Anatomy of   Public Relations from <ul><li>The Public Relations  Practitioner’s Playbook </li></ul><ul><li>M. Larry Litwin...
Or… <ul><li>Why  We   Do What  We   Do </li></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>How To Do It Better! </li></ul>
Taken from…
<ul><li>You enter to learn </li></ul><ul><li>You leave to serve </li></ul>
I am here to: <ul><li>H E L P </li></ul><ul><li>… Hear, Educate, Learn and Prepare </li></ul><ul><li>[HELP –  H ear  what ...
PR Is... <ul><li>“ This is who we are; </li></ul><ul><li>What we think about ourselves; </li></ul><ul><li>What we want to ...
You Talk – We Listen <ul><li>Hearing vs. Listening </li></ul><ul><li>There is a reason why we have two ears and one mouth ...
Public Communication <ul><li>Public communication is at the heart of our economy, society and politics. Studios use it to ...
Strategic Message <ul><li>Commercial Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Public Relations </li></ul><ul><li>...
MAC Triad Plus cont. <ul><li>Informization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disseminating information ( message ) to target  audience...
Advertising is Synergy
Strategic Message <ul><li>Commercial Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Public Relations </li></ul><ul><li>...
Public Relations…   <ul><li>(Not paid – Uncontrolled) </li></ul>
Public Relations…   <ul><li>A tool of leadership! </li></ul><ul><li>[more later…] </li></ul>
Public Relations 101 <ul><li>Management and  counseling  function </li></ul><ul><li>Enables organizations to build and mai...
Public Relations <ul><li>A management function that helps organizations and their publics mutually adapt to one another. <...
Advertising 101 <ul><li>Paid </li></ul><ul><li>(Non)-personal communication </li></ul><ul><li>From identified sponsor </li...
Marketing 101 <ul><li>Determine what people need (and want) and give it to them. </li></ul>
PR Practitioners are… Strategic Advisors
Edward Bernays’  Public Relations Functions <ul><li>To interpret the client to the public, which means promoting the clien...
Ivy Ledbetter Lee’s  Public Relations Principles <ul><li>Tell the truth </li></ul><ul><li>Provide accurate facts </li></ul...
PR Counselors must possess… <ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </...
Managing  Public Opinion <ul><li>Public relations practitioners… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess  public opinion </li></ul></...
ABCs of Strategic Communication <ul><li>Anticipate </li></ul><ul><li>Be Prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate Clearly, Co...
Another  “A”  = Accountability <ul><li>More on this particular </li></ul><ul><li>  “ A” </li></ul><ul><li>in a moment. </l...
CBAs of Strategic Communication <ul><li>Conceive </li></ul><ul><li>Believe </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve  </li></ul>
CBAs of Strategic Communication <ul><li>Conceive = Head </li></ul><ul><li>Believe = Heart </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve = Hand...
Another  “A”  = Accountability <ul><li>Controlled autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Answerable </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible </li...
What is  A ccountability? <ul><li>? ? ? </li></ul>
Another   “A”   =   Accountability <ul><li>Answerable </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Being a source or ca...
Accountability – defined  <ul><li>A key component to practicing effective and reliable public relations. </li></ul>
PR Practitioners/Counselors <ul><li>Accountability  is… </li></ul><ul><li>thinking strategically </li></ul><ul><li>Deliber...
Accountability’s – Bottom Line <ul><li>Senior managers want marketing managers to prove that their marketing is effective ...
How is  accountability  measured? <ul><li>? ? ? </li></ul>
Through… <ul><li>Achievement (yet, another  “A” ) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul>
You are the Brand <ul><li>Brand </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Brand E...
Delivering  the  promise <ul><li>That’s  accountability ,   too!!! </li></ul>
Are you a  brand champion ? <ul><li>Brand champions  deliver what they promise – and more. Delivering helps to achieve… ac...
Double Bottom Line <ul><li>First Bottom Line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build Relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Botto...
Triple Bottom Line <ul><li>Pat Jackson’s DBL – plus: </li></ul><ul><li>Third Bottom Line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue > C...
Fraser Seitel’s “Real” Bottom Line of PR <ul><li>“ Our fundamental role in PR is to defend and promote and enhance and sus...
How are Bottom Lines Achieved? <ul><li>? ? ? </li></ul>
Reaching the Desired Outcome <ul><li>Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Education  >  Knowledge  >  Atti...
Public Relations is Synergy
PR-Pie <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><u...
Two-Way Communication Model <ul><li>Sender >>> Message >>> Receiver </li></ul><ul><li>^   V </li></ul><ul><li>  ^   Noise ...
Communication <ul><li>… is  shared comprehension  (two way) </li></ul><ul><li>Four Essential Elements/Communication Model ...
Principles of  Authentic Communication* <ul><li>Truth </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentality </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensiveness...
Principles of  Authentic Communication* <ul><li>Truth  – being accurate and factually correct. </li></ul><ul><li>Fundament...
