalund...
Public Relations…(Not paid – Uncontrolled)                            16
Public Relations…A tool of leadership!   [more later…]                        17
Public Relations 101• Management and counseling function• Enables organizations to build and maintain  relationships• Thro...
Public RelationsA management function thathelps organizations and theirpublics mutually adapt to oneanother.              ...
Public Relations• “Public relations helps an organization  and its publics adapt mutually to each  other.”• “Public relati...
Public Relations• “Public relations is a [two-way]  strategic communication process  [management function] that builds  mu...
Advertising 101•   Paid•   (Non)-personal communication•   From identified sponsor•   Using (mass) media•   To persuade or...
Marketing 101Determine what people need (and     want) and give it to them.                                  23
PR Practitioners     are… Strategic Advisors                      24
Edward Bernays’        Public Relations           Functions• To interpret the client to the public, which  means promoting...
Ivy Ledbetter Lee’s       Public Relations          Principles1. Tell the truth2. Provide accurate facts3. Give the public...
PR Counselors must           possess…•   Loyalty•   Judgment•   Trust•   Ethics•   Integrity                            27
Managing Public         OpinionPublic relations practitioners…  – Assess public opinion  – Influence public opinion  It is...
ABCs of Strategic         Communication• Anticipate• Be Prepared• Communicate Clearly, Concisely,   Consistently, Calculat...
Another “A” =  AccountabilityMore on this particular        “A”    in a moment.                          30
CBAs of Strategic       Communication• Conceive• Believe• Achieve                          31
CBAs of Strategic      Communication• Conceive = Head• Believe = Heart• Achieve = Hands                         32
Another “A” =         Accountability•   Controlled autonomy•   Answerable•   Responsible•   Being a source or cause•   Abl...
What is Accountability?      ? ? ?                          34
Another “A” =         Accountability•   Answerable•   Responsible•   Being a source or cause•   Able to be trusted or depe...
Accountability –        definedA key component to practicing effectiveand reliable public relations.                      ...
PR Practitioners/CounselorsAccountability is…thinking strategically•   Deliberately•   Systematically•   Methodically•   L...
Accountability’s – Bottom              Line• Senior managers want marketing managers to  prove that their marketing is eff...
How is accountability     measured?     ? ? ?                        39
Through…• Achievement (yet, another “A”)• Communication                                   40
You are the Brand•   Brand•   Brand Equity•   Brand Extension•   Brand Expansion•   Brand Familiarity•   Brand Favorabilit...
Delivering the promiseThat’s accountability ,          too!!!                          42
Are you a brand          champion ?• Brand champions deliver what they  promise – and more. Delivering helps to  achieve…a...
Double Bottom Line• First Bottom Line  – Build Relationships• Second Bottom Line  – Profit – or, accomplish your Goal     ...
Triple Bottom Line• Pat Jackson’s DBL – plus:• Third Bottom Line  – Revenue>Controlled Costs=Profit                       ...
Fraser Seitel’s “Real” Bottom Line               of PR• “Our fundamental role in PR is to defend and  promote and enhance ...
How are Bottom Lines     Achieved?     ???                       47
Reaching the Desired          Outcome• Attitude• OpinionEducation > Knowledge > Attitude >   Behavioral Change > Output = ...
Public Relations is     Synergy                      49
PR-Pie•   Purpose•   Research•   Planning•   Implementation•   Evaluation                         50
Two-Way Communication        ModelSender>>>Message>>>Receiver^                         V^          Noise          V^      ...
Communication• …is shared comprehension (two way)• Four Essential Elements/Communication Model   – Initiator (Sender/Encod...
Principles of             Authentic•   Truth          Communication*                  • Timeliness•   Fundamentality      ...
Principles of         Authentic      Communication*• Truth – being accurate and factually  correct.• Fundamentality – deal...
Principles of              Authentic•         Communication*making    Relevance – taking into account and  connections wit...
Principles of               Authentic•       Communication* it is    Timeliness – providing information when  known, leavi...
Principles of              Authentic•        Communication*    Responsiveness to feedback – engaging in  two-way communica...
Principles of             Authentic•   Truth          Communication*                  • Timeliness•   Fundamentality      ...
PR Plan/Roadmap•   Goal•   Objectives•   Strategies•   Tactics•   Tools                         59
Superior tactics cannotovercome a bad(business) strategy.                          60
No Planning = No Plan =      No Hope                          61
Synergy The whole is greater than    the sum of its parts            orThe whole works better than    any one of its parts...
