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Montessori in America

Montessori in America






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    Montessori in America Montessori in America Presentation Transcript

    • Montessori in America: A Century of Reform on the Margins Jackie Cossentino Williamsburg Montessori/University of Maryland Keith Whitescarver The College of William & Mary
    • From European Import to American Export 1907 1960 present
      • European movement established in Rome, London, Barcelona, Amsterdam, India.
      • Concentration, control by Montessori
      • American movement takes hold; rapid expansion.
      • Diffusion, break with Montessori
      • Primarily a private movement
      • American version of movement exported to Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe
      • Renewed attention from public sector
    • A Quick Chronology - Phase 1
      • 1907 Casa dei Bambini opens in Rome
      • 1911 First McClure’s magazine Article
      • First American School in Tarrytown
      • 1912 The Montessori Method published in US
      • 1913 Triumphant US Visit
      • 1914 Critic W. H. Kilpatrick, The Montessori System Examined
      • 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition, San Francisco. MM departs US forever.
    • The Problem of Translation
    • The school in Tarrytown
    • A Quick Chronology -- Phase 2
      • 1952 Maria Montessori dies
              • Mario Montessori is made General Director of AMI
      • 1953 Nancy Rambusch discovers MM’s writings
              • Begins correspondence with Mario Montessori
              • Takes Training in London
      • 1958 Whitby School is founded in Greenwich CT
              • Montessori appoints Rambusch AMI rep in US
      • 1960 AMS is founded
              • Washington Montessori Institute organizes. Efforts to bring Margaret Stephenson to US begun and stalled.
    • Maria Montessori’s Death
    • Mario & Dr. Montessori, 1951
    • First meeting between Nancy McCormick Rambusch and Mario Montessori In 1953, Nancy Rambusch met Mario Montessori at a Montessori conference in Paris and discussed the possibility of starting a Montessori type school in the United States. Mario famously replied: Madame, there is no such thing as a Montessori type school; there is only a Montessori school. Nancy McCormick Rambusch, “The American Montessori Experience,” American Montessori Society Bulletin , vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 1-27. The quote is from p. 8.
    • Nancy McCormick Rambusch Jubilee (1959)
    • Whitby School
    • “ Americanizing” Montessori
    • Diffusion and Integration
      • “ A major policy of AMS is to integrate Montessori into the country’s institutions; the family and public school. Otherwise, Montessori practices will never survive.
      • … .. the American Montessori Society has decided to go beyond AMI and try to integrate this special approach to early learning into the American culture -- which of all Twentieth Century cultures is the most interested in THE CHILD as part of its culture.”
      AMS Draft Statement, by C. Monson, 1963
    • Montessori receives national attention NYT 5/16/65
      • 1962 Tensions between Nancy and Mario
              • Rambusch resigns as AMS President
              • Number of US Montessori schools doubles - 26
      • 1963 AMI/AMS Split
              • WMI becomes American arm of AMI
              • AMS continues to diffuse and promote
      • 1967 First Public Montessori School Opens in Ohio
      • 1968 First AMI Public Montessori Opens in Philadelphia
      • 1970 AMI/USA Established
      • 1977 NCME Established to “unify” movement.
      Phase 2 Continued
    • Integrity and Control
      • “ I am well aware of the differences between your point of view and that of more experienced Montessorians.
      • … .As you are aware, the only interest to AMI, and of me personally is to safeguard the integrity of Dr. Montessori’s work.
      • We do this by appointing either one or more Montessori experts around whom the Pedagogical Committee of the local society is built. This is our only concern.”
      Letter from Mario Montessori to Nancy Rambusch, 2/63
    • American Tendencies
      • The Tinkering Tendency
        • We love it, but we can make it better
      • The Anti-Intellectual Tendency
        • Anyone can teach; Keep it short and simple
      • The Liberal Tendency
        • Everyone should be served
      • The Exceptionalist Tendency
        • We are special
    • Montessori Knowledge Base Tensions and Tradeoffs
      • Developmental
      • Cosmological
      • Received
      • Radical
      • Developmental
      • Contingent
      • Contested
      • Liberal
    • Worldwide Montessori Diffusion
    • The Current Revival
      • Dynamic Growth
        • Roughly 4000 Montessori Schools in US
        • 2000-2005 saw 32 research studies
      • Increasing American Importance
        • Schools in 77 other countries
        • Roughly 2000 schools
      • Further Splintering of the Movement
      • Growth of Public Montessori Schools
        • 103 Montessori charter schools
        • 249 fully public
    • What’s Next?
      • Systemic School Reform
        • Achievement is the new bridge
        • Coherence and Consistency
      • A Knowledge Base for Teaching
        • Clinical
        • Technical
        • Disciplinary
      • New Knowledge about Development
        • Brain Research and Technology
        • Crises in the American family