Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10                                                           Review article     Evidenc...
Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10                                                                   Review articlehave...
Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10                                                                Review articleClimate...
Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10                                                                  Review articlethe n...
Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10                                                                 Review articledeclin...
Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10                                                            Review article   concentr...
Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10                    Review articleManoj-Kumar, Swarup A, Patra AK, Chandrakala  JU, M...
Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10                                                                  Review articleTable...
Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10                                                            Review articleTable 5: Tr...
Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10                                                     Review articleFigure 1. Baseline...
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Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Food Production in Northeast India, Manoj-Kumar

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Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Food Production in Northeast India, Manoj-Kumar

  1. 1. Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10 Review article Evidences, Projections and Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Food Production in Northeast India Manoj-KumarAbstract Rising concentration of atmospheric CO2,Over the past two decades, climate change has accompanying increase in Earth’s surface airevolved from a subject of future speculation to an temperature and the changes in precipitationinconvenient reality of the present. Given the pattern have been the three most strikinginextricable link of agriculture with climatic phenomena associated with global climate change.variables, impact of climate change on agriculture Atmospheric CO2 concentration has increased byand food security has been at the forefront of the around 40% since the dawn of industrial revolutionresearch and policy agenda in recent times. in the middle of eighteenth century. ItsHowever, despite being viewed as a region with concentration which was around 280 ppm in 1750the most climate-sensitive agriculture, climate AD (pre-industrial era) has now reached up to 390change and its impact on food production in ppm, and most of this increase has occurred innortheast India remains scarcely studied. recent few decades of accelerated anthropogenicNevertheless, climatic changes in northeast India activities (Table 1). Keeping in view the recurrentare becoming fairly perceptible, and the changes failure of global community in generating aare far more evident than in other parts of the consensus on curbing CO2 emission, coupled withcountry. These climatic changes will have definite the continuing high-carbon life style of developedimpacts on food production in northeast India. In countries, ambitious growth plans of developingthis context, the present paper provides a synthesis countries and the future developmental needs ofof the recent evidences, future projections and the under-developed countries, the prospect ofpotential impacts of climate change on agriculture bringing down CO2 emission rate in near futurein northeast India and offers some scientifically- seems disappointingly bleak. These are somerationalized hypotheses which warrant elaborate factors that suggest that the future trajectory ofexperimentations to have a precise estimate of CO2 emission may become even steeper than theclimate change impacts on agriculture. current projections of IPCC (Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change), according to whichKeywords: Climate change, Northeast India, Food CO2 concentrations will be at least 550 ppm bysecurity 2050, 605-755 ppm by 2070 and is likely to be doubled by the end of this century (IPCC, 2007). Consequent to heat-trapping effect of rapidlyClimate change – a general outlook rising atmospheric CO2, Earth’s surface airClimate change is arguably the most important temperature has also risen considerably