Principles of  Authentic Communication* <ul><li>Relevance  – taking into account and making connections with the interests...
Principles of  Authentic Communication* <ul><li>Timeliness  – providing information when it is known, leaving sufficient t...
Principles of  Authentic Communication* <ul><li>Responsiveness to feedback  – engaging in two-way communication, seeking o...
Principles of  Authentic Communication* <ul><li>Truth </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentality </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensiveness...
PR Plan/Roadmap <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics </li></ul...
<ul><li>Superior  tactics  cannot overcome a bad (business)  strategy . </li></ul>
<ul><li>No Planning = No Plan =  </li></ul><ul><li>No Hope </li></ul>
Synergy <ul><li>The whole is greater than  </li></ul><ul><li>the sum of its parts </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Synergy’s Parts <ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>(Sales)  Promotion * </li></ul><ul><li>Public Relations *   </li></u...
Public Relations is Synergy
Litwin’s   9 P’s   of Marketing = Synergy <ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><li>Place (Positioning) </li></ul><ul><li>Price </...
7 C’s of Communication <ul><li>Credibility  </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity ...
Content is crucial… <ul><li>but the medium is part of the message, too!    (Marshal McLuhan) </li></ul>
Public Communication <ul><li>Public communication is at the heart of our economy, society and politics. Studios use it to ...
<ul><li>Superior  tactics  cannot overcome a  flawed  (business)  strategy . </li></ul>
MAC Triad Plus <ul><li>M </li></ul><ul><li>+P+T </li></ul><ul><li>  A     C </li></ul><ul><li>M =Message  A =Audience  C =...
MAC Triad Plus cont. <ul><li>Informization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disseminating information ( message ) to target  audience...
More On  MAC Triad Plus <ul><li>Some Key Communication Terms   </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation...
Cracked Egg Model
Audiences (ISPR) <ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><li>Segment/Fragment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographically </li></ul><...
Audience Power Structure <ul><li>Elite </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Diffused  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><...
Target vs. Niche <ul><li>Target </li></ul><ul><li>Audience you want to reach </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. High school </li></ul>...
Active vs. Passive <ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Already sold </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking information </li></ul><ul><li>P...
Features and Benefits <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>Important characteristics of a product or service. </li></ul><ul>...
WII-FM <ul><li>Features + Benefits = Value </li></ul><ul><li>Value = Worth </li></ul>
Bargain <ul><li>When the value  exceeds  the cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, you only get what you pay for – but most ti...
Persuade vs. Convince <ul><li>Persuade  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change of mind or attitude (for a  short  time) </li></ul></...
Persuasion Pointers <ul><li>Know your audience </li></ul><ul><li>Know what  you  can accomplish </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipa...
Persuasion cont. <ul><li>Use problem/solution format </li></ul><ul><li>Stress rewards/benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Control t...
Three-Step vs. Two-Step Flow <ul><li>Three-Step Flow </li></ul><ul><li>1. Credible endorser* </li></ul><ul><li>2. Key comm...
Three-Step vs. Two-Step vs. One-Step Flow  <ul><li>One-Step Flow – One-to-One </li></ul><ul><li>(Replaces  mass media and ...
Third Party Endorser <ul><li>Endorsement </li></ul><ul><li>Testimonial </li></ul><ul><li>[Know the difference] </li></ul>
Key Communicators <ul><li>Who Needs Key Communicators? </li></ul><ul><li>Who Should be a Key Communicator? </li></ul><ul><...
Alternative Media <ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul><ul><li>Internet (and Interactive – Web 2.0/Blogs/W...
Alternative Media <ul><li>Cross Platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Signage </li></ul>...
Getting a Seat at the Table <ul><li>Know how to communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Know what our employer does and the industr...
Communication:   <ul><li>A Tool of Leadership </li></ul>
Public Relations…Leadership   <ul><li>All leaders are teachers…but not all teachers are leaders! </li></ul>
Public Relations…Leadership   <ul><li>Managers – Do things right. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders – Do the right things. </li></ul>
Leaders <ul><li>Convene </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Persuade (maybe even  convince ) </li></ul>
Leader Defined <ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Charisma (Connectivity) </li></ul><ul><li>Competence/Expertise </li></ul><u...
Leadership Defined <ul><li>In the end,  Leadership  is defined by: </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul>
Leadership Framework
Leadership Framework <ul><li>Control </li></ul>
Leadership Framework <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul>
Leadership Framework <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Campaign </li></ul>
Leadership Framework <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul>
Leadership Framework <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul></ul>
Leadership Framework <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul></ul...
Leadership Framework <ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul>
Leadership Framework <ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></u...
Leadership Framework <ul><li>Campaign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning/“Premeditated” </li></ul></ul>
Leadership Framework <ul><li>Campaign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning/“Premeditated” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy/Ti...
