Communitie Based Innovation


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Communitie Based Innovation

  1. 1. Community based Innovation The wisdom of the customer
  2. 2. Web 0.1 … the original World Wide Web browser of course was also an editor. … I really wanted it to be a collaborative authoring tool. And for some reason it didn't really take off that way. And we could discuss for ages why it didn't. … I've always felt frustrated that most people don't...didn't have write access. Sir Tim Berners-Lee
  3. 3. Institutions must cede control of the message in order to participate in the conversation. Shel Holtz
  4. 4. • Corporate communication – One-way – Pushing – Who listens? • Account management – Single channel – Person based – No peer – Silent majority
  5. 5. • Markets are Conversations – Two-way – Many2Many – Listening – Authentic – Involved – Helping – Mutual
  6. 6. Such a lovely place • The net is the digital version of the city made of chips and fiber instead of steel and concrete
  7. 7. Net and the City New surroundings Old patterns Thanks to Rogier Brussee for the net and city analogy
  8. 8. Some things never change • People remain people – Fundamental needs unchanged – Manifestation depends on culture • Human motives – Food, safety and shelter – Safety, amusement, sex – Social interaction – Respect, self-actualization • By understanding constant patterns we can learn what has success
  9. 9. Mixed realities • People commute between the net and real world
  10. 10. Change: Stock-photography
  11. 11. Change: support
  12. 12. Change: Development
  14. 14. The converstation is taking place
  15. 15. Lessons • Participate – Broad, many2many communication • Mix real and virtual worlds – Channels adding up • Anytime Anyplace – Now! • Wisdom of crowds
  16. 16. Extinction 1785 R.B.Longridge and Company Bedlington First loco built 1837. Closed 1855 1790 William and Alfred Kitching, Darlington First loco 1832. Bought by Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1862. Closed 1886. 1790 Benjamin Outram and Company, Butterley, Derbyshire Civil engineering firm, but had a strong interest in railways. Became Butterley Company in 1805 1795 Fenton, Murray and Wood, The Round Foundry Leeds, First loco 1812. Became Fenton, Murray and Jackson in 1826. 1805 Butterley Company, Butterley, Derbyshire Built locos for its own use plus two for the Midland Counties Railway. Closed in 1965, though the Butterley Engineering Company remained until c1983 1810 Haigh Foundry, Wigan First loco 1835. Closed 1856. 1810 J and C Carmichael, Ward Foundry Dundee Two locos only in 1833. Became James Carmichael in 1853. Limited liability in 1894. Closed 1929. 1816 William Fairbairn & Sons Manchester First loco 1839. Loco business bought by Sharp Stewart in 1863. 1817 R and W Hawthorn Ltd, Newcastle Became Hawthorn Leslie in 1884. 1819 Foster, Rastrick and Company, Stourbridge, Four locomomotives in 1829, including first in USA. Closed 1831. 1823 Robert Stephenson and Company Newcastle Became R.Stephenson & Hawthorn in 1937. 1823 Edward Bury and Company, Liverpool Became Bury, Curtis and Kennedy in 1842 1824 G and J Rennie, Blackfriars see George and John Rennie 1826 Fenton, Murray and Jackson, The Round Foundry Leeds Closed 1843. Fenton took over Shepherd and Todd's Railway Foundry in 1846. 1826 Mather, Dixon and Company, Liverpool Moved to Bootle in 1839. Closed 1843. 1828 Sharp, Roberts and Company, Manchester First loco 1833. Became Sharp Bros. in 1843. 1830 Rothwell, Hick and Rothwell, Bolton Became Rothwell and Company1832 1830 Charles Tayleur and Company, (Vulcan Foundry) Warrington Became Vulcan Foundry in 1847 1830 Tulk and Ley, Whitehaven. Taken over by Fletcher Jennings Ltd. in 1857 1832 Rothwell and Company, Bolton Closed approx 1864 1833 Benjamin Hick and Sons, Bolton Last locos 1850. Became Hick, Hargreaves and Company, acquiring limited liability in 1889. 1834 George Forrester and Company, Liverpool, Closed 1890. Last locomotive circa 1847. 1834 Day, Summers and Company, Southampton, First loco 1837, became Summers, Day and Baldock in 1847. 