The wisdom of the customer
… the original World Wide Web browser of course was also
an editor. … I really wanted it to be a collaborative
authoring tool. And for some reason it didn't really take off
that way. And we could discuss for ages why it didn't. …
I've always felt frustrated that most people don't...didn't
have write access.
Sir Tim Berners-Lee
Institutions must cede
control of the message
in order to participate
in the conversation.
– Who listens?
– Single channel
– Person based
– No peer
– Silent majority
Such a lovely place
• The net is the digital version of the city made of
chips and fiber instead of steel and concrete
Net and the City
Thanks to Rogier Brussee for the net and city analogy
Some things never change
• People remain people
– Fundamental needs unchanged
– Manifestation depends on culture
• Human motives
– Food, safety and shelter
– Safety, amusement, sex
– Social interaction
– Respect, self-actualization
• By understanding constant patterns we can learn what
• People commute between the net and real world
– Broad, many2many
• Mix real and
– Channels adding up
• Wisdom of crowds
1785 R.B.Longridge and Company Bedlington First loco built 1837. Closed 1855
1790 William and Alfred Kitching, Darlington First loco 1832. Bought by Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1862. Closed 1886.
1790 Benjamin Outram and Company, Butterley, Derbyshire Civil engineering firm, but had a strong interest in railways. Became Butterley Company in 1805
1795 Fenton, Murray and Wood, The Round Foundry Leeds, First loco 1812. Became Fenton, Murray and Jackson in 1826.
1805 Butterley Company, Butterley, Derbyshire Built locos for its own use plus two for the Midland Counties Railway. Closed in 1965, though the Butterley Engineering Company remained until c1983
1810 Haigh Foundry, Wigan First loco 1835. Closed 1856.
1810 J and C Carmichael, Ward Foundry Dundee Two locos only in 1833. Became James Carmichael in 1853. Limited liability in 1894. Closed 1929.
1816 William Fairbairn & Sons Manchester First loco 1839. Loco business bought by Sharp Stewart in 1863.
1817 R and W Hawthorn Ltd, Newcastle Became Hawthorn Leslie in 1884.
1819 Foster, Rastrick and Company, Stourbridge, Four locomomotives in 1829, including first in USA. Closed 1831.
1823 Robert Stephenson and Company Newcastle Became R.Stephenson & Hawthorn in 1937.
1823 Edward Bury and Company, Liverpool Became Bury, Curtis and Kennedy in 1842
1824 G and J Rennie, Blackfriars see George and John Rennie
1826 Fenton, Murray and Jackson, The Round Foundry Leeds Closed 1843. Fenton took over Shepherd and Todd's Railway Foundry in 1846.
1826 Mather, Dixon and Company, Liverpool Moved to Bootle in 1839. Closed 1843.
1828 Sharp, Roberts and Company, Manchester First loco 1833. Became Sharp Bros. in 1843.
1830 Rothwell, Hick and Rothwell, Bolton Became Rothwell and Company1832
1830 Charles Tayleur and Company, (Vulcan Foundry) Warrington Became Vulcan Foundry in 1847
1830 Tulk and Ley, Whitehaven. Taken over by Fletcher Jennings Ltd. in 1857
1832 Rothwell and Company, Bolton Closed approx 1864
1833 Benjamin Hick and Sons, Bolton Last locos 1850. Became Hick, Hargreaves and Company, acquiring limited liability in 1889.