Synergy’s Parts•   Advertising                • Product itself*•   (Sales) Promotion*         • Packaging*•   Public Relat...
Public Relations is     Synergy                      64
Litwin’s    9 P’s   of Marketing =                    Synergy•   Product               •   Public Relations•   Place (Posi...
7 C’s of Communication•   Credibility•   Context•   Content•   Clarity•   Continuity and Consistency•   Channels•   Capabi...
Content is crucial…but the medium is part of themessage, too!                   (Marshal McLuhan)                         ...
Public Communication• Public communication is at the heart of our economy,  society and politics. Studios use it to promot...
Superior tactics cannotovercome a flawed(business) strategy.                          69
MAC Triad Plus             M            +P+T        A           CM=Message A=Audience C=Channel       P=Purpose T=Timing  ...
MAC Triad Plus cont.• Informization  – Disseminating information (message) to    target audience through the proper channe...
More On        MAC Triad Plus    Some Key Communication Terms• Propaganda• Manipulation• Stakeholders vs. Stockholders (To...
Cracked Egg Model                    73
Audiences (ISPR)• Identify• Segment/Fragment      •   Demographically      •   Psychographically      •   Geodemographical...
Audience Power   Structure      Elite     Diffused    Amorphous                 75
Target vs. Niche       Target                 Niche• Audience you want   • Narrowly defined  to reach              audienc...
Active vs. Passive      Active                 Passive• Already sold          • Uninterested• Seeking information   • Use ...
Features and Benefits       Features                    Benefits• Important                 • The quality of product      ...
WII-FMFeatures + Benefits = Value      Value = Worth                          79
BargainWhen the value exceeds the cost.Remember, you only get what youpay for – but most times you don’teven get that!    ...
Persuade vs. Convince• Persuade  – Change of mind or attitude (for a short time)  – When you persuade someone, you get the...
Persuasion Pointers•   Know your audience•   Know what you can accomplish•   Anticipate objections/dispel them•   Establis...
Persuasion cont.•   Use problem/solution format•   Stress rewards/benefits•   Control the tone•   Clinch your argument•   ...
Three-Step vs. Two-Step          Flow Three-Step Flow         Two-Step Flow1. Credible endorser* 1. Mass-media2. Key commu...
Three-Step vs. Two-Step   vs. One-Step Flow  One-Step Flow – One-to-One  1. From organization directly to     (Targeted) p...
Third Party Endorser• Endorsement• Testimonial          [Know the difference]                                  86
Key Communicators•   Who Needs Key Communicators?•   Who Should be a Key Communicator?•   Starting a Program•   An “Author...
Alternative Media•   Radio•   Television•   Internet (and Interactive – Web 2.0/Blogs/Wikis)•   iPod® (Podcasts, etc.)•   ...
Alternative Media• Cross Platform  – Print  – Digital Signage  – Wireless  – Broadband  – TV• Convergence of Distribution ...
Getting a Seat at the          Table• Know how to communicate.• Know what our employer does and the  industry he/she repre...
Communication:A Tool of Leadership                       91
Public Relations…      LeadershipAll leaders are teachers…  but not all teachers are          leaders!                    ...
Public Relations…       LeadershipManagers – Do things right.Leaders – Do the right things.                              93
Leaders• Convene• Communicate• Persuade (maybe even convince)                         94
Leader Defined• Title                     • Tenacity• Charisma (Connectivity)   • Perseverance• Competence/Expertise      ...
Leadership DefinedIn the end, Leadership is  defined by:        Results                            96
Leadership Framework                       97
Leadership Framework• Control                       98
Leadership Framework• Control• Consistency                       99
Leadership Framework• Control• Consistency• Campaign                   100
Leadership Framework• Control – Preparation                   101
Leadership Framework• Control – Preparation – Follow-up                   102
Leadership Framework• Control – Preparation – Follow-up – Proactive                   103
Leadership Framework• Consistency – Organization                   104
Leadership Framework• Consistency – Organization – Repetition                   105
Leadership Framework• Campaign – Planning/“Premeditated”                             106
Leadership Framework• Campaign – Planning/“Premeditated” – Strategy/Timing                             107
Leadership Framework• Campaign – Planning/“Premeditated” – Strategy/Timing – Measurable results                           ...
