Tracking (dollying) = the camera moves smoothly towards or away from the subject
Pan = the camera moves from left to right following a moving subject.
Hand-held camera = produces a jerky movement, creating a sense of reality/chaos
Steadicam = a hand-held camera worn with a harness to achieve a steady shot
This occurs every time a film is cut. A film is never shot in the order that the events happen. This would cost a fortune: all sequences with the same location will be shot at the same time regardless of where they appear in the narrative. Sometimes the opening sequence to a film will be the last sequence to be shot. When a sequence has high octane action the cuts/editing is fast and numerous.
This is the music playing in the background. It can be diegetic or non-diegetic. If the sound is part of the narrative, the action (eg: a radio playing in the shot) it is diegetic. However, more often than not, the soundtrack is non-diegetic. Music playing in the background which is not evident in the action.
These are the effects added during post-production. For example, explosions, birdsong, etc.