Leadership Framework <ul><li>Campaign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning/“Premeditated” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy/Ti...
Leadership Framework <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul></ul...
James Baker… <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>“ Knowing what to do and then doing it.” </li></ul>
President Carter… <ul><li>“ Leaders whose messages are not changing (or reinforcing) behavior are not true leaders. In fac...
Leaders <ul><li>Choose to lead by stepping out of the darkness and taking others with you. </li></ul><ul><li>Make decision...
In the Eye of the Storm: Lessons in Leadership  <ul><li>A real life example of  Leadership   </li></ul><ul><li>From Les Hi...
Leadership Requires Courage, Tenacity, Perseverance and Mental Toughness Must Make Difficult Decisions Must be Inspiration...
“ Retreat,…Hell…We’re Just Advancing in    Another Direction” * Quote From a US Army General in Korean War after being ask...
Know Your Destination… and All Roads Will Lead To It… Failure Is Not An Option
Know Your Destination… Hit the ground running…and…be sure you are going in the right direction!!! But remember – It’s the ...
It Always Takes A Great Team Because…Failure Is Not An Option
Leadership Defined <ul><li>In the end,  Leadership  is defined by: </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul>
Credibility
Credibility   <ul><li>Trustworthiness </li></ul>
Credibility   <ul><li>Trustworthiness </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul>
Credibility <ul><li>Trustworthiness </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Communication style </li></ul>
PR Practitioners/Counselors <ul><li>Accountability  is… </li></ul><ul><li>thinking strategically </li></ul><ul><li>Deliber...
Important PR Reminders
PR Counselors must possess… <ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </...
Getting a Seat at the Table <ul><li>Know how to communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Know what our employer does and the industr...
And  above  all… <ul><li>Are you willing to tell the boss what he/she  needs  to hear rather than what he/she  wants  to h...
Six Cs of Writing Assessment* <ul><li>Clarity  – Say what you mean, mean what you say </li></ul><ul><li>Correct  – Avoid e...
Basic Principles of Effective Presentations
Basic Principles of Effective Presentations <ul><li>Relate your identity to help create an image   </li></ul>
Basic Principles   <ul><li>Relate your identity to help create an image   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the difference betwee...
Basic Principles <ul><li>Relate your identity to help create an image   </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze your credibility and bel...
Basic Principles <ul><li>Relate your identity to help create an image   </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze your credibility and bel...
Basic Principles <ul><li>Relate your identity to help create an image   </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze your credibility and bel...
Basic Principles of  Effective Presentations <ul><li>Relate your identity to help create an image   </li></ul><ul><li>Anal...
Audience Analysis/Worksheet     <ul><li>Identify your audience. </li></ul>
  Audience Analysis/Worksheet     <ul><li>2.  Analyze your audience demographically. </li></ul>
  Audience Analysis/Worksheet     <ul><li>3.  How well does your audience understand the issues (or topics) you wish to di...
Audience Analysis/Worksheet <ul><li>4.  What is your audience’s attitude toward your agenda? </li></ul>
  Audience Analysis/Worksheet     <ul><li>5.   What does your audience need to know or believe in before you can change it...
Audience Analysis/Worksheet <ul><li>6.  To what type of arguments is your  audience likely to respond? </li></ul>
  Audience Analysis/Worksheet     <ul><li>Identify your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze your audience demographically....
Audience Analysis/Worksheet <ul><li>What is your audience’s attitude toward your agenda? </li></ul><ul><li>What does your ...
Key Communicators <ul><li>Who Needs Key Communicators? </li></ul><ul><li>Who Should be a Key Communicator? </li></ul><ul><...
Division of University Advancement Executive Vice President for University Advancement Alumni Relations Development Market...
Division of Budget and Planning Executive Director of Budget and Planning Institutional Research Budget Marketing
Questions ??? <ul><li>M. Larry Litwin, APR, Fellow PRSA [email_address] www.larrylitwin.com </li></ul><ul><li>© 2012 </li>...
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Anatomy of Public Relations rev on 1/7/12 for PR Playbook 4th edition

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Color version. THE PowerPoint for Professor Litwin's Introduction to Public Relations class at Rowan (N.J.)University. A complete look at the strategic communication profession with assistance from professionals, other practitioners and a number of outstanding books. Visit: www.larrylitwin.com.

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Anatomy of Public Relations rev on 1/7/12 for PR Playbook 4th edition

  1. 1. Anatomy of Public Relations from <ul><li>The Public Relations Practitioner’s Playbook </li></ul><ul><li>M. Larry Litwin, APR, Fellow PRSA </li></ul><ul><li>© 2012 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Or… <ul><li>Why We Do What We Do </li></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>How To Do It Better! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Taken from…
  4. 4. <ul><li>You enter to learn </li></ul><ul><li>You leave to serve </li></ul>
  5. 5. I am here to: <ul><li>H E L P </li></ul><ul><li>… Hear, Educate, Learn and Prepare </li></ul><ul><li>[HELP – H ear what Prof. Litwin says so you can be E ducated to L earn , which will </li></ul><ul><li>P repare you for your future. You’ve come to Rowan University to learn. You leave here to serve. ] </li></ul>
  6. 6.