Leadership Framework• Control          • Campaign  – Preparation     – Planning/  – Follow-up        “Premeditated”  – Pro...
James Baker…             Leadership“Knowing what to do and then doing it.”                                          110
President Carter…“Leaders whose messages are notchanging (or reinforcing) behaviorare not true leaders. In fact, theyare ‘...
Leaders• Choose to lead by stepping out of the  darkness and taking others with you.• Make decisions they have to make  ev...
In the Eye of the Storm:   Lessons in LeadershipA real life example of LeadershipFrom Les Hirsch – CEOTouro InfirmaryNew O...
LeadershipRequires Courage, Tenacity, Perseverance andMental ToughnessMust Make Difficult DecisionsMust be Inspirational a...
Friday:September 2, 2005“Retreat,…Hell…We’re Just Advancing in Another Direction”* Quote From a US Army General in Korean ...
Know Your Destination…and All Roads Will Lead To It…Failure Is Not An Option                                 116
Know Your Destination…Hit the ground running…and…be sure you aregoing in the right direction!!!But remember – It’s the jou...
It Always Takes A Great TeamBecause…Failure Is Not An Option                                   118
Leadership DefinedIn the end, Leadership is  defined by:        Results                            119
Credibility              120
Credibility• Trustworthiness                        121
Credibility• Trustworthiness• Competence                        122
Credibility• Trustworthiness• Competence• Communication style                        123
PR Practitioners/CounselorsAccountability is…thinking strategically•   Deliberately•   Systematically•   Methodically•   L...
Important PR Reminders               125
126
127
128
129
PR Counselors must           possess…•   Loyalty•   Judgment•   Trust•   Ethics•   Integrity                            130
Getting a Seat at the          Table• Know how to communicate.• Know what our employer does and the  industry he/she repre...
And above all…Are you willing to tell the boss whathe/she needs to hear rather thanwhat he/she wants to hear?That is how Y...
Six Cs of Writing             Assessment*•   Clarity – Say what you mean, mean what you say•   Correct – Avoid errors to a...
Basic Principles of Effective       Presentations                                134
Basic Principles of EffectivePresentations1. Relate your identity to help create an   image                               ...
Basic Principles1. Relate your identity to help create an   image  •    Know the difference between identity      and imag...
Basic Principles1. Relate your identity to help create an   image2. Analyze your credibility and   believability  •   Cred...
Basic Principles1. Relate your identity to help create an   image2. Analyze your credibility and   believability3. Exercis...
Basic Principles1. Relate your identity to help create an   image2. Analyze your credibility and   believability3. Exercis...
Basic Principles of   Effective Presentations1. Relate your identity to help create an   image2. Analyze your credibility ...
Audience      Analysis/Worksheet1. Identify your audience.                             141
Audience    Analysis/Worksheet2. Analyze your audience   demographically.                           142
Audience     Analysis/Worksheet3. How well does your audience   understand the issues (or topics) you   wish to discuss?  ...
Audience      Analysis/Worksheet4. What is your audience’s attitude toward   your agenda?                                 ...
Audience     Analysis/Worksheet5. What does your audience need to   know or believe in before you can   change its behavio...
Audience     Analysis/Worksheet6. To what type of arguments is your    audience likely to respond?                        ...
Audience     Analysis/Worksheet1. Identify your audience.2. Analyze your audience demographically.3. How well does your au...
Audience     Analysis/Worksheet4. What is your audience’s attitude toward   your agenda?5. What does your audience need to...
Key Communicators•   Who Needs Key Communicators?•   Who Should be a Key Communicator?•   Starting a Program•   An “Author...
150
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Division of University                Advancement                 Executive Vice President for                  University...
Division of Budget and Planning                Executive Director of                Budget and PlanningInstitutional      ...
Questions ???M. Larry Litwin, APR, Fellow PRSA      larry@larrylitwin.com       www.larrylitwin.com                       ...
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Anatomy of Strategic Communication [2012-13] from "The Public Relations Practitioner's Playbook"

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Color version. THE PowerPoint for Professor Litwin's Introduction to Public Relations class at Rowan (N.J.) University. A complete look at the strategic communication profession with assistance from professionals, other practitioners and a number of outstanding books. Visit: www.larrylitwin.com.