1835 James Kitson, Airedale Foundry, Leeds, Became Todd, Kitson & Laird in 1838 1835 John Coulthard And Son, Gateshead, Became R. Coulthard and Company in 1853 1836 Nasmyth, Gaskell and Company, Patricroft Became James Nasmyth in 1850 1837 Jones, Turner and Evans, Newton-le-Willows became Jones & Potts in 1844 1837 Henry Stothert and Company, Bristol, Became Stothert, Slaughter and Company in 1841. 1837 Kerr, Mitchell and Neilson, Glasgow Became Kerr, Neilson and Company in 1840 1838 Shepherd and Todd, the Railway Foundry. Leeds, Became Fenton, Craven and Company in 1846 1838 Todd, Kitson & Laird, Leeds Also known as Kitson and Laird, also Laird and Kitson. Became Kitson, Thompson and Hewitson in 1842 c1839 Thompson & Cole, Little Bolton Built five locos including two for the Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway c1839 Stark and Fulton, Glasgow Built locos between 1839 and 1849 c1840 Isaac Dodds and Son, Rotherham, First locomotive 1849 though possible previous work for the Sheffield and Rotherham Railway. Closed 1868 1840 Andrew Barclay, Sons and Company Kilmarnock First steam loco 1859. Began building diesels in 1935. Merged with Hunslet Group 1972. Still in business as Hunslet-Barclay) 1840 Kerr, Neilson and Company, Glasgow, First locos 1843. Became Neilson and Mitchell in 1845 1841 Stothert, Slaughter and Company, Bristol, Became Slaughter, Gruning and Company in 1856 1842 Bury, Curtis, and Kennedy, Liverpool Wound up 1851 1842 Kitson, Thompson and Hewitson, Leeds Later Kitson and Hewitson, then Kitson and Company in 1863 1843 W.B.Adams, Fairfield Works, Bow, Steam powered carriage 1847. Locos from 1849. Adams radial axle box. Closed circa 1872. 1843 Sharp Brothers, Manchester Became Sharp Stewart & Co. in 1852 1843 Gilkes Wilson and Company Middlesbrough First locomotives built 1847. Became Hopkins Gilkes and Company in 1865 1844 Charles Todd, Leeds Closed 1858. Taken over by Carrett, Marshall and Company 1844 Jones and Potts, Newton-le-Willows Closed 1852. Jones then opened a company in Liverpool. 1845 Neilson and Mitchell, Glasgow, Became Neilson and Company in 1855 1846 Hawthorns and Company, Leith Set up by R and W Hawthorn Ltd. to provide engines for Scotland. Closed circa 1872 1846 Fenton, Craven and Company. Leeds Became E.B.Wilson in 1846 1846 E.B.Wilson and Company, Leeds Built Jenny Lind Closed 1858 1847 W.G.Armstrong and Company, Newcastle on Tyne Became Armstrong Whitworth in 1897. 1847 Vulcan Foundry, Warrington, Limited liability in 1864. In 1955 became part of English Electric. Last locomotive 1970. Works closed 2002 1847 Summers, Day and Baldock, Southampton No locomotives built after 1839. Later became Day, Summers and Company 1850 John Fowler & Co., Leeds First locos 1866. Limited liability in 1886. Locomotive acttivies ended 1968 1850 James Nasmyth, Patricroft Became Patricroft Ironworks in 1857 1852 John Jones and Son, Liverpool Closed 1863 1853 Sharp Stewart and Company, Manchester, later Glasgow, Limited liability in 1864. Took over Clyde Locomotive Company in 1888. Merged into North British Locomotive Company in 1903 1853 R.Coulthard and Company Gateshead Closed 1865. Passed to Black, Hawthorn & Co 1854 Beyer-Peacock and Company, Gorton, Manchester, Limited liability 1902. Famous for Garratt locos. Reorganised for diesel-hydraulic in 1961. Closed 1966 1854 Brassey and Company, Canada Works Birkenhead Subsidiary of Brassey,Jackson, Betts abnd Company. Last loco circa 1875 1855 Neilson and Company, Glasgow, Became Neilson, Reid and Company in 1898 1856 Slaughter, Gruning and Company, Bristol Became Avonside Engine Company in 1866 1857 Patricroft Ironworks, Patricroft Became Nasmyth Wilson and Company in 1867 1857 Ruston, Proctor and Company Lincoln Locomotives built from 1866. Became Ruston & Hornsby in 1918. 1857 Fletcher Jennings Ltd, Whitehaven. Became Lowca Engineering Co. Ltd. in 1884 1858 Manning Wardle Leeds, Closed 1927 1860 Hudswell and Clarke, Leeds, Became Hudswell, Clarke and Rogers in 1870 1863 Dübs and Company, Glasgow Joined North British Locomotive Company in 1903 1863 Kitson & Co., Leeds Closed 1938 1864 Hunslet Engine Company, Leeds, Limited liability in 1902. Moved into diesels around 1930. Still occasionally built steam engines. Closed 1995, but the Barclay works remains as Hunslet-Barclay 1864 Fox Walker, Bristol, Became Peckett and Sons in 1880 1865 Yorkshire Engine Company, Sheffield Acquired in 1948 by United Steel. Diesl units produced from 1949. Taken over by Rolls-Royce in 1965 and worked transferred to Sentinel of Shrewsbury. 