  7. 7. PR Is... <ul><li>“ This is who we are; </li></ul><ul><li>What we think about ourselves; </li></ul><ul><li>What we want to do; and </li></ul><ul><li>Why we deserve your support.” </li></ul>
  8. 8.
  9. 9. You Talk – We Listen <ul><li>Hearing vs. Listening </li></ul><ul><li>There is a reason why we have two ears and one mouth – we must listen twice as </li></ul><ul><li>much as we speak. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Public Communication <ul><li>Public communication is at the heart of our economy, society and politics. Studios use it to promote their films. Politicians use it to get elected. Businesses use it to burnish their image. Advocates use it to promote social causes. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a field built on ideas and images, persuasion and information, strategy and tactics. No policy or product can succeed without a smart (strategic) message targeted to the right audience in creative and innovative ways at the ideal time using the proper channel. The ability to communicate this way – to communicate strategically – is what Public Communication is all about. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Strategic Message <ul><li>Commercial Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Public Relations </li></ul><ul><li>“ The establishing of reciprocal understanding between an individual and a group.” </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Bernays </li></ul>
  12. 12.
  13. 13. MAC Triad Plus cont. <ul><li>Informization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disseminating information ( message ) to target audience through the proper channel at the best possible time . </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Advertising is Synergy
  15. 15. Strategic Message <ul><li>Commercial Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Public Relations </li></ul><ul><li>“ The establishing of reciprocal understanding between an individual and a group.” </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Bernays </li></ul>
  16. 16. Public Relations… <ul><li>(Not paid – Uncontrolled) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Public Relations… <ul><li>A tool of leadership! </li></ul><ul><li>[more later…] </li></ul>
  18. 18. Public Relations 101 <ul><li>Management and counseling function </li></ul><ul><li>Enables organizations to build and maintain relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Through an understanding of audience attitudes, opinions and values </li></ul><ul><li>Planned , deliberate and two-way </li></ul><ul><li>Conscience of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Overseer of brand/ reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship management </li></ul>
  19. 19. Public Relations <ul><li>A management function that helps organizations and their publics mutually adapt to one another. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Advertising 101 <ul><li>Paid </li></ul><ul><li>(Non)-personal communication </li></ul><ul><li>From identified sponsor </li></ul><ul><li>Using (mass) media </li></ul><ul><li>To persuade or influence </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><li>(Paid – Controlled) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Marketing 101 <ul><li>Determine what people need (and want) and give it to them. </li></ul>
  22. 22. PR Practitioners are… Strategic Advisors
  23. 23. Edward Bernays’ Public Relations Functions <ul><li>To interpret the client to the public, which means promoting the client </li></ul><ul><li>To interpret the public to the client, which means operating the company in such a way as to gain the approval of the public </li></ul><ul><li>To act as a public service </li></ul><ul><li>To promote new ideas and progress </li></ul><ul><li>To build a public conscience </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallizing Public Opinion – 1923 </li></ul>
  24. 24. Ivy Ledbetter Lee’s Public Relations Principles <ul><li>Tell the truth </li></ul><ul><li>Provide accurate facts </li></ul><ul><li>Give the public relations director access to top management so that he/she can influence decisions </li></ul>
  25. 25. PR Counselors must possess… <ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul>
  26. 26. Managing Public Opinion <ul><li>Public relations practitioners… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess public opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence public opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is our responsibility to MANAGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public opinion! </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. ABCs of Strategic Communication <ul><li>Anticipate </li></ul><ul><li>Be Prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate Clearly, Concisely, </li></ul><ul><li>Consistently, Calculatingly, </li></ul><ul><li>Completely (Specifically and Simply) </li></ul><ul><li>Open, Honest, Thorough, Valid </li></ul>
  28. 28. Another “A” = Accountability <ul><li>More on this particular </li></ul><ul><li> “ A” </li></ul><ul><li>in a moment. </li></ul>
  29. 29. CBAs of Strategic Communication <ul><li>Conceive </li></ul><ul><li>Believe </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve </li></ul>
  30. 30. CBAs of Strategic Communication <ul><li>Conceive = Head </li></ul><ul><li>Believe = Heart </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve = Hands </li></ul>
  31. 31. Another “A” = Accountability <ul><li>Controlled autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Answerable </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Being a source or cause </li></ul><ul><li>Able to be trusted or depended upon </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul>
  32. 32. What is A ccountability? <ul><li>? ? ? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Another “A” = Accountability <ul><li>Answerable </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Being a source or cause </li></ul><ul><li>Able to be trusted or depended upon </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul>
  34. 34. Accountability – defined <ul><li>A key component to practicing effective and reliable public relations. </li></ul>
