Islam

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Islam

  1. 1. Islam The Religion of Muslims
  2. 2. Basic Definition <ul><li>Religion based on the messages received by Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad: man born around 570 CE in Mecca, believed by Muslims to be a prophet </li></ul>
  3. 3. True or False? <ul><li>Islam is a polytheistic faith. </li></ul><ul><li>Followers of Islam are called Arabics. </li></ul><ul><li>A building for Muslim prayer is called a mosque. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims are not allowed to drink alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim women are not allowed to own property. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Muslim or not? <ul><li>1. Shaq, basketball player </li></ul>
  5. 5. Muslim or not? <ul><li>2. Dave Chapelle, comedian </li></ul>
  6. 6. Muslim or not? <ul><li>3. Akon, musician </li></ul>
  7. 7. Muslim or not? <ul><li>4. Janet Jackson </li></ul>
  8. 8. Muslim or not? <ul><li>5. Everlast, musician </li></ul>
  9. 9. Muslim or not? <ul><li>6. Mike Tyson, boxer </li></ul>
  10. 11. Two Ways of Life <ul><li>Nomads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caravans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sedentary Folks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settled </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Where did they meet? <ul><li>Bazaars </li></ul><ul><li>Nomads traded animal products and desert herbs for goods like cooking supplies & clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants sold spices, gold, leather, crops, and other goods </li></ul>
  12. 13. Star of the Caravan
  13. 14. Muhammad
  14. 15. Muhammad’s Life <ul><li>Born in 570 CE in Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>Caravan driver until age 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims believe he was a prophet </li></ul><ul><li>Angel appeared to Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Teachings collected in Qur’an </li></ul><ul><li>Made hegira from Mecca to Medina </li></ul><ul><li>Died at age 62 </li></ul>
  15. 16. Arabia during his time
  16. 17. Biblical Lineage <ul><li>According to Muslims, Muhammad is related to Adam, Noah, and Abraham </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, Jesus would be Muhammad’s ancestor </li></ul>
  17. 18. What did he teach? <ul><li>One god, “Allah” </li></ul><ul><li>Rich and poor should be equal </li></ul><ul><li>World has definite beginning and will end someday </li></ul><ul><li>Paradise is a beautiful garden </li></ul><ul><li>Allah will judge all people in the end </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for behavior & worship </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Qur’an
  19. 20. Qur’an: Sacred Book <ul><li>There is only one God. </li></ul><ul><li>God will judge all people. </li></ul><ul><li>The good will live in paradise. </li></ul><ul><li>The bad will suffer. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Rules for Worship <ul><li>Don’t eat pork or drink alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Do ritual washing before prayer. </li></ul><ul><li>5 Pillars of Islam </li></ul>
  21. 22. Rules for Society <ul><li>Slaves should be freed. </li></ul><ul><li>Women have the right to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>own property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>earn money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>receive an education </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Why do Muslim women wear the veil ( hijab )? <ul><li>Sumayya Syed, 16, says that what parents or men want have nothing to do with it… </li></ul><ul><li>She says it is a form of liberation (freedom). </li></ul><ul><li>When a woman is covered, men cannot judge her by her appearance but are forced to evaluate her by her personality, character, and morals . </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I tell them that the hijab is not a responsibility, it's a right given to me by my Creator who knows us best. It's a benefit to me, so why not? It's something every woman should strive to get and should want.&quot; </li></ul>
  23. 24. Jihad: Holy struggle <ul><li>“To make an effort, to struggle” </li></ul><ul><li>Inner struggle people go through in trying to obey God & behave according to Islamic ways </li></ul><ul><li>Also, struggle to get people to convert to Islam </li></ul>
  24. 25. Sunnah <ul><li>Way Muhammad lived </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a model for the duties & way of life expected of Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired 5 pillars of Islam </li></ul>
  25. 26. Shariah <ul><li>Islamic law </li></ul><ul><li>Based on interpretations of Qur’an and Sunnah, as well as human reason </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards for good behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Punishments for bad behavior </li></ul>