over theglobal change phenomenon which has attracted the past hundred years, with the rate of rise becomingattention of scientific community across the globe. increasingly steeper over the decades. AccelerationWith the signs of climate change becoming in atmospheric warming on global scale and inincreasingly tangible with each passing year, India is illustrated by table 2 and 3, respectively.concern about its possible implications for various Temperature is further projected to rise by anothersectors of life on the Earth is also intensifying. On 2 to 4.5°C in the later half of this century, withaccount of its close association with climatic apparently the most plausible estimate of aroundvariables such as temperature and precipitation, 3°C with some regional variations around theagriculture is indisputably the most climate- world. Given that the pattern of precipitation in anysensitive sector, and thus, the possible impact of area is significantly influenced by the interactionsclimate change on this sector of utmost importance of oceanic surface- and Earth’s surface temperatureto human welfare has been the most intensively (besides many other factors), the ongoing rise indebated and researched topic in recent times. atmospheric temperature is anticipated to influence______________________________________ the amount and intensity of rainfall too, with theirDivision of Natural Resource Management (Soil regional variations expected to be far moreScience), ICAR Research Complex for NEH pronounced than the other climatic variables.Region, Umiam, Meghalaya 793 103, E-mail: Since atmospheric CO2 is the sole source ofmkumar_iari@yahoo.co.in carbon for plants, variations in its concentration 1
  2. 2. Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10 Review articlehave obvious implications for plant growth impact of climate change on agricultural(Kimball et al., 2002). The best growth and yield productivity of a region/country. Fourth assessmentperformances of C3 crops, such as rice and wheat, report of the IPCC and some other global studiesare observed at around 1000-1200 ppm CO2 indicate a probability of up to 40% loss in cropconcentrations (Grotenhuis and Bugbee, 1997; production in India with increase in temperatureMackowiak and Wheeler, 1996). As the current during the last quarter of this century (Parry et al.,atmospheric concentration of CO2 (385 ppm) is far 2004; Fischer et al., 2002). Some Indian studies onbelow than optimum to saturate the growth and this subject also confirm similar trend ofyield responses of C3 crops, any further increase in agricultural decline with climate changeCO2 concentration is expected to increase the (Aggarwal, 2003 & 2007; Lal et al., 1998; Rao andproductivity of these crops (Long et al., 2004; Sinha, 1994). Recent studies at the IndianManoj-Kumar, 2006 & 2010b; Manoj-Kumar et al., Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) indicate the2011c). Crop plants with C4 photosynthetic possibility of loss of 4-5 million tonnes in wheatpathway (e.g. maize, sorghum, sugarcane etc) will production with every 1°C rise in temperature evenalso benefit from rising CO2 concentration, but after considering the benefits of carbon fertilizationunlike C3 crops which is benefited by both and assuming the constant availability of irrigationincreased photosynthesis as well as improved water water (Aggarwal, 2007). Simulation based studiesuse efficiency under elevated CO2, C4 crops will be and some empirical observations also suggest thebenefited mainly by the later mechanism. In fact, risk of considerable reduction in rice yield underthe yield boosting effect of elevated CO2 (carbon the projected climate change scenarios in Indiafertilization effect) is now a well established (Amgain et al., 2006; Mathauda et al., 2000;phenomenon which has been experimentally Saseendran et al., 2000). Nutritional qualities ofproved across the various agro-ecosystems of the food grains (in terms of protein, Zn and Feworld. concentrations, and the bioavailability of the later However, unlike the universality of the positive two) are also expected to decline under theeffects of elevated CO2, impact of rising influence of rising atmospheric CO2 (Manoj-temperature on crop productivity is expected to Kumar and Patra, 2010; Manoj-Kumar, 2011c;vary in different regions of the world depending on Manoj-Kumar et al., 2011a). As rice and wheatthe favourability of the existing– and projected constitute the main staple food for majority oflevels of atmospheric temperature for the crop India’s population, the anticipated decline in theirgrowth. Rising