  35. 35. PR Practitioners/Counselors <ul><li>Accountability is… </li></ul><ul><li>thinking strategically </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberately </li></ul><ul><li>Systematically </li></ul><ul><li>Methodically </li></ul><ul><li>Logistically </li></ul><ul><li>Calculatingly (Measured Tones) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Accountability’s – Bottom Line <ul><li>Senior managers want marketing managers to prove that their marketing is effective based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percentage share of the market the brand holds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return on Investment (ROI) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agencies are creating departments to help marketers evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of their marketing communication budgets. </li></ul>
  37. 37. How is accountability measured? <ul><li>? ? ? </li></ul>
  38. 38. Through… <ul><li>Achievement (yet, another “A” ) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul>
  39. 39. You are the Brand <ul><li>Brand </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Familiarity </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Favorability </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Image </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Insistence </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Power (Brand Champions) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Delivering the promise <ul><li>That’s accountability , too!!! </li></ul>
  41. 41. Are you a brand champion ? <ul><li>Brand champions deliver what they promise – and more. Delivering helps to achieve… accountability . </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability leads to synergy . </li></ul>
  42. 42. Double Bottom Line <ul><li>First Bottom Line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build Relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Bottom Line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profit – or, accomplish your Goal </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Triple Bottom Line <ul><li>Pat Jackson’s DBL – plus: </li></ul><ul><li>Third Bottom Line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue > Controlled Costs=Profit </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Fraser Seitel’s “Real” Bottom Line of PR <ul><li>“ Our fundamental role in PR is to defend and promote and enhance and sustain the reputation of our organizations.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Our job in PR is to help ensure that that objective is achieved…through proper performance – effectively communicated.” </li></ul>
  45. 45. How are Bottom Lines Achieved? <ul><li>? ? ? </li></ul>
  46. 46. Reaching the Desired Outcome <ul><li>Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Education > Knowledge > Attitude > Behavioral Change > Output = Desired Outcome </li></ul>
  47. 47. Public Relations is Synergy
  48. 48. PR-Pie <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  49. 49. Two-Way Communication Model <ul><li>Sender >>> Message >>> Receiver </li></ul><ul><li>^ V </li></ul><ul><li> ^ Noise V </li></ul><ul><li> ^ Noise V </li></ul><ul><li> ^ Noise V </li></ul><ul><li> ^ V </li></ul><ul><li> ^ <<<<<<<< Feedback <<<<<<< V </li></ul>
  50. 50. Communication <ul><li>… is shared comprehension (two way) </li></ul><ul><li>Four Essential Elements/Communication Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiator (Sender/Encoder) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carrier (Message) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver (Decoder) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback (Is clarity being achieved?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[If the message is not being received as intended, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is your fault. Leaders whose messages are not changing behavior are not true leaders.] </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Principles of Authentic Communication* <ul><li>Truth </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentality </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness to feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Care </li></ul>
  52. 52. Principles of Authentic Communication* <ul><li>Truth – being accurate and factually correct. </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentality – dealing with the core or essential issues and information. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensiveness – telling the whole story, including the meanings and implications of the issue in question. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Principles of Authentic Communication* <ul><li>Relevance – taking into account and making connections with the interests of the parties involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity – using language that is appropriate and understandable for those involved, explaining technical terms, organizing and illustrating the information logically and understandably [clear, concise, complete, consistent, specific, simplistic.] </li></ul>
  54. 54. Principles of Authentic Communication* <ul><li>Timeliness – providing information when it is known, leaving sufficient time for response prior to decisions or actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency – not opposing or contradicting your own or your organization’s other words or actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility – making information, relevant sources and opportunities for discussion easily available to all parties; assuring physical accessibility to meetings. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Principles of Authentic Communication* <ul><li>Responsiveness to feedback – engaging in two-way communication, seeking others’ views and concerns and allowing those concerns to influence the organization’s actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Care – showing respect, concern and compassion for the circumstances, attitudes, beliefs and feelings of other parties. </li></ul><ul><li>* Bojinka Bishop, Ohio University </li></ul>
  56. 56. Principles of Authentic Communication* <ul><li>Truth </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentality </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness to feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Care </li></ul>
  57. 57. PR Plan/Roadmap <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Superior tactics cannot overcome a bad (business) strategy . </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>No Planning = No Plan = </li></ul><ul><li>No Hope </li></ul>
  60. 60. Synergy <ul><li>The whole is greater than </li></ul><ul><li>the sum of its parts </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>The whole works better than </li></ul><ul><li>any one of its parts. </li></ul><ul><li>[ To achieve our goal, we should </li></ul><ul><li>achieve synergy. ] </li></ul>