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Transcript of "Anatomy of Strategic Communication [2012-13] from "The Public Relations Practitioner's Playbook""

  1. 1. Anatomy of Strategic Communication from The Public Relations Practitioner’s Playbook M. Larry Litwin, APR, Fellow PRSA© 2012 1
  2. 2. Or…Why We Do What We Do And How To Do It Better! 2
  3. 3. Taken from… 3
  4. 4. You enter to learnYou leave to serve 4
  5. 5. I am here to: H E L P…Hear, Educate, Learn and Prepare[HELP – Hear what Prof. Litwin says so youcan be Educated to Learn, which willPrepare you for your future. You’ve come toRowan University to learn. You leave here toserve.] 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. PR Is...• “This is who we are;• What we think about ourselves;• What we want to do; and• Why we deserve your support.” 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. You Talk – We Listen Hearing vs. ListeningThere is a reason why we have two ears and one mouth – we must listen twice as much as we speak. 9
  10. 10. Strategic/Public Communication• Strategic/public communication is at the heart of our economy, society and politics. Studios use it to promote their films. Politicians use it to get elected. Businesses use it to burnish their image. Advocates use it to promote social causes.• It is a field built on ideas and images, persuasion and information, strategy and tactics. No policy or product can succeed without a smart (strategic) message targeted to the right audience in creative and innovative ways at the ideal time using the proper channel. The ability to communicate this way – to communicate strategically – is what strategic/public communication is all about. 10
  11. 11. Strategic Message Commercial Persuasion Or Public Relations“The establishing of reciprocalunderstanding between an individualand a group.” Edward Bernays 11
  12. 12. M A C T ria d M +P+T A CM = M essag e A = A u die nce C = C han nel P =P urp ose T = T im ing 12
  13. 13. MAC Triad Plus cont.• Informization – Disseminating information (message) to target audience through the proper channel at the best possible time. 13
  14. 14. Advertising is Synergy 14
  15. 15. Strategic Message Commercial Persuasion Or Public Relations“The establishing of reciprocalunderstanding between an individualand a group.” Edward Bernays 15
  16. 16. Public Relations…(Not paid – Uncontrolled) 16
  17. 17. Public Relations…A tool of leadership! [more later…] 17
  18. 18. Public Relations 101• Management and counseling function• Enables organizations to build and maintain relationships• Through an understanding of audience attitudes, opinions and values• Planned, deliberate and two-way• Conscience of organization• Overseer of brand/reputation• Relationship management 18
  19. 19. Public RelationsA management function thathelps organizations and theirpublics mutually adapt to oneanother. 19
  20. 20. Public Relations• “Public relations helps an organization and its publics adapt mutually to each other.”• “Public relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics.” 20
  21. 21. Public Relations• “Public relations is a [two-way] strategic communication process [management function] that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics.” Larry’s definition 21
  22. 22. Advertising 101• Paid• (Non)-personal communication• From identified sponsor• Using (mass) media• To persuade or influence• Audience (Paid – Controlled) 22
  23. 23. Marketing 101Determine what people need (and want) and give it to them. 23
  24. 24. PR Practitioners are… Strategic Advisors 24
  25. 25. Edward Bernays’ Public Relations Functions• To interpret the client to the public, which means promoting the client• To interpret the public to the client, which means operating the company in such a way as to gain the approval of the public• To act as a public service• To promote new ideas and progress• To build a public conscience Crystallizing Public Opinion – 1923 25
  26. 26. Ivy Ledbetter Lee’s Public Relations Principles1. Tell the truth2. Provide accurate facts3. Give the public relations director access to top management so that he/she can influence decisions 26
  27. 27. PR Counselors must possess…• Loyalty• Judgment• Trust• Ethics• Integrity 27
  28. 28. Managing Public OpinionPublic relations practitioners… – Assess public opinion – Influence public opinion It is our responsibility to MANAGE public opinion! 28