1834 George Forrester and Company, Liverpool, Closed 1890. Last locomotive circa 1847.
1834 Day, Summers and Company, Southampton, First loco 1837, became Summers, Day and Baldock in 1847.
1835 James Kitson, Airedale Foundry, Leeds, Became Todd, Kitson & Laird in 1838
1835 John Coulthard And Son, Gateshead, Became R. Coulthard and Company in 1853
1836 Nasmyth, Gaskell and Company, Patricroft Became James Nasmyth in 1850
1837 Jones, Turner and Evans, Newton-le-Willows became Jones & Potts in 1844
1837 Henry Stothert and Company, Bristol, Became Stothert, Slaughter and Company in 1841.
1837 Kerr, Mitchell and Neilson, Glasgow Became Kerr, Neilson and Company in 1840
1838 Shepherd and Todd, the Railway Foundry. Leeds, Became Fenton, Craven and Company in 1846
1838 Todd, Kitson & Laird, Leeds Also known as Kitson and Laird, also Laird and Kitson. Became Kitson, Thompson and Hewitson in 1842
c1839 Thompson & Cole, Little Bolton Built five locos including two for the Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway
c1839 Stark and Fulton, Glasgow Built locos between 1839 and 1849
c1840 Isaac Dodds and Son, Rotherham, First locomotive 1849 though possible previous work for the Sheffield and Rotherham Railway. Closed 1868
1840 Andrew Barclay, Sons and Company Kilmarnock First steam loco 1859. Began building diesels in 1935. Merged with Hunslet Group 1972. Still in business as Hunslet-Barclay)
1840 Kerr, Neilson and Company, Glasgow, First locos 1843. Became Neilson and Mitchell in 1845
1841 Stothert, Slaughter and Company, Bristol, Became Slaughter, Gruning and Company in 1856
1842 Bury, Curtis, and Kennedy, Liverpool Wound up 1851
1842 Kitson, Thompson and Hewitson, Leeds Later Kitson and Hewitson, then Kitson and Company in 1863
1843 W.B.Adams, Fairfield Works, Bow, Steam powered carriage 1847. Locos from 1849. Adams radial axle box. Closed circa 1872.
1843 Sharp Brothers, Manchester Became Sharp Stewart & Co. in 1852
1843 Gilkes Wilson and Company Middlesbrough First locomotives built 1847. Became Hopkins Gilkes and Company in 1865
1844 Charles Todd, Leeds Closed 1858. Taken over by Carrett, Marshall and Company
1844 Jones and Potts, Newton-le-Willows Closed 1852. Jones then opened a company in Liverpool.
1845 Neilson and Mitchell, Glasgow, Became Neilson and Company in 1855
1846 Hawthorns and Company, Leith Set up by R and W Hawthorn Ltd. to provide engines for Scotland. Closed circa 1872
1846 Fenton, Craven and Company. Leeds Became E.B.Wilson in 1846
1846 E.B.Wilson and Company, Leeds Built Jenny Lind Closed 1858
1847 W.G.Armstrong and Company, Newcastle on Tyne Became Armstrong Whitworth in 1897.
1847 Vulcan Foundry, Warrington, Limited liability in 1864. In 1955 became part of English Electric. Last locomotive 1970. Works closed 2002
1847 Summers, Day and Baldock, Southampton No locomotives built after 1839. Later became Day, Summers and Company
1850 John Fowler & Co., Leeds First locos 1866. Limited liability in 1886. Locomotive acttivies ended 1968
1850 James Nasmyth, Patricroft Became Patricroft Ironworks in 1857
1852 John Jones and Son, Liverpool Closed 1863
1853 Sharp Stewart and Company, Manchester, later Glasgow, Limited liability in 1864. Took over Clyde Locomotive Company in 1888. Merged into North British Locomotive Company in 1903
1853 R.Coulthard and Company Gateshead Closed 1865. Passed to Black, Hawthorn & Co
1854 Beyer-Peacock and Company, Gorton, Manchester, Limited liability 1902. Famous for Garratt locos. Reorganised for diesel-hydraulic in 1961. Closed 1966
1854 Brassey and Company, Canada Works Birkenhead Subsidiary of Brassey,Jackson, Betts abnd Company. Last loco circa 1875
