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Green5&7
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Green5&7

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  • 1. Learning to Solve Problems with Technology: A Constructivist Perspective P. Brandon Crenshaw TED 8770 March 4, 2009 Table of Contents
  • 2. Table of Contents  Preface - Constructivism & TechnologyVisualizing with Tech: Reco  5-  1- What is Meaningful Learning? 6 – Learning with Hypermedia  2 - Problem Solving  7 - Learning with Virtual Realiti  3 - Learning from the Internet  8 - Problem-Based Learning En  4 - Building Tech-Supported Learning -Communities  9 Assessing Learning & Probl 2
  • 3. Preface Constructivism & Technology Table of Contents
  • 4. Preface  People naturally construct meaning.  Teaching/learning that relies on efficient transmission of pre-packaged material is not natural.  This book is about how to use technology to support constructive learning. learning 4
  • 5. Preface  Meaningful learning is:  active  constructive  intentional  authentic  cooperative  Students learn best by solving problems. 5
  • 6. Preface  I could not agree with these statements more.  We expect our students to learn material simply because it is there.  We rarely give true meaning to what we do in class.  It is assumed that because it’s in the book, it’s important to students.  Conversely, if it’s not in the book/curriculum, then it needn’t be taught because it’s not important.  These ideas have to change if today’s students are to take education seriously. seriously 6
  • 7. Chapter 1 What is Meaningful Learning? Table of Contents
  • 8. What is Learning?  a biochemical activity in the brain  a change in behavior  information processing  remembering and recalling  social negotiation  thinking skills 8
  • 9. What is Learning?  knowledge construction  conceptual change  contextual change  distributed among the community  chaotic! (at times) 9
  • 10. What is Meaningful Learning?  Active (Manipulative, Observant)  Constructive (Articulative, Reflective)  Intentional (Reflective, Regulatory)  Authentic (Complex, Contextualized)  Cooperative (Collaborative, Conversational) 10
  • 11. How does technology facilitate learning?  In the Past: educators used new tech to teach in old ways.  Students’ role was to learn from tech, just like they did from the teacher.  Students used tech to produce products, but they've been simply reproducing what the teacher told them. 11
  • 12. How does technology facilitate learning  Students should use tech to present what they know, not simply reproduce it.  Tech should function as a tool kit to let learners build meaning.  Students don't learn from teachers or tech, but learn from thinking and doing. 12
  • 13. How Tech Fosters Learning:  Supports:  knowledge construction  learning by doing  learning by collaborating  Provides:  information to explore learning  means to reflect 13
  • 14. My Thoughts on Educational Technology  Tech should be used as a tool for learning, not the end goal itself.  Tech should make the job easier and better.  We shouldn’t use tech just to say we did so.  Not all tech is good, and we should carefully inspect what’s out there before purchasing. 14
  • 15. Implications of Constructivism  Teachers:  must relinquish some authority  help students evaluate what others think  be familiar with technology  Students:  must construct own meaning from learning  assume responsibility for own learning 15
  • 16. Chapter 2 Problem Solving is Meaningful Learning Table of Contents 16
  • 17. What Drives Learning?  The nature of the task is what drives learning.  Memorizing for a test engages learners in rehearsal and organization.  Writing a paper engages learners in finding information and writing.  In order for learning to be meaningful, students must be engaged in meaningful tasks. 17
  • 18. What Drives Learning?  The most meaningful tasks require learners to solve problems.  Everyday life is about problem solving!  Doctors cure disease.  Business people maximize profits.  Homeowners care for their living spaces.  Students should solve problems, too! 18
  • 19. What Drives Learning?  I don’t believe that we ask students to problem-solve enough (or at all!).  This will take a major shift in education, as we have forgotten how to teach these skills. 19
  • 20. What Drives Learning?  What is a problem?  It is an unknown; a goal.  Finding the unknown must have value. 20
  • 21. Kinds of Problem-Solving  Logical Problems  abstract puzzle tests  used to measure logical reasoning  Algorithmic Problems  solve questions using rigid procedures  ex. – most Math problems  Story Problems  attempt to make algorithmic problems mimic real situations 21
  • 22. Kinds of Problem-Solving  Rule-Use Problems  have a correct solution but multiple methods  ex. – filing taxes, doing web info searches  Decision-Making Problems  decisions with limited number of solutions  ex. – which health plan to select  Troubleshooting Problems  Very common real-life problem  experience is usually very helpful  ex. – fix a computer problem 22
  • 23. Kinds of Problem-Solving  Diagnosis-Solution Problems  very similar to troubleshooting  the goal is to fix a system and get it back online  Tactical/Strategic Problems  real-time, complex decision making  solve a situation with multiple activities to achieve an objective  Case/Systems Analysis Problems  learners must understand complex systems in which the problem is often vague  ex. – deciding factory production levels 23
  • 24. Kinds of Problem-Solving  Design Problems  require a great deal of knowledge to make an original design  the goal is to design things (products) as solutions  Dilemmas  can be very difficult, as there is usually no solution that is acceptable to all 24
  • 25. Kinds of Problem-Solving  I know this list of problem-solving is extensive.  I don’t think it’s severely important what kind of problems students are solving (yet).  Just get them started thinking and not repeating! 25