  29. 29. ABCs of Strategic Communication• Anticipate• Be Prepared• Communicate Clearly, Concisely, Consistently, Calculatingly, Completely (Specifically and Simply) and CorrectlyOpen, Honest, Thorough, Valid 29
  30. 30. Another “A” = AccountabilityMore on this particular “A” in a moment. 30
  31. 31. CBAs of Strategic Communication• Conceive• Believe• Achieve 31
  32. 32. CBAs of Strategic Communication• Conceive = Head• Believe = Heart• Achieve = Hands 32
  33. 33. Another “A” = Accountability• Controlled autonomy• Answerable• Responsible• Being a source or cause• Able to be trusted or depended upon• Reliable 33
  34. 34. What is Accountability? ? ? ? 34
  35. 35. Another “A” = Accountability• Answerable• Responsible• Being a source or cause• Able to be trusted or depended upon• Reliable 35
  36. 36. Accountability – definedA key component to practicing effectiveand reliable public relations. 36
  37. 37. PR Practitioners/CounselorsAccountability is…thinking strategically• Deliberately• Systematically• Methodically• Logistically• Calculatingly (Measured Tones) 37
  38. 38. Accountability’s – Bottom Line• Senior managers want marketing managers to prove that their marketing is effective based on: – Sales increases – Percentage share of the market the brand holds – Return on Investment (ROI)• Agencies are creating departments to help marketers evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of their marketing communication budgets. 38
  39. 39. How is accountability measured? ? ? ? 39
  40. 40. Through…• Achievement (yet, another “A”)• Communication 40
  41. 41. You are the Brand• Brand• Brand Equity• Brand Extension• Brand Expansion• Brand Familiarity• Brand Favorability• Brand Identity• Brand Image• Brand Insistence• Brand Loyalty• Brand Power (Brand Champions) 41
  42. 42. Delivering the promiseThat’s accountability , too!!! 42
  43. 43. Are you a brand champion ?• Brand champions deliver what they promise – and more. Delivering helps to achieve…accountability.• Accountability leads to synergy. 43
  44. 44. Double Bottom Line• First Bottom Line – Build Relationships• Second Bottom Line – Profit – or, accomplish your Goal 44
  45. 45. Triple Bottom Line• Pat Jackson’s DBL – plus:• Third Bottom Line – Revenue>Controlled Costs=Profit 45
  46. 46. Fraser Seitel’s “Real” Bottom Line of PR• “Our fundamental role in PR is to defend and promote and enhance and sustain the reputation of our organizations.”• “Our job in PR is to help ensure that that objective is achieved…through proper performance – effectively communicated.” 46
  47. 47. How are Bottom Lines Achieved? ??? 47
  48. 48. Reaching the Desired Outcome• Attitude• OpinionEducation > Knowledge > Attitude > Behavioral Change > Output = Desired Outcome 48
  49. 49. Public Relations is Synergy 49
  50. 50. PR-Pie• Purpose• Research• Planning• Implementation• Evaluation 50
  51. 51. Two-Way Communication ModelSender>>>Message>>>Receiver^ V^ Noise V^ Noise V^ Noise V^ V^ <<<<<<<<Feedback<<<<<<< V 51
  52. 52. Communication• …is shared comprehension (two way)• Four Essential Elements/Communication Model – Initiator (Sender/Encoder) – Carrier (Message) – Receiver (Decoder) – Feedback (Is clarity being achieved?) [If the message is not being received as intended, it is your fault. Leaders whose messages are not changing behavior are not true leaders.] 52
  53. 53. Principles of Authentic• Truth Communication* • Timeliness• Fundamentality • Consistency• Comprehensiveness • Accessibility• Relevance • Responsiveness to• Clarity feedback • Care 53
  54. 54. Principles of Authentic Communication*• Truth – being accurate and factually correct.• Fundamentality – dealing with the core or essential issues and information.• Comprehensiveness – telling the whole story, including the meanings and implications of the issue in question. 54
  55. 55. Principles of Authentic• Communication*making Relevance – taking into account and connections with the interests of the parties involved.• Clarity – using language that is appropriate and understandable for those involved, explaining technical terms, organizing and illustrating the information logically and understandably [clear, concise, complete, consistent, specific, simplistic.] 55
  56. 56. Principles of Authentic• Communication* it is Timeliness – providing information when known, leaving sufficient time for response prior to decisions or actions.• Consistency – not opposing or contradicting your own or your organization’s other words or actions.• Accessibility – making information, relevant sources and opportunities for discussion easily available to all parties; assuring physical accessibility to meetings. 56
