Project Management in digital content production process


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  • Over the course of any construction project, the work scope may change. Changes can be the result of necessary design modifications, differing site conditions, material availability, contractor-requested changes, value engineering and impacts from third parties, to name a few. When changes are introduced to the project, the viability of the project has to be re-assessed. It is important not to lose sight of the initial goals and targets of the projects. When the changes accumulate, the forecasted result may not justify the original proposed investment in the project.
  • Over the course of any construction project, the work scope may change. Changes can be the result of necessary design modifications, differing site conditions, material availability, contractor-requested changes, value engineering and impacts from third parties, to name a few. When changes are introduced to the project, the viability of the project has to be re-assessed. It is important not to lose sight of the initial goals and targets of the projects. When the changes accumulate, the forecasted result may not justify the original proposed investment in the project.
  • The time constraint refers to the amount of time available to complete a project. The cost constraint refers to the budgeted amount available for the project. The scope constraint refers to what must be done to produce the project's end result. These three constraints are often competing constraints: increased scope typically means increased time and increased cost, a tight time constraint could mean increased costs and reduced scope, and a tight budget could mean increased time and reduced scope.
  • Gantt realized that breaking down a process into precise phases made control easier, and that some activities could be executed concurrently, thus saving time and resources.
  • Project Management in digital content production process

    1. 1. Project Management in digital content production process<br />Michelangelo Parente<br />
    2. 2. Summary<br />Digital Content Production<br />Production Models<br />Production Process<br />Production Team<br />Managing Digital Content Production as a Project<br />What is a project?<br />Project Manager’s Tools<br />What is Project Management (and why do you need to know it)?<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Production Models<br />Cascade Model<br />The 'cascade' model is widely known as ADDIE model and it is one of the most popular Instructional Systems Design (ISD) model. It is used as dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools by instructional designers and training developers. It is built upon 5 phases: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation.<br />3<br />
    4. 4. Production Models<br />Evolutive Model<br />This method is designed in four main phases:<br />feasibility study and work plan<br />iteration of the analysis prototype<br />iteration of the project prototype<br />implementation<br />4<br />
    5. 5. Production Models<br />Cascade Model<br />The ‘cascade’ production method is characterised by phases following one another in a linear pattern without returning to previous phases. Every phase generates an output that is the input of the next phase. The outputs of the first three phases, in general, are text documents, while only from the fourth phase onward a physical prototype will be produced. <br />Evolutive model<br />The main feature of the ‘evolutive’ production method consists in proceeding according to subsequent approximations, with continuous controls and returning from a phase to the previous one to introduce corrections and changes. Another feature consists in the fact that the whole process of the ‘evolutive’ method, except for the initial phase, is based on a physical prototype. A physical prototype is developed, tested and corrected until it becomes the final product.<br />5<br />
    6. 6. Production Models<br />Alternative models<br />As an alternative to the systematic approach, in some training programs a modified ADDIE model should be used. This modified model could be represented by a circularprocess with repeated small steps rather than perfectly executed giant steps. In this process the different phases are reviewed for "successive approximation". Rather than developing the instructions in only one sequence, the entire development process is revised on the basis of users' or customers' feedback. The steps are iterative and not linear, so the instructional designers move back and forth between analysis, design, formative evaluation and revision. This circular approach to development has many advantages because it fit well with users needs. Despite these advantages it is much more time consuming and it requires much more money. In most cases, training programs must be developed under a fixed - and often limited - budget and schedule.<br />6<br />
    7. 7. Content Production Process<br />2010 © Giunti Labs<br />7<br />
    8. 8. Content Production Process<br />8<br />SME<br />
    9. 9. Content Production Process<br />9<br />During Startup phase, the raw materials are analyzed by an Instructional Designer (ID) that, together with a SME, defines the content architecture, in terms of macro-structure (roughly: an index), learning paths, methodological approach, multimedia quality. A Creative Designer defines the Visual Design (usually realizing interface mockups), and functional specifications (including software and technical aspects) for the whole product are defined. <br />
    10. 10. Content Production Process<br />10<br />During Production phase, each content unit, according to macro-structure defined in the Startup phase, is processed by an Instructional Designer. The result is a highly detailed script for the multimedia implementation: the Storyboard. The Storyboard is submitted to the customer for revision and validation. The SME is then asked to suggest changes and corrections (revision) and formally approve the amended document once all the requested corrections have been made (validation). Following the Storyboard, Multimedia developers (Web / Flash / software developers) create the assets needed to implement the course, according to the style guidelines defined in the Visual Design (Media Production). The assets are then collected and assembled into a container (usually called shell, or more generally Learning Object interface) . This phase is called Packaging, and its output is the final Learning Object, whose format follows product requirements set during startup phase (e.g. a SCORM package).<br />