1855 Neilson and Company, Glasgow, Became Neilson, Reid and Company in 1898
1856 Slaughter, Gruning and Company, Bristol Became Avonside Engine Company in 1866
1857 Patricroft Ironworks, Patricroft Became Nasmyth Wilson and Company in 1867
1857 Ruston, Proctor and Company Lincoln Locomotives built from 1866. Became Ruston & Hornsby in 1918.
1857 Fletcher Jennings Ltd, Whitehaven. Became Lowca Engineering Co. Ltd. in 1884
1858 Manning Wardle Leeds, Closed 1927
1860 Hudswell and Clarke, Leeds, Became Hudswell, Clarke and Rogers in 1870
1863 Dübs and Company, Glasgow Joined North British Locomotive Company in 1903
1863 Kitson & Co., Leeds Closed 1938
1864 Hunslet Engine Company, Leeds, Limited liability in 1902. Moved into diesels around 1930. Still occasionally built steam engines. Closed 1995, but the Barclay works remains as Hunslet-Barclay
1864 Fox Walker, Bristol, Became Peckett and Sons in 1880
1865 Yorkshire Engine Company, Sheffield Acquired in 1948 by United Steel. Diesl units produced from 1949. Taken over by Rolls-Royce in 1965 and worked transferred to Sentinel of Shrewsbury.
1865 Henry Hughes and Company, Loughborough, Became Falcon Railway Plant Works in 1883
1865 Black, Hawthorn & Co, Gateshead, Became Chapman and Furneaux in 1896
1866 Avonside Engine Company, Bristol Closed 1934
1865 Hopkins Gilkes and Company Middlesbrough Became Tees-side Iron and Engine Works Company Limited in 1875
1867 Nasmyth Wilson and Company, Patricroft Limited liability in 1882. Became Patricroft Royal Ordnance Factory in 1939
1870 Hudswell, Clarke and Rogers, Leeds, Became Hudswell Clarke and Company in 1881
1872 Barclays and Company, Kilmarnock, Merged with Andrew Barclay and Company in 1888
1874 Sir Arthur P. Heywood, Duffield Pioneered 15 inch gauge, see Duffield Bank Railway
1875 W.G.Bagnall, Stafford, Limited liability in 1887. In 1951 taken over by Brush as Brush-Bagnall Traction Ltd.
1875 Tees-side Iron and Engine Works Company Limited Middlesbrough Closed 1880
1877 Hartley, Arnoux and Fanning, Stoke, Taken over by Kerr-Stuart in 1893
1880 Peckett and Sons, Atlas Works, Bristol, Last steam loco 1958. Taken over by Reed Crane and Hoist Co until this also closed, but name carried on by Peckett and Sons of Ongar
1881 James Kerr and Company, Glasgow Sub contracted loco building, then became Kerr Stuart and Company at Stoke in 1893
1881 Hudswell Clarke and Company, The Railway Foundry, Leeds Limited liability in 1899. Began building diesels approx 1920. Taken over by Hunslet Engineering
1883 Falcon Railway Plant Works, Loughborough, Became Brush Electrical Engineering Company in 1889
1883 Dick, Kerr & Co., Kilmarnock, Locomotive production moved to Preston in 1919.
1884 Clyde Locomotive Company Ltd., Atlas Works, Springburn Bought by Sharp Stewart in 1888
1884 Hawthorn Leslie and Company Ltd.,, Newcastle upon Tyne, Was R&W Hawthorne. Became R.Stephenson & Hawthorn in 1937
1884 Lowca Engineering Co. Ltd., Whitehaven. Became New Lowca Engineering Co. Ltd. in 1905
1886 Clyde Locomotive Company, Glasgow18861886-1888 taken over by Sharp, Stewart
1889 Brush Electrical Engineering Company, Loughborough, Last steam 1914. Still in business producing diesel-electric locos.
1893 Kerr Stuart and Company Ltd., Stoke, Closed 1930
1896 Chapman and Furneaux Gateshead Took over Black Hawthorne & Co. Closed 1902
1897 Armstrong Whitworth, Newcastle Last locos approx 1937.
1898 Neilson Reid and Company, Glasgow Amalgamated into the North British Locomotive Company in 1903
1903 North British Locomotive Company, Glasgow, Closed 1962
1905 New Lowca Engineering Co. Ltd., Whitehaven. Closed 1912
1911 E.E.Baguley Ltd. Burton upon Trent Now Baguley-Drewry Ltd.
1918 English Electric, Taken over by GEC in 1960
1918 Ruston and Hornsby Lincoln Last locomotives c1967. Now specialises in gas turbines.
1937 Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns, Ltd Darlington and Newcastle on Tyne, Became English Electric in 1962
What is a bank?