  61. 61. Synergy’s Parts <ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>(Sales) Promotion * </li></ul><ul><li>Public Relations * </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Cause Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsorship (Partnering) Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning ( Place ) * </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Selling * </li></ul><ul><li>Price * </li></ul><ul><li>Product itself* </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging * </li></ul><ul><li>Policy * </li></ul><ul><li>Politics * </li></ul><ul><li>Mind Share </li></ul><ul><li>(Brainstorming – </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Property) </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>* Litwin’s 9 P’s of Marketing </li></ul>
  62. 62. Public Relations is Synergy
  63. 63. Litwin’s 9 P’s of Marketing = Synergy <ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><li>Place (Positioning) </li></ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion (Sales) </li></ul><ul><li>Public Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Personal selling </li></ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging </li></ul>
  64. 64. 7 C’s of Communication <ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity and Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Capability </li></ul>
  65. 65. Content is crucial… <ul><li>but the medium is part of the message, too! (Marshal McLuhan) </li></ul>
  66. 66. Public Communication <ul><li>Public communication is at the heart of our economy, society and politics. Studios use it to promote their films. Politicians use it to get elected. Businesses use it to burnish their image. Advocates use it to promote social causes. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a field built on ideas and images, persuasion and information, strategy and tactics. No policy or product can succeed without a smart (strategic) message targeted to the right audience in creative and innovative ways at the ideal time using the proper channel. The ability to communicate this way – to communicate strategically – is what Public Communication is all about. </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>Superior tactics cannot overcome a flawed (business) strategy . </li></ul>
  68. 68. MAC Triad Plus <ul><li>M </li></ul><ul><li>+P+T </li></ul><ul><li> A C </li></ul><ul><li>M =Message A =Audience C =Channel P =Purpose T =Timing </li></ul>
  69. 69. MAC Triad Plus cont. <ul><li>Informization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disseminating information ( message ) to target audience through the proper channel at the best possible time . </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. More On MAC Triad Plus <ul><li>Some Key Communication Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders vs. Stockholders (To deliver message, we must know the difference) </li></ul>
  71. 71. Cracked Egg Model
  72. 72. Audiences (ISPR) <ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><li>Segment/Fragment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychographically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geodemographically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioristically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Rank </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience Power Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elite (Key Communicators) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pluralistic or Diffused </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amorphous/Latent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Audience Power Structure <ul><li>Elite </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Diffused </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Amorphous </li></ul>
  74. 74. Target vs. Niche <ul><li>Target </li></ul><ul><li>Audience you want to reach </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. High school </li></ul><ul><li>students </li></ul><ul><li>Niche </li></ul><ul><li>Narrowly defined audience </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. White, high school </li></ul><ul><li>girls of divorced </li></ul><ul><li>parents </li></ul>
  75. 75. Active vs. Passive <ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Already sold </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking information </li></ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Uninterested </li></ul><ul><li>Use surrogates (stand-ins) </li></ul>
  76. 76. Features and Benefits <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>Important characteristics of a product or service. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress features to active </li></ul><ul><li>audiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of product or service that supplies satisfaction or need fulfillment to the consumer or audience member. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress benefits to passive </li></ul><ul><li>audiences. </li></ul>
  77. 77. WII-FM <ul><li>Features + Benefits = Value </li></ul><ul><li>Value = Worth </li></ul>
  78. 78. Bargain <ul><li>When the value exceeds the cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, you only get what you pay for – but most times you don’t even get that! </li></ul>
  79. 79. Persuade vs. Convince <ul><li>Persuade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change of mind or attitude (for a short time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you persuade someone, you get them to act without convincing them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convince </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change of heart and mind ( long term) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you convince someone, you actually get them to believe something else </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Persuasion Pointers <ul><li>Know your audience </li></ul><ul><li>Know what you can accomplish </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate objections/dispel them </li></ul><ul><li>Establish mutual goals/a common ground </li></ul><ul><li>Give options/choices </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear </li></ul><ul><li>Be familiar </li></ul>
  81. 81. Persuasion cont. <ul><li>Use problem/solution format </li></ul><ul><li>Stress rewards/benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Control the tone </li></ul><ul><li>Clinch your argument </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for what you want </li></ul><ul><li>Leave (impression) something to remember </li></ul>
