Genre only works through the rule of combination as long as you have the expected faradisms, you can make any number of horror films.
Character + Setting + Props = GENRE
A genre is a type of film: romance, comedy, horror, science-fiction, action/adventure, etc. Sometimes a film borrows from more than one genre, these films are called Hybrids.
An ideology or theoretical way of thinking about the world that can be applied to film industry,
Structuralism film theory emphasises how films convey meaning through the use of code and conventions.
Codes & Conventions
Codes and conventions are things that define or make up horror films. These are the things we expected to seen when engaging with or watching horror films.
Codes and conventions include things such as:
Characters, Suburbs, Claustrophobia
Blood, Death, Killing, Villain, Victims, Evil
Haunted houses and isolated settings, Monsters
Weapons, Darkness, Storms, Chase sequences
Gore, Violence, Screams, Location, Fear and Ghosts
Equilibrium and Disequilibrium
Equilibrium is the good stuff that happens.
Disequilibrium is the bad stuff that happens.
there are certain characters in films and stories with certain functions:
the hero – the one on the quest and the one who saves the
the villain – the evil one who causes the disequilibrium
the helper – a person who helps the hero on their quest/the sidekick
the victim – at the mercy of the villain
the donor – someone who has something special which will help the hero
Camera Movement & Editing
Zoom = when zooming in the camera does not move
Tracking (dollying) = the camera moves smoothly towards or away from the subject
Pan = the camera moves from left to right following a moving subject.
Hand-held camera = produces a jerky movement, creating a sense of reality/chaos
Steadicam = a hand-held camera worn with a harness to achieve a steady shot
This occurs every time a film is cut. A film is never shot in the order that the events happen. This would cost a fortune: all sequences with the same location will be shot at the same time regardless of where they appear in the narrative. Sometimes the opening sequence to a film will be the last sequence to be shot. When a sequence has high octane action the cuts/editing is fast and numerous.
Soundtrack and Sound effects
This is the music playing in the background. It can be diegetic or non-diegetic. If the sound is part of the narrative, the action (eg: a radio playing in the shot) it is diegetic. However, more often than not, the soundtrack is non-diegetic. Music playing in the background which is not evident in the action.
These are the effects added during post-production. For example, explosions, birdsong, etc.