temperature in temperate and Polar yields and nutritional qualities under climateRegions located at higher latitudes, where crop change puts the future prospects of India’s foodgrowth is currently limited by unfavorably low and nutrition security in jeopardy.temperature regimes, is expected to reinforce the Although the impact of climate change onbeneficial effect of elevated CO2 on crop yield. In productivity in various sectors of Indian agriculturecontrast, the temperature rise in tropical and is now fairly well-studied, the projections made onsubtropical regions located at lower to middle all India basis do not reflect the extent andlatitudes, where most of the food crops are already direction of effects on regional scale which wouldgrowing at the upper limits of their thermal be of more practical relevance for undertakingtolerance, may act in opposite direction to that of research and policy initiatives for mitigation of-rising CO2, with an overall negative impact on crop and adaptation to the impacts of climate change.yield (Manoj-Kumar et al. 2011c, 2012a&b). Moreover, the regional specificity of agriculturalFurthermore, the potential impact of changes in response to changes in temperature and rainfallprecipitation pattern is expected to be even more pattern makes it imperative to study the impact oflocalized than the effects of rising temperature. The climate change on regional scale for the preciseregions with higher percentage of agricultural area assessment of potential impacts and subsequentunder assured irrigation will have better adaptive actions for its mitigation and adaptation. In thiscapacity, whereas those with higher percentage of context, it is deplorable that the potential impactsrainfed areas will be more vulnerable to of climate change on agriculture in northeast India,precipitation changes under a changing climate. which is among the most climate-sensitive regions Notwithstanding the differential responses of of the country, has not been adequately studiedagricultural productivity to changes in different thus far. The following sections of this paper,climatic components, such as increasing CO2 therefore, attempts to offer an insightful analysis ofconcentration, rising temperature and changing the future possibilities of climate change impactsprecipitation patterns, it is the interactive effects of on agriculture in northeast India.all these factors which will dictate the overall 2
  3. 3. Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10 Review articleClimate change and agriculture in northeast 1901-2003 has increased significantly by a rate ofIndia: a regional perspective 1.02ºC and 0.60ºC/100 years, respectively (TableConsidering the fact that more than 86% of the 4). Atmospheric temperature in the region ispopulation in northeast India depends on further projected to rise by approximately 3ºC toagriculture for their food and livelihood, there 5ºC during the latter third of this century (Table 6).exists an inextricable link between agricultural It is worth noting that projected temperature rise inproductivity and the food and livelihood security of northeast India is greater than in other regions ofthe people in this region. Unfortunately, the country. More pronounced still is the reductionagricultural productivity in the region is in the annual as well as the monsoon rainfall overconstrained by a range of factors due to which, the years in north-eastern India. The most strikingdespite having ~ 8% of the total geographical area evidence of the declining rainfall in the regionand ~13% of the total rainfall of the country, the comes from the drastically reducing amount ofregion contributes only 1.5% to the total food grain annual rainfall in one of the wettest places in theproduction in the country. While the population world i.e. Cherrapunjee. According to a report,growth rate and thus the food demand in this region Cherrapunjee received less rain in the whole ofhas been growing at much faster rate than the all 2001 – only 363 inches – than it got in just oneIndia average, average productivity of food crops month in 1861 (Terradaily, March 03, 2007). Inhas been lagging far behind the national average. July 1861 alone, Cherrapunji had 366 inches ofThis has already led to a perpetual deficit of food rain. Between August 1860 and July 1861,supply in the region. Given the strong dependence Cherrapunjee got a record 1042 inches of rain – aof north-eastern population on agriculture which in world record. But now the annual rainfall there hasturn depends strongly on climatic suitability, even sharply fallen to less than a third