1865 Henry Hughes and Company, Loughborough, Became Falcon Railway Plant Works in 1883 1865 Black, Hawthorn & Co, Gateshead, Became Chapman and Furneaux in 1896 1866 Avonside Engine Company, Bristol Closed 1934 1865 Hopkins Gilkes and Company Middlesbrough Became Tees-side Iron and Engine Works Company Limited in 1875 1867 Nasmyth Wilson and Company, Patricroft Limited liability in 1882. Became Patricroft Royal Ordnance Factory in 1939 1870 Hudswell, Clarke and Rogers, Leeds, Became Hudswell Clarke and Company in 1881 1872 Barclays and Company, Kilmarnock, Merged with Andrew Barclay and Company in 1888 1874 Sir Arthur P. Heywood, Duffield Pioneered 15 inch gauge, see Duffield Bank Railway 1875 W.G.Bagnall, Stafford, Limited liability in 1887. In 1951 taken over by Brush as Brush-Bagnall Traction Ltd. 1875 Tees-side Iron and Engine Works Company Limited Middlesbrough Closed 1880 1877 Hartley, Arnoux and Fanning, Stoke, Taken over by Kerr-Stuart in 1893 1880 Peckett and Sons, Atlas Works, Bristol, Last steam loco 1958. Taken over by Reed Crane and Hoist Co until this also closed, but name carried on by Peckett and Sons of Ongar 1881 James Kerr and Company, Glasgow Sub contracted loco building, then became Kerr Stuart and Company at Stoke in 1893 1881 Hudswell Clarke and Company, The Railway Foundry, Leeds Limited liability in 1899. Began building diesels approx 1920. Taken over by Hunslet Engineering 1883 Falcon Railway Plant Works, Loughborough, Became Brush Electrical Engineering Company in 1889 1883 Dick, Kerr & Co., Kilmarnock, Locomotive production moved to Preston in 1919. 1884 Clyde Locomotive Company Ltd., Atlas Works, Springburn Bought by Sharp Stewart in 1888 1884 Hawthorn Leslie and Company Ltd.,, Newcastle upon Tyne, Was R&W Hawthorne. Became R.Stephenson & Hawthorn in 1937 1884 Lowca Engineering Co. Ltd., Whitehaven. Became New Lowca Engineering Co. Ltd. in 1905 1886 Clyde Locomotive Company, Glasgow18861886-1888 taken over by Sharp, Stewart 1889 Brush Electrical Engineering Company, Loughborough, Last steam 1914. Still in business producing diesel-electric locos. 1893 Kerr Stuart and Company Ltd., Stoke, Closed 1930 1896 Chapman and Furneaux Gateshead Took over Black Hawthorne & Co. Closed 1902 1897 Armstrong Whitworth, Newcastle Last locos approx 1937. 1898 Neilson Reid and Company, Glasgow Amalgamated into the North British Locomotive Company in 1903 1903 North British Locomotive Company, Glasgow, Closed 1962 1905 New Lowca Engineering Co. Ltd., Whitehaven. Closed 1912 1911 E.E.Baguley Ltd. Burton upon Trent Now Baguley-Drewry Ltd. 1918 English Electric, Taken over by GEC in 1960 1918 Ruston and Hornsby Lincoln Last locomotives c1967. Now specialises in gas turbines. 1937 Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns, Ltd Darlington and Newcastle on Tyne, Became English Electric in 1962
  17. 17. What is a bank? • Broker – E-bay anyone? • Trust
  18. 18. Who do you trust? 20 We trust… • Each other • Independent subject matter experts • NGOs “Someone We don’t trust… • Business like me” • Government • Mainstream media “Person like yourself or your peer” is seen as the most credible spokesperson about a company and among the top three spokespeople in every country surveyed. – 2006 Annual Edelman Trust Barometer
  19. 19. Social software 21 • Social communication tools – Weblogs – Podcasts – Internet telephony – Mobile/text/video • Virtual communities – My Space – Hyves – Second Life • New channels – Youtube – Skoeps
  20. 20. Voorbeelden
  21. 21. Favourite pub • It is hard to quit your favourite pub – Not because you like the room but because the people do not move – Social context is the biggest lock-in
  22. 22. Shift vs. Engage and Participate Transmit Preach vs. Advocate Command and Control vs. Influence and Persuade Formal and Instructive vs. Informal and Conversational Tell Your Audience vs. Build Community
  23. 23. WHO DO YOU TRUST?
