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# Research Terminology for EDEL 600

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### Research Terminology for EDEL 600

1. 1. Basic Concepts of Elementary Education Research Terminology PowerPoint EDEL 600 Online
2. 2. The Mean <ul><li>The mean is the arithmetic average of the scores and is the most frequently used measure of central tendency. </li></ul><ul><li>It is calculated by adding up all of the scores and dividing that total by the number of scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>- IQ scores: 96, 96, 97, 99, 100, 110, 115, 120, 130. </li></ul><ul><li>Mean = 96+96+97+99+100+110+115+120+130/9 </li></ul><ul><li>= 107 (arithmetic average) </li></ul><ul><li>Gay & Airasian (2000) </li></ul>
3. 3. The Mode <ul><li>The mode is the score that occurs most frequently. </li></ul><ul><li>The mode is determined by looking at a set of scores or at a graph of scores </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>- IQ scores: 96, 96, 97, 99, 100, 110, 115, 120, 130. </li></ul><ul><li>Mode = 96 (it occurs twice.) </li></ul><ul><li>Gay & Airasian (p.439) </li></ul>
4. 4. The Median <ul><li>The median is the midpoint. </li></ul><ul><li>Odd number of scores – the median is the middle score. </li></ul><ul><li>Even number of scores – the median is the point halfway between the two middle scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>- IQ scores: 96, 96, 97, 99, 100, 110, 115, 120, 130. </li></ul><ul><li>Median = 100 (middle point) </li></ul><ul><li>- Scores: 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75 </li></ul><ul><li>Median = 62.5 (average of two middle scores) </li></ul><ul><li>Gay & Airasian (p.439) </li></ul>
5. 5. Mode / Median / Mean Mode: 60 Median: 60 Mean: 64 N Score 1 50 2 60 3 60 4 70 5 80
6. 6. The Standard Deviation <ul><li>A measure of the variability of the scores in a set of scores equivalent to the average distance of the scores from the mean. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The mean for the following set of five scores is 11 and the standard deviation is 2: 9, 10, 10, 12, 14. </li></ul><ul><li>The scores vary on average about two points from the mean. For the following set of five scores, the mean is 10 and the standard deviation is 0: 10, 10, 10, 10, 10. There is no variation among the scores. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primer on Educational Research 2004 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
7. 7. The Range <ul><li>The range is the difference between the highest and lowest score once the scores are arranged in order and is determined by subtraction. </li></ul><ul><li>It gives a quick, rough estimate of variability </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Score 60, 70, 80, 90 </li></ul><ul><li>Range : 90-60 = 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Gay & Airasian (p.441) </li></ul>
8. 8. The Normal Distribution <ul><li>It is bell-shaped score distribution and quite symmetrical. </li></ul><ul><li>The normal distribution has a range of about three SD above the mean and three SD below the mean </li></ul><ul><li>About 68 percent of the scores in a normal distribution will fall within one standard deviation above and below the mean; about 95 percent of the scores will fall within two standard deviations above and below the mean, and almost 98 percent of the scores will fall within three standard deviations above and below the mean. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Gay & Airasian (p.443) </li></ul>
9. 9. The Normal Distribution <ul><li>The diagram shows normal distribution. </li></ul>Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock (2001)
10. 10. Effect Size <ul><li>When conducting a meta-analysis, a researcher translates the results of a given study into a unit of measurement referred to as an effect size. </li></ul><ul><li>Effect size expresses the increase or decrease in achievement of the experimental group in standard deviation units. </li></ul><ul><li>Effect size can be translated into a percentile gain. </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion table for effect size/ Percentile gain </li></ul>
11. 11. Effect Size Examples (Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock p.7) Conversion Table Instructional Practice Ave. Effect Size (ES) Percentile Gain Identifying similarities and differences 1.61 45 Summarizing and note taking 1.00 34 Reinforcing effort and providing recognition .80 29 Homework and practice .77 28
12. 12. Conversion Table Effect Size Percentile gain Effect Size Percentile gain Effect Size Percentile gain 0.00 0 0.33 13 0.71 26 0.02 1 0.36 14 0.74 27 0.05 2 0.39 15 0.77 28 0.08 3 0.41 16 0.81 29 0.10 4 0.44 17 0.84 30 0.13 5 0.47 18 0.88 31 0.15 6 0.50 19 0.92 32 0.18 7 0.52 20 0.95 33 0.20 8 0.55 21 1.00 34 0.23 9 0.58 22 0.25 10 0.61 23 Note this Table is not 0.28 11 0.64 24 complete but is 0.31 12 0.67 25 sufficient for the exam
13. 13. References <ul><li>Marzano, R.J., Pickering, D.J., Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom Instruction that works. Alexandria, VA. </li></ul><ul><li>Primer on Educational Research (2004) http://www.ecs.org/html/educationIssues/Research/primer/glossary.asp </li></ul><ul><li>Gay, L.R., Airasian, P. (2000). Educational Research . Prentice-Hall, Inc. NJ. </li></ul>