of that. Thea slight unfavourable shift in its climate (rainfall alarming deficits in annual as well as monsoonand temperature in particular) can potentially rainfall observed year after year in recent timesendanger the food and livelihood security of the which causes severe droughts across the variouspeople in northeast India (Manoj-Kumar, 2011b). states further confirms the climate change-inducedAlthough empirical observations on climate change decline in rainfall in northeast India (Table 5).and its effect on agricultural productivity in Future projections of the season-wise precipitationnortheast India is scarce, there are a few sporadic changes in northeast India and the mean annualreports about current observations and future cycles of precipitation for different states ofprojections of climate change in the region; a short northeast India are illustrated in Table 6 and Figureand snappy synthesis of these informations are 1, respectively.presented hereunder. The implications of theprojected changes in climatic variables for Implications for agriculture in northeast Indiaagricultural productivity will be elaborated The implications of climate change on agriculturethereafter. Certain hypotheses concerning the in northeast India is already discernible althoughpossible mechanisms of climate change impacts the impact assessment studies are quite limited towill also be forwarded which merits elaborate reach a convincing conclusion. However a recentlyexperimentations for holistic assessment of climate released report by Ministry of Environment &change impacts on north-eastern agriculture in Forests, Government of India (Climate change andfuture. India: A 4x4 assessment - A sectoral and regional analysis for 2030s, November 2010) provides someClimate change observations and projections for approximations of the impact of climate change onnortheast India agriculture in northeast India. Results ofThere have been some conspicuous changes in Simulation analysis (using InfoCrop model) in thetemperature as well as rainfall pattern in northeast report indicates that climate change may bringIndia over the past century which suggests that changes in the irrigated rice yields by about –10%climate change is fast becoming an inconvenient to 5%, while the impacts on rain-fed rice are likelyreality of present rather than remaining a subject of to be in the range of –35% to 5% in A1B 2030future speculation only. The atmospheric climate scenarios in north-eastern regions. In thetemperature (annual mean temperature and annual case of wheat, the yields are projected to reduce bymean maximum temperature) has been rising at a up to 20%. Potato yields are likely to be marginallyrate quite perceptible to even the common people benefited up to 5% in upper parts of north-easternof the region. According to a recently reported region due to climate change influence, but in thestudy by Deka et al. (2009), the annual maximum central part, the yields are projected to reduce byand mean temperature in northeast India during about 4% while in the southern parts of the region, 3
  4. 4. Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10 Review articlethe negative impacts will be much higher. Maize forms carbonic acid (H2CO3) in soil waters, whichcrop yields are projected to reduce by about 40% in removes base cations from the soil systems afternortheast India. Maize and mustard are also likely leaching and produces soil acidity, enhanced CO 2to experience decrease in productivity in the entire production in soil under elevated CO2 can increaseregion. Climate change-induced thermal stress carbonic acid leaching and therefore intensify theeffects on livestock productivity in terms of already existing acute problem of soil acidity inTemperature-Humidity Index (THI) have also been northeast India (Manoj-Kumar, 2011b).projected in the report. This index represents Soil organic matter is yet another attribute ofthermal stress due to the combined effects of air soil health which may suffer a decline in itstemperature and humidity, and used as an index to quantity as well as quality under the influence ofmonitor the heat-stress related losses in animal rising atmospheric temperature. Since rate of soilproductivity. The THI has been anticipated to rise organic matter decomposition increases withbeyond 80 (THI > 80) between April-October increasing temperature, the projected rise inmonths, causing severe stress to the health and atmospheric temperature can reduce the amount ofproductivity of livestock in northeast India under a soil organic matter in northeast India. As the labilechanging