  82. 82. Three-Step vs. Two-Step Flow <ul><li>Three-Step Flow </li></ul><ul><li>1. Credible endorser* </li></ul><ul><li>2. Key communicator </li></ul><ul><li>3. (Targeted) publics </li></ul><ul><li>*Source credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Two-Step Flow </li></ul><ul><li>1. Mass-media </li></ul><ul><li> message carrier </li></ul><ul><li>2. (Targeted) publics </li></ul>
  83. 83. Three-Step vs. Two-Step vs. One-Step Flow <ul><li>One-Step Flow – One-to-One </li></ul><ul><li>(Replaces mass media and non personal communication communication) </li></ul><ul><li>From organization directly to </li></ul><ul><li>( Targeted ) publics </li></ul>
  84. 84. Third Party Endorser <ul><li>Endorsement </li></ul><ul><li>Testimonial </li></ul><ul><li>[Know the difference] </li></ul>
  85. 85. Key Communicators <ul><li>Who Needs Key Communicators? </li></ul><ul><li>Who Should be a Key Communicator? </li></ul><ul><li>Starting a Program </li></ul><ul><li>An “Authorized Grapevine” (Consumption Pioneers – Connectors – Leaders of People – WOMMP [Word of Mouth Marketing Program]) </li></ul>
  86. 86. Alternative Media <ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul><ul><li>Internet (and Interactive – Web 2.0/Blogs/Wikis) </li></ul><ul><li>iPod® (Podcasts, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Vcasts® </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Phone </li></ul><ul><li>iPhone ® </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Signage </li></ul><ul><li>Aroma Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>WOMM </li></ul><ul><li>Silent Publicity </li></ul>
  87. 87. Alternative Media <ul><li>Cross Platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Signage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convergence of Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>– Multiple Platforms </li></ul>
  88. 88. Getting a Seat at the Table <ul><li>Know how to communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Know what our employer does and the industry he/she represents. </li></ul><ul><li>Have an “attitude” – think strategically. </li></ul><ul><li>Be a counselor. </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty, Judgment, Trust, Ethics, Integrity. </li></ul><ul><li>Always be ethical – open, honest, thorough and valid – the “corporate conscience.” </li></ul>
  89. 89. Communication: <ul><li>A Tool of Leadership </li></ul>
  90. 90. Public Relations…Leadership <ul><li>All leaders are teachers…but not all teachers are leaders! </li></ul>
  91. 91. Public Relations…Leadership <ul><li>Managers – Do things right. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders – Do the right things. </li></ul>
  92. 92. Leaders <ul><li>Convene </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Persuade (maybe even convince ) </li></ul>
  93. 93. Leader Defined <ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Charisma (Connectivity) </li></ul><ul><li>Competence/Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Communicator </li></ul><ul><li>Courage </li></ul><ul><li>Tenacity </li></ul><ul><li>Perseverance </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Toughness </li></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul>
  94. 94. Leadership Defined <ul><li>In the end, Leadership is defined by: </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul>
  95. 95. Leadership Framework
  96. 96. Leadership Framework <ul><li>Control </li></ul>
  97. 97. Leadership Framework <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul>
  98. 98. Leadership Framework <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Campaign </li></ul>
  99. 99. Leadership Framework <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul>
  100. 100. Leadership Framework <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul></ul>
  101. 101. Leadership Framework <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive </li></ul></ul>
  102. 102. Leadership Framework <ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul>
  103. 103. Leadership Framework <ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul></ul>
  104. 104. Leadership Framework <ul><li>Campaign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning/“Premeditated” </li></ul></ul>
  105. 105. Leadership Framework <ul><li>Campaign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning/“Premeditated” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy/Timing </li></ul></ul>
  106. 106. Leadership Framework <ul><li>Campaign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning/“Premeditated” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy/Timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable results </li></ul></ul>
  107. 107. Leadership Framework <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Campaign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Premeditated” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy/Timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable results </li></ul></ul>
  108. 108. James Baker… <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>“ Knowing what to do and then doing it.” </li></ul>
  109. 109. President Carter… <ul><li>“ Leaders whose messages are not changing (or reinforcing) behavior are not true leaders. In fact, they are ‘ MIS leaders’.” </li></ul>
  110. 110. Leaders <ul><li>Choose to lead by stepping out of the darkness and taking others with you. </li></ul><ul><li>Make decisions they have to make even when they might have dangerous consequences </li></ul>
  111. 111. In the Eye of the Storm: Lessons in Leadership <ul><li>A real life example of Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>From Les Hirsch – CEO </li></ul><ul><li>Touro Infirmary </li></ul><ul><li>New Orleans, Louisiana </li></ul>
  112. 112. Leadership Requires Courage, Tenacity, Perseverance and Mental Toughness Must Make Difficult Decisions Must be Inspirational and Create Hope, Optimism and Enthusiasm for the Future Never, Never, Never Give Up ………
  113. 113. “ Retreat,…Hell…We’re Just Advancing in Another Direction” * Quote From a US Army General in Korean War after being asked about withdrawal Friday: September 2, 2005
  114. 114. Know Your Destination… and All Roads Will Lead To It… Failure Is Not An Option
  115. 115. Know Your Destination… Hit the ground running…and…be sure you are going in the right direction!!! But remember – It’s the journey, not the destination.