  57. 57. Principles of Authentic• Communication* Responsiveness to feedback – engaging in two-way communication, seeking others’ views and concerns and allowing those concerns to influence the organization’s actions.• Care – showing respect, concern and compassion for the circumstances, attitudes, beliefs and feelings of other parties. * Bojinka Bishop, Ohio University 57
  58. 58. Principles of Authentic• Truth Communication* • Timeliness• Fundamentality • Consistency• Comprehensiveness • Accessibility• Relevance • Responsiveness to• Clarity feedback • Care 58
  59. 59. PR Plan/Roadmap• Goal• Objectives• Strategies• Tactics• Tools 59
  60. 60. Superior tactics cannotovercome a bad(business) strategy. 60
  61. 61. No Planning = No Plan = No Hope 61
  62. 62. Synergy The whole is greater than the sum of its parts orThe whole works better than any one of its parts.[To achieve our goal, we should achieve synergy.] 62
  63. 63. Synergy’s Parts• Advertising • Product itself*• (Sales) Promotion* • Packaging*• Public Relations* • Policy*• Direct Marketing • Politics*• Cause Marketing • Mind Share• Sponsorship (Partnering) (Brainstorming – Marketing Intellectual Property)• Positioning (Place)* • Brand Identity• Personal Selling* • Interactive• Price* * Litwin’s 9 P’s of Marketing 63
  64. 64. Public Relations is Synergy 64
  65. 65. Litwin’s 9 P’s of Marketing = Synergy• Product • Public Relations• Place (Positioning) • Personal selling• Price • Policy• Promotion (Sales) • Politics • Packaging 65
  66. 66. 7 C’s of Communication• Credibility• Context• Content• Clarity• Continuity and Consistency• Channels• Capability 66
  67. 67. Content is crucial…but the medium is part of themessage, too! (Marshal McLuhan) 67
  68. 68. Public Communication• Public communication is at the heart of our economy, society and politics. Studios use it to promote their films. Politicians use it to get elected. Businesses use it to burnish their image. Advocates use it to promote social causes.• It is a field built on ideas and images, persuasion and information, strategy and tactics. No policy or product can succeed without a smart (strategic) message targeted to the right audience in creative and innovative ways at the ideal time using the proper channel. The ability to communicate this way – to communicate strategically – is what Public Communication is all about. 68
  69. 69. Superior tactics cannotovercome a flawed(business) strategy. 69
  70. 70. MAC Triad Plus M +P+T A CM=Message A=Audience C=Channel P=Purpose T=Timing 70
  71. 71. MAC Triad Plus cont.• Informization – Disseminating information (message) to target audience through the proper channel at the best possible time. 71
  72. 72. More On MAC Triad Plus Some Key Communication Terms• Propaganda• Manipulation• Stakeholders vs. Stockholders (To deliver message, we must know the difference) 72
  73. 73. Cracked Egg Model 73
  74. 74. Audiences (ISPR)• Identify• Segment/Fragment • Demographically • Psychographically • Geodemographically • Behavioristically • Benefits• Profile• Rank – Audience Power Structure • Elite (Key Communicators) • Pluralistic or Diffused • Amorphous/Latent 74
  75. 75. Audience Power Structure Elite Diffused Amorphous 75
  76. 76. Target vs. Niche Target Niche• Audience you want • Narrowly defined to reach audiencee.g. High school e.g. White, high schoolstudents girls of divorced parents 76
  77. 77. Active vs. Passive Active Passive• Already sold • Uninterested• Seeking information • Use surrogates (stand-ins) 77
  78. 78. Features and Benefits Features Benefits• Important • The quality of product or service that characteristics of a supplies satisfaction product or service. or need fulfillment to the consumer or audience member.Stress features to activeaudiences. Stress benefits to passive audiences. 78
  79. 79. WII-FMFeatures + Benefits = Value Value = Worth 79
  80. 80. BargainWhen the value exceeds the cost.Remember, you only get what youpay for – but most times you don’teven get that! 80
  81. 81. Persuade vs. Convince• Persuade – Change of mind or attitude (for a short time) – When you persuade someone, you get them to act without convincing them• Convince – Change of heart and mind (long term) – When you convince someone, you actually get them to believe something else 81
  82. 82. Persuasion Pointers• Know your audience• Know what you can accomplish• Anticipate objections/dispel them• Establish mutual goals/a common ground• Give options/choices• Be clear• Be familiar 82