climate. fractions of soil organic carbon can be decomposed Even though the report provides useful faster than its relatively recalcitrant fractions,information about the future impact of climate atmospheric warming can induce gradual reductionchange, there are certain limitations which suggest in the proportion of labile carbon fractions whichthat much more needs to be done to predict with implies reduction in quality of soil organic matter.more certainty the future of north-eastern Quantitative and qualitative reduction in soilagriculture in a changing climate. For example, organic matter under the future scenario ofthese predictions did not take into account the atmospheric warming can reduce the water andsocio-economic trends and capability to adjust with nutrient holding capacity of soil, weaken thea changing climate, improvements in farmers’ buffering capacity of soil to changes in pH andeconomic status, market demand, and so on, which other stresses, degrade soil aggregate stability anddrive the changes in yields and production to a physical structure rendering it more susceptible tolarge extent. Further, the pests and diseases erosion losses, decrease soil biological activity, andscenarios are not integrated in this assessment due can bring many other associated changes whichto lack of proper scientific data. On top of all these, will ultimately lead to gradual decline in soil healthin what seems to be hitherto a most comprehensive and crop productivity in northeast India.assessment of climate change impact on north- Predictions of increased frequency of high intensityeastern agriculture, impact projections have been rainfall (even flash flood or cloud burst) will alsomade only up to the climatic scenario of 2030– not increase the runoff and erosion losses of surfacetoo distant a future from now. However, soils and nutrient content therein, robbing the soilconsidering the ever-accelerating rise in off its already impoverished fertility status in theatmospheric warming, the associated climatic region. Also, there is possibility of elevatedchanges will further intensify towards the middle temperature-induced increase in transientof this century and beyond, with a definite salinisation (due to capillary rise of salts up to rootaggravation of their adverse impacts on agriculture. zone), denitrification and volatilization loss ofBriefed below are some of the possible nutrients, and nutrient loss through more leachingrepercussions associated with changes in different due to high intensity rainfall events under aclimatic variables viz. atmospheric CO2, changing climate (Manoj-Kumar, 2010).temperature and rainfall, which can potentially Agriculture in northeast India is predominantlyaffect the future prospects of food production in rainfed where water availability is a majornortheast India. constraint for crop intensification and agricultural Soil acidity is undoubtedly the most important productivity, particularly in winter monthsimpediment to crop productivity in northeast India. (November-February). Water requirement forAnd a simple logic suggests that, under the agriculture in this region is further anticipated tobusiness-as-usual scenario, soil acidity may be increase from approximately 20 km3 in 2001 tofurther intensified under the influence of rising 25.2 km3 in 2021 (Sharma, 2003). Owing to higheratmospheric CO2 concentration. This possibility evapotranspiration loss of water under the risingstems from a frequent experimental observation of atmospheric temperature, water requirement willincreased CO2 production in soil due to increased increase more steeply under the future scenario ofroot and soil microbial respiration under elevated climate change. Contrary to the expected increaseCO2 atmosphere. Since CO2 produced this way in crop water requirements, its availability will 4
  5. 5. Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10 Review articledecline as evident by erratic trend of rainfall and the soil resilience to climate change-inducedrecurrent occurrence of drought events in the stresses, or the loss of biodiversity at the level ofregion. Clearly, declining availability against rising whole agro-ecosystem can reduce the potentialrequirement of water will pose a severe challenge capacity of north-eastern agriculture to adapt to ato the agricultural productivity of northeast India in changing climate. In general, the benefits of carbonfuture. fertilization effect on crop growth under the rising Crop-pest interactions will also change atmospheric CO2 is considered the only silversignificantly with climate change leading to impact