  116. 116. It Always Takes A Great Team Because…Failure Is Not An Option
  117. 117. Leadership Defined <ul><li>In the end, Leadership is defined by: </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul>
  118. 118. Credibility
  119. 119. Credibility <ul><li>Trustworthiness </li></ul>
  120. 120. Credibility <ul><li>Trustworthiness </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul>
  121. 121. Credibility <ul><li>Trustworthiness </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Communication style </li></ul>
  122. 122. PR Practitioners/Counselors <ul><li>Accountability is… </li></ul><ul><li>thinking strategically </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberately </li></ul><ul><li>Systematically </li></ul><ul><li>Methodically </li></ul><ul><li>Logistically </li></ul><ul><li>Calculatingly (Measured Tones) </li></ul>
  123. 123. Important PR Reminders
  124. 124.
  125. 125.
  126. 126.
  127. 127.
  128. 128. PR Counselors must possess… <ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul>
  129. 129. Getting a Seat at the Table <ul><li>Know how to communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Know what our employer does and the industry he/she represents. </li></ul><ul><li>Have an “attitude” – think strategically. </li></ul><ul><li>Be a counselor. </li></ul><ul><li>Always be ethical – open, honest, thorough and valid – the “corporate conscience” (CCO = Corporate Conscience Officer or Chief Communication Officer) </li></ul>
  130. 130. And above all… <ul><li>Are you willing to tell the boss what he/she needs to hear rather than what he/she wants to hear? </li></ul><ul><li>That is how YOU will get a seat at the table. </li></ul>
  131. 131. Six Cs of Writing Assessment* <ul><li>Clarity – Say what you mean, mean what you say </li></ul><ul><li>Correct – Avoid errors to avoid confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Connection – Engage your reader </li></ul><ul><li>Compelling – Motivate an action </li></ul><ul><li>Conviction – Live on branding </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency – Stay on message…always </li></ul><ul><li>[Remember: When you make people work, </li></ul><ul><li>they stop reading!] </li></ul><ul><li>* Roger Shapiro – Write Right – Mitchell Rose Communication </li></ul>
  132. 132. Basic Principles of Effective Presentations
  133. 133. Basic Principles of Effective Presentations <ul><li>Relate your identity to help create an image </li></ul>
  134. 134. Basic Principles <ul><li>Relate your identity to help create an image </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the difference between identity and image . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasion – the activity of creating, reinforcing, modifying or extinguishing beliefs, attitudes and/or behaviors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logo not ego ! </li></ul></ul>
  135. 135. Basic Principles <ul><li>Relate your identity to help create an image </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze your credibility and believability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Credibility – is in the eye of the beholder. </li></ul></ul>
  136. 136. Basic Principles <ul><li>Relate your identity to help create an image </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze your credibility and believability </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise control </li></ul>
  137. 137. Basic Principles <ul><li>Relate your identity to help create an image </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze your credibility and believability </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise control </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a positive attitude </li></ul>
  138. 138. Basic Principles of Effective Presentations <ul><li>Relate your identity to help create an image </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze your credibility and believability </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise control </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a positive attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate leadership listening </li></ul>
  139. 139. Audience Analysis/Worksheet   <ul><li>Identify your audience. </li></ul>
  140. 140. Audience Analysis/Worksheet   <ul><li>2. Analyze your audience demographically. </li></ul>
  141. 141. Audience Analysis/Worksheet   <ul><li>3. How well does your audience understand the issues (or topics) you wish to discuss? </li></ul>
  142. 142. Audience Analysis/Worksheet <ul><li>4. What is your audience’s attitude toward your agenda? </li></ul>
  143. 143. Audience Analysis/Worksheet   <ul><li>5. What does your audience need to know or believe in before you can change its behavior? (What’s in it for them?) </li></ul>
  144. 144. Audience Analysis/Worksheet <ul><li>6. To what type of arguments is your audience likely to respond? </li></ul>
  145. 145. Audience Analysis/Worksheet   <ul><li>Identify your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze your audience demographically. </li></ul><ul><li>How well does your audience understand the issues (or topics) you wish to discuss? </li></ul>
  146. 146. Audience Analysis/Worksheet <ul><li>What is your audience’s attitude toward your agenda? </li></ul><ul><li>What does your audience need to know or believe in before you can change its behavior? (What’s in it for them?) </li></ul><ul><li>6. To what type of arguments is your audience likely to respond? </li></ul>
  147. 147. Key Communicators <ul><li>Who Needs Key Communicators? </li></ul><ul><li>Who Should be a Key Communicator? </li></ul><ul><li>Starting a Program </li></ul><ul><li>An “Authorized Grapevine” (Consumption Pioneers – Connectors – Leaders of People – WOMMP [Word of Mouth Marketing Program]) </li></ul>
  148. 148.
  149. 149.
  150. 150.
  151. 151. Division of University Advancement Executive Vice President for University Advancement Alumni Relations Development Marketing Major Gifts Publications University Relations
  152. 152. Division of Budget and Planning Executive Director of Budget and Planning Institutional Research Budget Marketing
  153. 153. Questions ??? <ul><li>M. Larry Litwin, APR, Fellow PRSA [email_address] www.larrylitwin.com </li></ul><ul><li>© 2012 </li></ul>

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