  83. 83. Persuasion cont.• Use problem/solution format• Stress rewards/benefits• Control the tone• Clinch your argument• Ask for what you want• Leave (impression) something to remember 83
  84. 84. Three-Step vs. Two-Step Flow Three-Step Flow Two-Step Flow1. Credible endorser* 1. Mass-media2. Key communicator message carrier3. (Targeted) publics 2. (Targeted) publics*Source credibility 84
  85. 85. Three-Step vs. Two-Step vs. One-Step Flow One-Step Flow – One-to-One 1. From organization directly to (Targeted) publics 85
  86. 86. Third Party Endorser• Endorsement• Testimonial [Know the difference] 86
  87. 87. Key Communicators• Who Needs Key Communicators?• Who Should be a Key Communicator?• Starting a Program• An “Authorized Grapevine” (Consumption Pioneers – Connectors – Leaders of People – WOMMP [Word of Mouth Marketing Program]) 87
  88. 88. Alternative Media• Radio• Television• Internet (and Interactive – Web 2.0/Blogs/Wikis)• iPod® (Podcasts, etc.)• Vcasts®• Cell Phone• iPhone ®• Digital Signage• Aroma Marketing• WOMM• Silent Publicity 88
  89. 89. Alternative Media• Cross Platform – Print – Digital Signage – Wireless – Broadband – TV• Convergence of Distribution – Multiple Platforms 89
  90. 90. Getting a Seat at the Table• Know how to communicate.• Know what our employer does and the industry he/she represents.• Have an “attitude” – think strategically.• Be a counselor.• Loyalty, Judgment, Trust, Ethics, Integrity.• Always be ethical – open, honest, thorough and valid – the “corporate conscience.” 90
  91. 91. Communication:A Tool of Leadership 91
  92. 92. Public Relations… LeadershipAll leaders are teachers… but not all teachers are leaders! 92
  93. 93. Public Relations… LeadershipManagers – Do things right.Leaders – Do the right things. 93
  94. 94. Leaders• Convene• Communicate• Persuade (maybe even convince) 94
  95. 95. Leader Defined• Title • Tenacity• Charisma (Connectivity) • Perseverance• Competence/Expertise • Mental Toughness• Communicator • Vision• Courage • Responsibility 95
  96. 96. Leadership DefinedIn the end, Leadership is defined by: Results 96
  97. 97. Leadership Framework 97
  98. 98. Leadership Framework• Control 98
  99. 99. Leadership Framework• Control• Consistency 99
  100. 100. Leadership Framework• Control• Consistency• Campaign 100
  101. 101. Leadership Framework• Control – Preparation 101
  102. 102. Leadership Framework• Control – Preparation – Follow-up 102
  103. 103. Leadership Framework• Control – Preparation – Follow-up – Proactive 103
  104. 104. Leadership Framework• Consistency – Organization 104
  105. 105. Leadership Framework• Consistency – Organization – Repetition 105
  106. 106. Leadership Framework• Campaign – Planning/“Premeditated” 106
  107. 107. Leadership Framework• Campaign – Planning/“Premeditated” – Strategy/Timing 107
  108. 108. Leadership Framework• Campaign – Planning/“Premeditated” – Strategy/Timing – Measurable results 108
  109. 109. Leadership Framework• Control • Campaign – Preparation – Planning/ – Follow-up “Premeditated” – Proactive – Strategy/Timing• Consistency – Measurable – Organization results – Repetition 109
  110. 110. James Baker… Leadership“Knowing what to do and then doing it.” 110
  111. 111. President Carter…“Leaders whose messages are notchanging (or reinforcing) behaviorare not true leaders. In fact, theyare ‘MISleaders’.” 111
  112. 112. Leaders• Choose to lead by stepping out of the darkness and taking others with you.• Make decisions they have to make even when they might have dangerous consequences 112
  113. 113. In the Eye of the Storm: Lessons in LeadershipA real life example of LeadershipFrom Les Hirsch – CEOTouro InfirmaryNew Orleans, Louisiana 113
  114. 114. LeadershipRequires Courage, Tenacity, Perseverance andMental ToughnessMust Make Difficult DecisionsMust be Inspirational and Create Hope, Optimism andEnthusiasm for the FutureNever, Never, Never Give Up……… 114
  115. 115. Friday:September 2, 2005“Retreat,…Hell…We’re Just Advancing in Another Direction”* Quote From a US Army General in Korean War after being asked about withdrawal 115
  116. 116. Know Your Destination…and All Roads Will Lead To It…Failure Is Not An Option 116
  117. 117. Know Your Destination…Hit the ground running…and…be sure you aregoing in the right direction!!!But remember – It’s the journey, not thedestination. 117
  118. 118. It Always Takes A Great TeamBecause…Failure Is Not An Option 118
  119. 119. Leadership DefinedIn the end, Leadership is defined by: Results 119