lining in the otherwise dark and dreaded cloud ofon pest distribution and crop losses. Crop-weed climate change. However, this effect is practicallycompetition will be affected by rising atmospheric realized only when there is no limitation of waterCO2 depending upon their photosynthetic pathway. and nutrients for the growing plants (Campbell andHowever, the associated rise in temperature may Sage, 2006; Manoj-Kumar and Bhadraray, 2009;further alter the competition depending upon the Manoj-Kumar et al., 2009a&b; Manoj-Kumar et al.threshold ambient temperatures. Diseases and 2011b). Keeping in view the lower availability ofinsect populations are strongly dependent upon the nutrients in soil (such as phosphorus), inadequateclimatic components such as temperature and external input of nutrients from fertilizers, and thehumidity. Any increase in these parameters, reducing availability of water for agriculture, thedepending upon their base value, can significantly possible benefits of carbon fertilization can also notalter their population, which ultimately results in be expected in agriculture of northeast India. Thisyield loss. For every insect species there is a range implies that climate change will unfurl itself withof temperatures within which it remains active its full potential to cause the possible decline infrom egg to adult stage. Within the favourable agricultural productivity and food security inrange, there is an optimum temperature at which northeast India.most of the individuals of a species complete theirdevelopment. Exposure to temperatures on either Conclusionside of the range exerts an adverse impact on the The signs of climate change are becominginsect by slowing down the speed of development. increasingly perceptible with every passing year,If ambient temperature becomes favourable for the and the changes in northeast India appear to be farpest after temperature increases, the pest incidence more evident than in other parts of the country.may be expected to rise due to increased rates of Also discernible is the impact of these climaticdevelopment, which may result in the completion changes on agricultural production in northeastof more pest generations within shorter period of India. Some recent projections for near futuretime. There is strong possibility that increasing indicate that climate change can potentially reducetemperature in northeast India can induce this kind the productivity of some major crops and livestockof alteration in crop-pest interaction which may in the region. A suite of the logics and explanationsultimately result into significant yield losses. In forwarded in this paper clearly indicate that infact, there have already been a few sporadic reports long-term (towards the middle of this century andto this effect (e.g. Hueiyen Lanpao, February 25 th, beyond), actual impacts of climate change on2011) which further embolden the future north-eastern agriculture might range beyond thepossibility of such changes in crop-pest interaction, levels being anticipated now, making it furtherwith its dreadful consequences for crop difficult to produce enough food for ensuring foodproductivity in the region. The possibility of sovereignty of the region. This necessitates theappearance of some new insect and pathogens can development and promotion of effective mitigationalso not be ruled out under the future scenario of and adaptation strategies for a climate-resilientclimate change in northeast India. Since protein agriculture production system in northeast India.and mineral contents of plant tissues are generallyreduced under elevated CO2 condition, it is quitepossible that insects will eat up and damage more Referencescrops to meet its food and nutritional requirements Aggarwal PK (2003). Impact of climate change onwhich will ultimately lead to increased crop loss Indian agriculture. Journal of Plant Biology 30:and reduced productivity in future. 189-198. In addition to all these alarming possibilities, Aggarwal PK. (2007). Climate change:there could be many more ways through which Implications for Indian agriculture. Jalvigyanclimate change can affect the future prospects of Sameeksha 22: 37-46.food production in northeast India. For instance, Amgain LP, Devkota NR, Timsina J, Bijay-Singhthe possibility of soil biodiversity loss will reduce (2006). Effect of climate change and CO 2 5