  • 26. Problem Solving with Technology  Information Searching  Webquests do no guarantee learning; students simply fill in info that teachers are looking for.  Activities must have a purpose other than finishing an assignment.  Students must be able to evaluate the info that they find on the internet. 26
  • 27. Problem Solving with Technology  Modeling Tasks or Content  building models of real-world phenomena can help solve problems through virtual trials  technology can be used to efficiently model situations 27
  • 28. Problem Solving with Technology  Decision Making  these problems involve selecting an option from a list of choices  technology can be used to model situations to try to predict the best outcome 28
  • 29. Problem Solving with Technology  Designing  design problems are difficult because the goals are unclear and feedback is delayed  people use technology for design problems when they create videos, webpages, etc. 29
  • 30. Problem Solving with Technology  Again, be careful with tech!!!  Don’t use it just because it’s there.  Don’t make tech the focus of your work. 30
  • 31. Chapter 3 Learning from the Internet: Information to Knowledge Through Inquiry Table of Contents 31
  • 32. What is the Internet?  It is a world-wide network of local computers.  It connects millions of users around the world.  It’s a collection of documents stored in electronic formats.  Different documents/sites are linked together. 32
  • 33. What’s New with the Internet?  Increased Access, Bandwith, Multimedia  Videoconferencing / Distance Learning  Internet 2 (advanced applications and tech)  Wireless & Human-Centric Computing 33
  • 34. What Should We Do with the Internet?  search for information  evaluate information  webquests  web collections  web publishing  virtual field trips 34
  • 35. My Thoughts on the Internet  Try to keep current with what’s new.  I’ve found myself not keeping current, and now I feel like I’m playing catch-up.  It’s easiest to absorb a bit at a time.  Keep notes on what you like so that you can revisit sites later.  Don’t be afraid to ask the students for help!!! 35
  • 36. Chapter 4 Building Technology-Supported Learning Communities on the Internet Table of Contents 36
  • 37. Forming Communities  Learning in collaborative communities is natural, so why do schools isolate students?  Technology allows us to:  form communities far beyond local boundaries  find others with common interests  share our knowledge with others 37
  • 38. Supportive Technologies  The internet has many aspects:  Email  Listservs  Electronic Bulletin Boards  Chats  Videoconferencing  Groupware (ex. Google Docs) 38
  • 39. Scaffolding Conversations in Computer Conferences  Online communication requires students:  interpret messages  appropriately respond  construct coherent statements 39
  • 40. Learning Circles  A Learning Circle connects a small group of students in order to solve a problem.  Learning Process – research, collaboration, reporting  Problem Solving – devise a solution  Teacher Roles – manage (but don’t hinder) learning  Assessment – project meets schedule, solution is reached 40
  • 41. Chapter 5 Learning by Visualizing with Technology: Recording Realities with Video Table of Contents 41
  • 42. The Case For TV in Learning  Many educational programs exist. 42
  • 43. The Case Against TV in Learning  The nature of TV puts viewers in a low state of alertness.  TV overexposure can result in a lack of persistence in difficult mental tasks.  TV can induce a slow, hypnotic state.  It is a passive form of learning. 43
  • 44. Video in Schools  Student-made video has several benefits:  involves planning, producing, sharing  provides valuable feedback  fosters cooperative learning  creates good PR material to be used 44
  • 45. Necessary Equipment  video recorder  microphone  projector / television  computer with video-editing software 45
  • 46. Video Learning Activities  Video press conference  Newscast  Talk show  Digital storytelling  Documentary  Videoconferencing 46
  • 47. Chapter 6 Learning by Constructing Realities with Hypermedia Table of Contents 47
  • 48. What are Multimedia?  DVD  CD  Internet (hypermedia)  Computer-based multimedia  flash, video games 48
  • 49. Student-Created Hypermedia  Students are actively engaged when creating hypermedia projects.  networking  interactivity  problem-solving  creativity  flexibility 49
  • 50. Chapter 7 Learning by Exploring Micro-Worlds & Virtual Realities Table of Contents 50
  • 51. Modeling for Learning  Computer-based models allow users to explore situations easily.  variables can be easily manipulated  the real world can be cheaply recreated for experiments  graphs can be made from data  Virtual Reality can take learners around the world 51
  • 52. Chapter 8 Learning in Problem-Based Learning Environments Table of Contents 52
  • 53. Story Problems  the most common type of problem-solving  Students take info from the story, run numbers through a formula, and get the answer.  Students are rarely successful at transferring their ability to solve these problems to other problems.  From a personal standpoint, I like using these to provide a context for problems.  Although not perfect, they are better than simple problems. 53
  • 54. Laboratory Problems  They require:  a set of procedures  observing results  taking measures  inferring what happened  They can be dangerous and expensive, so virtual labs are becoming popular. 54
  • 55. Chapter 9 Assessing Constructive Learning & Problem-Solving with Technology Table of Contents 55
  • 56. Authentic Performance Assessment  We are moving from assessment that sorts students to those that improve performance.  Performance Assessment must:  have students construct a response or product.  observe student behavior or product 56
  • 57. Assessing Learning with Rubrics  A rubric is designed to govern action.  Good rubrics:  include all important elements  each element is easy to understand  ratings are distinct and descriptive 57

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