  26. 27. 5 Pillars of Islam <ul><li>5 acts of worship required of all Muslims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer 5x a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almsgiving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hajj </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. 1 st Pillar <ul><li>Allah is the one true God </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad is Allah’s prophet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“There is no god but God, and Muhammad is his prophet.” </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. 2 nd Pillar <ul><li>Prayer 5 times </li></ul><ul><li>a day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunrise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late afternoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right after sunset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before bed </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. 3 rd Pillar <ul><li>Yearly donation to charity </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims pay part of salary to religious official </li></ul><ul><li>Money used to help poor, build mosques, or pay debts </li></ul>
  30. 31. 4 th Pillar <ul><li>Fasting: going without food or drink </li></ul><ul><li>Daily fasting during holy month of Ramadan, when Allah began communicating with Muhammad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No eating when sun is up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reminds Muslims of all those who go hungry/thirsty in the world </li></ul>
  31. 32. 5 th Pillar <ul><li>Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>All Muslims must make their hajj once during lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Kaaba: Islam’s most sacred place </li></ul>
  32. 33. Kaaba
  33. 34. Kaaba
  34. 35. Islamic Empires <ul><li>Controlled much of Europe, Asia, and Africa </li></ul><ul><li>1400s to 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>Ottomans </li></ul><ul><li>Safavids </li></ul><ul><li>Mughals </li></ul>
  35. 36. Ottomans <ul><li>Muslim Turkish warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled land from Eastern Europe to North Africa and Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Key to power: super army </li></ul><ul><li>Janissaries: slave soldiers who converted to Islam and became fierce </li></ul><ul><li>Gunpowder weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Mehmed II: built up Istanbul </li></ul><ul><li>Suleyman I: pushed into Europe </li></ul>
  36. 37. Safavids <ul><li>Persian Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Shia (Safavids): Muslims who thought only Muhammad’s descendents should become caliphs </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis (Ottomans): believed caliphs didn’t have to be related to Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Esma’il: spread Shiism </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Abba: strengthened military </li></ul>
  37. 38. Mughals <ul><li>Turkish Muslims from Central Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Babur: established empire </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar: religious tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Built beautiful structures like Taj Mahal in India </li></ul><ul><li>Hindus and Muslims could peacefully coexist in India </li></ul>
  38. 39. Taj Mahal, by Akbar
  39. 40. Islamic Contributions <ul><li>Art </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Math </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul>
  40. 41. Art
  41. 45. Calligraphy
  42. 46. Muslim and Christian Images of the Creator
  43. 47. Architecture
  44. 48. Poetry influenced by Sufism <ul><li>Sufi poets often wrote about their loyalty to God: </li></ul><ul><li>The mighty Mahmud, the victorious Lord, That all the misbelieving and black Horde      Of Fears and Sorrows that infest the Soul Scatters and slays </li></ul><ul><li>with his enchanted Sword. </li></ul><ul><li>- Omar Khayyam </li></ul>
  45. 49. Famous Stories
  46. 50. Astronomy <ul><li>Muslims greatly improved Greek astrolabe to figure out directions, location, & time of day </li></ul><ul><li>Observatories to study sun, moon, stars </li></ul>
  47. 51. Math <ul><li>Combined Indian & Greek ideas to learn more about math </li></ul><ul><li>“Arabic numerals” are what we use today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 </li></ul></ul>
  48. 52. Geography <ul><li>Using knowledge of stars, explorers traveled throughout world </li></ul><ul><li>Ibn Battuta wrote about his travels to Africa, India, China, Spain in 1320s </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate maps were made </li></ul>
  49. 54. Medicine <ul><li>Combined Greek & Indian knowledge with own discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>First pharmacy school to teach how to make medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Medical encyclopedia written </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment for smallpox </li></ul>
  50. 55. Philosophy <ul><li>Sufism: movement that focuses on spiritual issues </li></ul><ul><li>Sufis believe they can find God’s love by having a personal relationship with him </li></ul>
  51. 56. Whirling Dervishes
  52. 57. Thank you, Islam! <ul><li>Write a thank-you note to Muslims for their contributions to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Math </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At least ½ page </li></ul><ul><li>You have until the end of class </li></ul>

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