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Islam

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  • 1. Islam The Religion of Muslims
  • 2. Basic Definition  Religion based on the messages received by Muhammad  Muhammad: man born around 570 CE in Mecca, believed by Muslims to be a prophet
  • 3. True or False? 1. Islam is a polytheistic faith. 2. Followers of Islam are called Arabics. 3. A building for Muslim prayer is called a mosque. 4. Muslims are not allowed to drink alcohol. 5. Muslim women are not allowed to own property.
  • 4. Muslim or not? 1. Shaq, basketball player
  • 5. Muslim or not? 2. Dave Chapelle, comedian
  • 6. Muslim or not? 3. Akon, musician
  • 7. Muslim or not? 4. Janet Jackson
  • 8. Muslim or not? 5. Everlast, musician
  • 9. Muslim or not? 6. Mike Tyson, boxer
  • 10. Two Ways of Life  Nomads  Sedentary Folks – Tribes – Farmers – Caravans – Merchants – Tents – Settled
  • 11. Where did they meet?  Bazaars  Nomads traded animal products and desert herbs for goods like cooking supplies & clothing  Merchants sold spices, gold, leather, crops, and other goods
  • 12. Star of the Caravan
  • 13. Muhammad
  • 14. Muhammad’s Life  Born in 570 CE in Mecca  Caravan driver until age 30  Muslims believe he was a prophet  Angel appeared to Muhammad  Teachings collected in Qur‟an  Made hegira from Mecca to Medina  Died at age 62
  • 15. Arabia during his time
  • 16. Biblical Lineage  According to Muslims, Muhammad is related to Adam, Noah, and Abraham  Thus, Jesus would be Muhammad‟s ancestor
  • 17. What did he teach?  One god, “Allah”  Rich and poor should be equal  World has definite beginning and will end someday  Paradise is a beautiful garden  Allah will judge all people in the end  Guidelines for behavior & worship
  • 18. The Qur’an
  • 19. Qur’an: Sacred Book  There is only one God.  God will judge all people.  The good will live in paradise.  The bad will suffer.
  • 20. Rules for Worship  Don‟t eat pork or drink alcohol.  Do ritual washing before prayer.  5 Pillars of Islam
  • 21. Rules for Society  Slaves should be freed.  Women have the right to – own property – earn money – receive an education
  • 22. Why do Muslim women wear the veil (hijab)?  Sumayya Syed, 16, says that what parents or men want have nothing to do with it…  She says it is a form of liberation (freedom).  When a woman is covered, men cannot judge her by her appearance but are forced to evaluate her by her personality, character, and morals.  "I tell them that the hijab is not a responsibility, it's a right given to me by my Creator who knows us best. It's a benefit to me, so why not? It's something every woman should strive to get and should want."
  • 23. Jihad: Holy struggle  “To make an effort, to struggle”  Inner struggle people go through in trying to obey God & behave according to Islamic ways  Also, struggle to get people to convert to Islam
  • 24. Sunnah  Way Muhammad lived  Provides a model for the duties & way of life expected of Muslims  Inspired 5 pillars of Islam
  • 25. Shariah  Islamic law  Based on interpretations of Qur‟an and Sunnah, as well as human reason  Rewards for good behavior  Punishments for bad behavior
  • 26. 5 Pillars of Islam  5 acts of worship required of all Muslims – Statement of faith – Prayer 5x a day – Almsgiving – Fasting – Hajj
  • 27. 1st Pillar  Allah is the one true God  Muhammad is Allah‟s prophet – “There is no god but God, and Muhammad is his prophet.”
  • 28. 2nd Pillar  Prayer 5 times a day – Sunrise – Midday – Late afternoon – Right after sunset – Before bed
  • 29. 3rd Pillar  Yearly donation to charity  Muslims pay part of salary to religious official  Money used to help poor, build mosques, or pay debts
  • 30. 4th Pillar  Fasting: going without food or drink  Daily fasting during holy month of Ramadan, when Allah began communicating with Muhammad – No eating when sun is up  Reminds Muslims of all those who go hungry/thirsty in the world
  • 31. 5th Pillar  Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca  All Muslims must make their hajj once during lifetime  Kaaba: Islam‟s most sacred place
  • 32. Kaaba
  • 33. Kaaba
  • 34. Islamic Empires  Controlled much of Europe, Asia, and Africa  1400s to 1800s  Ottomans  Safavids  Mughals
  • 35. Ottomans  Muslim Turkish warriors  Ruled land from Eastern Europe to North Africa and Arabia  Key to power: super army  Janissaries: slave soldiers who converted to Islam and became fierce  Gunpowder weapons  Mehmed II: built up Istanbul  Suleyman I: pushed into Europe
  • 36. Safavids  Persian Muslims  Shia (Safavids): Muslims who thought only Muhammad‟s descendents should become caliphs  Sunnis (Ottomans): believed caliphs didn‟t have to be related to Muhammad  Esma‟il: spread Shiism  „Abba: strengthened military
  • 37. Mughals  Turkish Muslims from Central Asia  Babur: established empire  Akbar: religious tolerance  Built beautiful structures like Taj Mahal in India  Hindus and Muslims could peacefully coexist in India
  • 38. Taj Mahal, by Akbar
  • 39. Islamic Contributions  Art  Science  Math  Literature
  • 40. Art
  • 41. Calligraphy
  • 42. Muslim and Christian Images of the Creator
  • 43. Architecture
  • 44. Poetry influenced by Sufism Sufi poets often wrote about their loyalty to God: The mighty Mahmud, the victorious Lord, That all the misbelieving and black Horde Of Fears and Sorrows that infest the Soul Scatters and slays with his enchanted Sword. -Omar Khayyam
  • 45. Famous Stories
  • 46. Astronomy  Muslims greatly improved Greek astrolabe to figure out directions, location, & time of day  Observatories to study sun, moon, stars
  • 47. Math  Combined Indian & Greek ideas to learn more about math  “Arabic numerals” are what we use today –123456789
  • 48. Geography  Using knowledge of stars, explorers traveled throughout world  Ibn Battuta wrote about his travels to Africa, India, China, Spain in 1320s  Accurate maps were made
  • 49. Medicine  Combined Greek & Indian knowledge with own discoveries  First pharmacy school to teach how to make medicine  Medical encyclopedia written  Treatment for smallpox
  • 50. Philosophy  Sufism: movement that focuses on spiritual issues  Sufis believe they can find God‟s love by having a personal relationship with him
  • 51. Whirling Dervishes
  • 52. Thank you, Islam!  Write a thank-you note to Muslims for their contributions to – Art – Science – Math – Literature  At least ½ page  You have until the end of class