  6. 6. Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10 Review article concentration on growth and yield of rice and Manoj-Kumar (2010a). Phosphorus dynamics in wheat in Punjab: simulations using CSM- wheat rhizosphere vis-a-vis P nutrition under CERES-RICE and CSM-CERES-WHEAT elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and models. Journal of the Institute of Agriculture temperature. Ph.D. Thesis submitted to Indian and Animal Science 27: 103-110. Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), NewCampbell CD, Sage RF (2006). Interactions Delhi. between the effects of atmospheric CO2 content Manoj-Kumar (2010b). Soil responds to climate and P nutrition on photosynthesis in white lupin change: is soil science in India responding to? (Lupinus albus L.). Plant Cell and Environment Current Science 99(7): 892-894. 29: 844-853. Manoj-Kumar (2011a). Impact of climate changeCline W (2007). Global Warming and Agriculture: on agriculture in North East India. Bhartiya Impact Estimates by Country, Washington D.C., Krishi Anusandhan Patrika 26 (1-2): 58-61. Peterson Institute. Manoj-Kumar (2011b). North East India: soil andDeka RL, Mahanta C, Nath KK (2009). Trends and water management imperatives for food security fluctuations of temperature regime of north east in a changing climate? Current Science 101(9): India, In: ISPRS Archives XXXVIII-8/W3 1119. Workshop Proceedings: Impact of Climate Manoj-Kumar (2011c). Will rising CO2 affect Zn Change on Agriculture. and Fe bioavailability in food grains? CurrentFischer G, Shah M, Velthuizen H Van (2002). Science 101(4): 467. Climate Change and Agricultural Vulnerability, Manoj-Kumar, Bhadraray S (2009). Enhanced International Institute for Applied Systems nitrogen demand by wheat: A challenge under Analysis. Laxenburg, Austria. rising atmospheric CO2. In abstracts of 4thGrotenhuis TP, Bugbee B (1997). Super-optimal World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, CO2 reduces seed yield but not vegetative February 4-7, 2009, pp 415. growth in wheat. Crop Science 37: 1215-1222. Manoj-Kumar, Patra AK (2010). NutritionalIPCC (2007). The physical science basis, Summary security: a missing link in climate change for Policymakers, Inter-Governmental Panel on debates. Current Science 99(7): 887-889. Climate Change. Manoj-Kumar, Swarup A, Patra AK, ChandrakalaKimball BA, Kobayashi K, Bindi M (2002). JU (2011a). Micronutrient fertilisation under the Responses of agricultural crops to free air CO2 rising atmospheric CO2 for nutritional security enrichment. Advances in Agronomy 77: 293- in India. Indian Journal of Fertilizers 7 (7): 52- 368. 60.Kothawale DR, Kumar KR (2005). On the recent Manoj-Kumar, Swarup A, Patra AK, Manjaiah changes in surface temperature trends over KM, Singh R (2010). Fertilizer P use efficiency India, Geophysical Research Letters, 32: in wheat under elevated atmospheric CO2 and L18714, doi: 10.1029/2005GL023528 temperature in subtropical India: A 32P tracerLal M, Singh KK, Rathore LS, Srinivasan G, study. Journal of Nuclear Agriculture and Saseendran SA (1998). Vulnerability of rice and Biology 39: 41-53. wheat yields in NW - India to future changes in Manoj-Kumar, Bhadraray S, Babar L, Pal M climate. Agriculture and Forest Meteorology, (2009). Interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 89: 101-114. and soil nitrogen availability on yield andLong SP, Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Ort DR quality of wheat in sub-tropical India, In (2004). Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide: abstracts of 4th World Congress on Plants face the future. Annual Review in Plant Conservation Agriculture-February 4-7, 2009, Biology, 55:591-628. pp.442.Mackowiak CL, Wheeler RM (1996). Growth and Manoj-Kumar, Patra AK, Swarup A (2011b). stomatal behaviour of hydroponically cultured Impact of climate change on fertiliser demand in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) at elevated and agriculture: concerns and imperatives for food superoptimal CO2. Journal of Plant Physiology security in India. Indian Journal of Fertilisers, 149: 205-210. 7(2): 48-62.Manoj-Kumar (2006). Fertilizer nitrogen use Manoj-Kumar, Swarup A, Patra AK, Purakayastha efficiency by wheat grown under elevated TJ, Manjaiah KM, Rakshit R (2011c). Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. M.Sc. Thesis CO2 and temperature effects on phosphorus submitted to PG School, Indian Agricultural dynamics in rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi. aestivum L.) grown in a Typic Haplustept of subtropical India. Agrochimica 55(6): 14-31. 6