  120. 120. Credibility 120
  121. 121. Credibility• Trustworthiness 121
  122. 122. Credibility• Trustworthiness• Competence 122
  123. 123. Credibility• Trustworthiness• Competence• Communication style 123
  124. 124. PR Practitioners/CounselorsAccountability is…thinking strategically• Deliberately• Systematically• Methodically• Logistically• Calculatingly (Measured Tones) 124
  125. 125. Important PR Reminders 125
  126. 126. 126
  127. 127. 127
  128. 128. 128
  129. 129. 129
  130. 130. PR Counselors must possess…• Loyalty• Judgment• Trust• Ethics• Integrity 130
  131. 131. Getting a Seat at the Table• Know how to communicate.• Know what our employer does and the industry he/she represents.• Have an “attitude” – think strategically.• Be a counselor.• Always be ethical – open, honest, thorough and valid – the “corporate conscience” (CCO = Corporate Conscience Officer or Chief Communication Officer) 131
  132. 132. And above all…Are you willing to tell the boss whathe/she needs to hear rather thanwhat he/she wants to hear?That is how YOU will get a seat atthe table. 132
  133. 133. Six Cs of Writing Assessment*• Clarity – Say what you mean, mean what you say• Correct – Avoid errors to avoid confusion• Connection – Engage your reader• Compelling – Motivate an action• Conviction – Live on branding• Consistency – Stay on message…always [Remember: When you make people work, they stop reading!] * Roger Shapiro – Write Right – Mitchell Rose Communication 133
  134. 134. Basic Principles of Effective Presentations 134
  135. 135. Basic Principles of EffectivePresentations1. Relate your identity to help create an image 135
  136. 136. Basic Principles1. Relate your identity to help create an image • Know the difference between identity and image. • Persuasion – the activity of creating, reinforcing, modifying or extinguishing beliefs, attitudes and/or behaviors. • Logo not ego! 136
  137. 137. Basic Principles1. Relate your identity to help create an image2. Analyze your credibility and believability • Credibility – is in the eye of the beholder. 137
  138. 138. Basic Principles1. Relate your identity to help create an image2. Analyze your credibility and believability3. Exercise control 138
  139. 139. Basic Principles1. Relate your identity to help create an image2. Analyze your credibility and believability3. Exercise control4. Maintain a positive attitude 139
  140. 140. Basic Principles of Effective Presentations1. Relate your identity to help create an image2. Analyze your credibility and believability3. Exercise control4. Maintain a positive attitude5. Demonstrate leadership listening 140
  141. 141. Audience Analysis/Worksheet1. Identify your audience. 141
  142. 142. Audience Analysis/Worksheet2. Analyze your audience demographically. 142
  143. 143. Audience Analysis/Worksheet3. How well does your audience understand the issues (or topics) you wish to discuss? 143
  144. 144. Audience Analysis/Worksheet4. What is your audience’s attitude toward your agenda? 144
  145. 145. Audience Analysis/Worksheet5. What does your audience need to know or believe in before you can change its behavior? (What’s in it for them?) 145
  146. 146. Audience Analysis/Worksheet6. To what type of arguments is your audience likely to respond? 146
  147. 147. Audience Analysis/Worksheet1. Identify your audience.2. Analyze your audience demographically.3. How well does your audience understand the issues (or topics) you wish to discuss? 147
  148. 148. Audience Analysis/Worksheet4. What is your audience’s attitude toward your agenda?5. What does your audience need to know or believe in before you can change its behavior? (What’s in it for them?)6. To what type of arguments is your audience likely to respond? 148
  149. 149. Key Communicators• Who Needs Key Communicators?• Who Should be a Key Communicator?• Starting a Program• An “Authorized Grapevine” (Consumption Pioneers – influentials – Connectors – Leaders of People – WOMMP [Word of Mouth Marketing Program]) 149
  150. 150. 150
  151. 151. 151
  152. 152. 152
  153. 153. Division of University Advancement Executive Vice President for University Advancement Alumni Development Marketing Major GiftsRelations University Publications Relations 153
  154. 154. Division of Budget and Planning Executive Director of Budget and PlanningInstitutional Budget Marketing Research 154
  155. 155. Questions ???M. Larry Litwin, APR, Fellow PRSA larry@larrylitwin.com www.larrylitwin.com © 2012 155
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