  24. 24. Who is an expert on YOU
  25. 25. Paradigm shift Manage the customer Guess his life events Guess his taste and preferences Guess again OR Let the customer manage Let the customer say what he wants Let him organize his preferences Let the customer be in control
  26. 26. Who is in the driver seat?
  27. 27. Broadcast
  28. 28. One2One
  29. 29. Community
  30. 30. Many2Many
  31. 31. Macromyopia We overestimate the short term results of technology and underestimate the long term results Laggards Late majority Jaron Lanier Early Majority Early adopters Innovators
  32. 32. Emerging technologies 2005
  33. 33. Emerging technologies 2006
  34. 34. Doubt is normal Hesitation is fatal Paul Fentener van Vlissingen
  35. 35. How to create an community? • See the world as a … place that functions according to the laws of epidemics. You can start one. • Little changes can have big effects. • Don’t think lineair but realise that life evolves in leaps.
  36. 36. Start a Social community • A community has a life of its own • Don’t search for ‘the one action’: change is a conglomorate of actions • Don’t start your change with trumpets and fanfare, just start: the only way to get people aboard is concrete results: not words • Work your leverage using the many, many triggers which can offer added value to your customer • Send your message in many different ways.
  37. 37. Success factors • Technical 1. Handling member data sensitively 2. Stability of the website 3. Short reaction time of the website – Performance, stability, security 4. Offering up to date content 5. Establishing codes of behavior • Content 6. Evolution of the community according the ideas of its members 7. Continuous community controlling with regard to the satisfaction of its members 8. Assistance for new members by experienced members – is king 9. Encouraging interaction between members 10. Intuitive user guidance/usability • Functionality 11. Offering high quality content 12. building trust among members 13. Sustaining neutrality when presenting and selecting offers – Less is more 14. Continuous community controlling with regard to growth of the number of members 15. Continuous community controlling with regard the frequency of visits – Do not be technology driven 16. Constant extension of offerings 17. Building a strong trademark – Let the community influence 18. Price efficiency of offered products and services 19. Personalized product and service offers – Do not own the community 20. High number of members within a short term 21. Arranging regular events • Social 22. Supporting the community by regular real-world meetings 23. Focusing on one target audience 24. Appreciation of contribution of members by the operator – Let he members participate 25. Offering privileges or bonus programs to members 26. Integration of members into the administration of the community – Provide possibilities for building up 27. Special treatment for loyal members 28. Defining sources of revenue as starting condition when building a virtual community social capital and status symbols 29. Personalized page design of the community site according to the preferences of its members 30. Establishing and supporting subgroups within the community – Support member contact and 31. Increasing market transparency for members 32. Existence of an offline customer club as starting advantage interaction Exploring success factors of virtual communities: the perspectives of members and operators/Jan Marco Leimeisters, Pascal Sidiras, Helmut Krcmar/Journal of organizational computing and electronic commerce 16(3&4), 279-300 (2006)
  38. 38. Focus on customers with power to produce social epidemics • Connectors – Those with wide social circles, everybody knows them • Mavens: Those who know the facts • Salesman: Those with charismatic persuasive skills
  39. 39. Online Interaction Propensity • Participators – The ones that are the spine of the community – Connectors, Salesmen, Mavens – Value is respect, information, interaction • Lurkers – They value the information and use it in daily life – They give respect • Voters – Do not participate but tag – Help to find information informationBeyond the call of duty: why customers contribute to firm-hosted commercial online communities/caroline wiertz and ko de ruyter/SAGE publications/2007
  40. 40.
  41. 41. It’s About the People, stupid!
  42. 42. Research subjects Structure of the community Encouraging User participation • • Uniqueness Method of persusasion potential user • • Controversy Encouraging users to invite friends • • Individual recognition Entry barrier • Guidance for new member Attracting new members Stimulating Social Interactions • • Member profiles Common interest • • Member connections Current life transtions • • Adding connections Shared experience • • Member reputation Shared eductation • • Content Services
  43. 43. Martijn Kriens Herman Hogendoorn /