– E-bay anyone?
Who do you trust?
• Each other
• Independent subject matter experts
We don’t trust…
• Mainstream media
“Person like yourself or your
peer” is seen as the most
credible spokesperson about
a company and among the
top three spokespeople in
every country surveyed.
– 2006 Annual Edelman
• Social communication tools
– Internet telephony
• Virtual communities
– My Space
– Second Life
• New channels
• It is hard to quit your favourite pub
– Not because you like the room but
because the people do not move
– Social context is the biggest lock-in
vs. Engage and Participate
Preach vs. Advocate
Command and Control vs. Influence and Persuade
Formal and Instructive vs. Informal and Conversational
Tell Your Audience vs. Build Community
Manage the customer
Guess his life events
Guess his taste and preferences
Let the customer manage
Let the customer say what he wants
Let him organize his preferences
Let the customer be in control
Doubt is normal
Hesitation is fatal
Paul Fentener van Vlissingen
How to create an community?
• See the world as a …
place that functions
according to the laws
of epidemics. You can
• Little changes can
have big effects.
• Don’t think lineair but
realise that life
evolves in leaps.
Start a Social community
• A community has a life of its own
• Don’t search for ‘the one action’: change is a conglomorate of actions
• Don’t start your change with trumpets and fanfare, just start: the
only way to get people aboard is concrete results: not words
• Work your leverage using the many, many triggers which can offer
added value to your customer
• Send your message in many different ways.
1. Handling member data sensitively
2. Stability of the website
3. Short reaction time of the website
– Performance, stability, security 4. Offering up to date content
5. Establishing codes of behavior
6. Evolution of the community according the ideas of its members
7. Continuous community controlling with regard to the satisfaction of its members
8. Assistance for new members by experienced members
– is king 9. Encouraging interaction between members
10. Intuitive user guidance/usability
11. Offering high quality content
12. building trust among members
13. Sustaining neutrality when presenting and selecting offers
– Less is more 14. Continuous community controlling with regard to growth of the number of members
15. Continuous community controlling with regard the frequency of visits
– Do not be technology driven 16. Constant extension of offerings
17. Building a strong trademark
– Let the community influence 18. Price efficiency of offered products and services
19. Personalized product and service offers
– Do not own the community 20. High number of members within a short term
21. Arranging regular events
22. Supporting the community by regular real-world meetings
23. Focusing on one target audience
24. Appreciation of contribution of members by the operator
– Let he members participate 25. Offering privileges or bonus programs to members
26. Integration of members into the administration of the community
– Provide possibilities for building up 27. Special treatment for loyal members
28. Defining sources of revenue as starting condition when building a virtual community
social capital and status symbols 29. Personalized page design of the community site according to the preferences of its members
30. Establishing and supporting subgroups within the community
– Support member contact and 31. Increasing market transparency for members
32. Existence of an offline customer club as starting advantage
Exploring success factors of virtual communities: the perspectives of members and
operators/Jan Marco Leimeisters, Pascal Sidiras, Helmut Krcmar/Journal of
organizational computing and electronic commerce 16(3&4), 279-300 (2006)
Focus on customers with power to produce
• Connectors – Those with wide social circles,
everybody knows them
• Mavens: Those who know the facts
• Salesman: Those with charismatic persuasive skills
Online Interaction Propensity
– The ones that are the spine of the community
– Connectors, Salesmen, Mavens
– Value is respect, information, interaction
– They value the information and use it in daily life
– They give respect
– Do not participate but tag
– Help to find information
informationBeyond the call of duty: why customers contribute to firm-hosted
commercial online communities/caroline wiertz and ko de ruyter/SAGE
Structure of the community Encouraging User participation
• • Uniqueness
Method of persusasion potential user
• • Controversy
Encouraging users to invite friends
• • Individual recognition
• Guidance for new member
Attracting new members Stimulating Social Interactions
Member profiles Common interest
Member connections Current life transtions
Adding connections Shared experience
Member reputation Shared eductation
Martijn.Kriens@iCrowds.net / Martijn.Kriens@telin.nl