  7. 7. Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10 Review articleManoj-Kumar, Swarup A, Patra AK, Chandrakala JU, Manjaiah KM (2012a). Effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on phosphorus efficiency of wheat grown in an Inceptisol of subtropical India. Plant Soil and Environment 58(5): 230- 235.Manoj-Kumar, Swarup A, Bhadraray S, Patra AK, Chandrakala JU, Manjaiah KM, Rakshit R, Kumar S, Singh R (2012b). Yield, nutritional quality and phosphorus requirement of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown under projected elevation of atmospheric CO2 and temperature in subtropical India. Agrochimica (in press).Mathauda SS, Mavi HS, Bhangoo BS, Dhaliwal BK (2000). Impact of projected climate change on rice production in Punjab (India), Tropical Ecology 41(1): 95-98.Parry ML, Rosenzweig C, Iglesias A, Livermore AM, Fischcr G (2004). Effects of climate change on global food production under SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change 14: 53-67.Rao GD, Sinha SK (1994). Impact of climatic change on simulated wheat production in India. pp 1-10. In Implications of Climate Change for Internation.al Agriculture: Crop Modelling Study. Rosenzweig C and Iglesias I (Eds). EPA, USA.Rupa Kumar K, Sahai AK, Kumar KK, Patwardhan SK, Mishra PK, Revadekar JV, Kamala K, Pant GB (2006). High-resolution climate change scenarios for India for the 21st century, Current Science 90: (3), 334-345.Saseendran SA, Singh KK, Rathore LS, Singh SV, Sinha SK (2000). Effects of climate change on rice production in the tropical humid climate of Kerala, India. Climatic Change 44: 495-14.Sharma UC (2003). Impact of population growth and climate change on the quantity and quality of water resources in the northeast of India, Water Resources Systems—Hydrological Risk, Management and Development (Proceedings of symposium HS02b held during IUGG 2003 at Sapporo. July 2003), IAHS Publ. no. 281. 7
  8. 8. Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10 Review articleTable 1: Acceleration in rate of atmospheric CO2 increase over the past 250 years Year Approx. CO2 *Total increase in *Rate of increase in *Rate of increase in CO2 conc. (ppm) CO2 conc. (ppm) CO2 conc. (ppm/yr) conc. (ppm/yr) over the during: during: past: 1750 280 - - - 1960 315 1750-1960 (35) 1750-1960 (0.17) 250 years (0.4) 1994 360 1960-1994 (45) 1960-1994 (1.3) 50 years (1.5) 2007 387 1994-2007 (27) 1994-2007 (2.0) 15 years (2.0)*Approximate values are given in parenthesis following the time period. Computation of rate of CO 2 increase is basedon the values of CO2 reported in multiple sources.Table 2: Acceleration in rate of atmospheric warming on global scaleTime period under Rate of increase in atmosphericconsideration temperature (ºC/decade)Last 100 years 0.074Last 50 years 0.128Last 25 years 0.177(IPCC, 2007)Table 3: Acceleration in rate of atmospheric warming in IndiaTime period under Rate of increase in atmosphericconsideration temperature (ºC/decade)1901-2003 0.051971-2003 0.22(Kothawale and Kumar, 2005)Table 4: Trend rate of temperature in northeast India during 1901-2003Seasons Trend rate of temperature (ºC/100 yr) Maximum Minimum MeanPre-monsoon (March-May) +0.78 +0.09 +0.44Monsoon (June-September) +0.75 -0.32 +0.21Post-monsoon (October-November) +1.54 +0.64 +1.09Winter (December-February) +1.22 +0.61 +0.92Annual +1.02 +0.18 +0.60Deka et al. (2009) 8
  9. 9. Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10 Review articleTable 5: Trend of deficit rainfall (%) over north-eastern India in recent times* 2005 2006 2009** 2010**Assam -23 -32 -34 -6Arunachal Pradesh 0 -25 -29 -30Nagaland -22 -25 -63 -27Manipur -22 -25 -67 -46Mizoram -22 -25 -32 -28Meghalaya -23 -32 -56 -49Tripura -22 -25 -31 -16*The rainfall data belongs to IMD’s Regional Meteorological Centre, Guwahati, as reported in multiple sources.**report based on rainfall received till July 20th in respective years.Table 6: Region-wise and season-wise projections of temperature and rainfall changes in India for theperiod 2070-2099 with reference to the base period 1960-1990*Region Jan.-March April-June July-Sep. Oct.-Dec.Temperature Change (ºC)Northeast 4.95 4.11 2.88 4.05Northwest 4.53 4.25 2.96 4.16Southeast 4.16 3.21 2.53 3.29Southwest 3.74 3.07 2.52 3.04Precipitation Change (%)Northeast -9.3 20.3 21.0 7.5Northwest 7.2 7.1 27.2 57.0Southeast -32.9 29.7 10.9 0.7Southwest 22.3 32.3 8.8 8.5(Cline, 2007)*Projections are average of predictions of six general circulation models including HadCM3, CSIROMk2, CGCM2,GFDL-R30, CCSR/NIES, and ECHAM4/OPYC3. 9
  10. 10. Indian J Hill Frmg 2011, 24(1&2) 1-10 Review articleFigure 1. Baseline and future projections (2071-2100) of mean annual cycles of precipitation for northeastern states of India, as simulated by PRECIS (Rupa Kumar et al., 2006) 10

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