    11. 11. Content Production Process<br />11<br />Subject Matter Experts<br />Subject Matter Experts<br />Raw Materials<br />Raw Materials<br />INPUT<br />OUTPUT<br />Raw Materials<br />Subject Matter Experts<br />4<br />5<br />3<br />2<br />1<br />Course<br />Delivery <br />6<br />Requirements & Specifications definition <br />(Instructional designing, L&F designing, Templates designing)<br />Course<br />Implementation<br />(Graphic develpment and Course packaging)<br />Prototype<br />Implementation<br />(Graphic development and Course packaging)<br />Prototype<br />Storyboarding<br />(Storyboarding)<br />Course<br />Storyboarding<br />(Storyboarding)<br />Review<br />Review<br />Review<br />Review<br />Review<br />Draft<br />version<br />Draft<br />version<br />Draft<br />version<br />Final<br />version<br />Draft<br />version<br />Final<br />version<br />Final<br />version<br />Draft<br />version<br />Final<br />version<br />Final<br />version<br /> I.Q.C.<br /> I.Q.C.<br /> E.Q.C.<br /> E.Q.C.<br /> E.Q.C.<br /> E.Q.C.<br /> E.Q.C.<br />Review cycles<br />7<br />Project Management and Quality Check & Product Validation<br />
    12. 12. Content Production Team<br />12<br />Instructional<br />Designer<br />Art Director<br />Multimedia Developer<br />Project Manager<br />CUSTOMER<br />SME<br />2010 © Giunti Labs<br />
    13. 13. Content Production Team<br />Instructional Designer (ID)<br />An ID typically has a background in liberal arts, frequently with a master's degree or doctorate in instructional design, psychology, education, or multimedia technology. This team member must be very analytical, have good communication skills, and be very organized. A successful instructional designer works quickly in a fast-changing environment. <br />It is ID’s responsibility to conduct high-level analysis of performance goals, audience, training needs, and technology limitations. In concert with the Customer ID and SME s/he creates the design document, specifies learning objectives, selects interactive exercises, and creates evaluation questions. In the early design phases, this person may have to create script and screen templates and often will be the lead scriptwriter. Additionally, the instructional designer supervises the formative and summative evaluations. <br />Borrowing an analogy from movies, the project manager is the producer; the instructional designer is the director.<br />13<br />
    14. 14. Content Production Team<br />Art Director<br />The Art Director works with the instructional designer to create the visual design to be used throughout the course. <br />She/He oversees a team of junior designers, image developers and production artists and also creates the visual layout and the guidelines to produce all the specific graphic animations. <br />He/She chooses the graphic style that will be used in the product, creating also 3D or 2D contributions when immersive metaphors and simulations are requested.<br />14<br />
    15. 15. Content Production Team<br />Multimedia Developer<br />S/he develops the rapid prototype, a programmed working model, upon which the final product is based. The developer is called upon to debug a program following alpha and beta tests, create databases, and construct reporting mechanisms used for student tracking. <br />Like graphic artists, many programmers may have specialized degrees or be self-taught. <br />Multimedia development is not usually accomplished using advanced languages but rather in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) or with authoring systems (e.g., Authorware, Toolbook), programs that facilitate e-learning creation. <br />15<br />
    16. 16. Content Production Team<br />Subject Matter Expert (SME)<br />A SME is a person who is an expert in a particular area. Whithin Giunti Labs, typically the term SME describes any individual with expertise in the subject matter but not technical (e-learning specific) knowledge.<br />Instructional designers interview SMEs to extract information and convert it into a form suitable for the audience . SMEs are often required to sign off on the documents or training developed, checking it for accuracy.<br />16<br />
    17. 17. Content Production Team<br />Project Manager (PM)<br />The Project Manager is the person who ultimately guarantees on-time, on-budget delivery of an e-learning solution. S/he is responsible to the sponsor/client for the quality of the finished product. <br />Project manager serves as single point of contact between team members and the client. The PM is in charge of guiding the approval process, including obtaining feedback from evaluations, implementing revisions, and drafting progress reports. <br />Skills required are: good organization, time management, the ability to juggle multiple tasks.<br />17<br />
    18. 18. What is a project?<br />18<br />
    19. 19. What is a project?<br />The PMBOK (Project Management Body Of Knowledge) Guide, edited by the Project Management Institute defines a project as:<br />“a temporary* endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service which brings about beneficial change or added value.” <br />*i.e. having specific start and completion dates<br />19<br />
    20. 20. What is a project?<br />A standard way to define a project is by comparing it to routines, i.e.the permanent or semi-permanent functional work to repetitively produce the same product or service.<br /><ul><li>Routines are recurring operations associated with the work of a professional or of an institution. They are ongoing and repetitive and thus predictable: once someone has gone through the normal cycle a few times, he/she know what to expect.
    21. 21. Projects are exceptions: they take place beside the standard operations of your institution, but they have their own scope, budget, objectives and deadlines. Sometimes they overlap the routines, or may be even in conflict with them. </li></ul>A routine is ongoing and has no singular results, a project is well defined only if its specific result is known. While routines ensure the continuous flow of a process, a project is aimed to the production of a specific outcome. <br />20<br />
    22. 22. What is Project Management ?<br />In the "traditional approach", we can distinguish 5 components of a project (4 stages plus control) in the development of a project:<br />Project initiation;<br />Project planning or design stage;<br />Project execution (or production);<br />Project monitoring and controlling;<br />Project completion<br />21<br />
    23. 23. What is Project Management ?<br />Project Initiation<br />The initiation processes determine the nature and scope of the project and, more generally, everything that is needed to set-up the project before work can start. If this stage is not performed well, it is unlikely that the project will be successful in meeting the business’ needs. <br />22<br />
    24. 24. What is Project Management ?<br />Planning and design<br />The main purpose is to plan time, cost and resources adequately to estimate the work needed and to effectively manage risk during project execution. As with the Initiation process group, a failure to adequately plan greatly reduces the project's chances of successfully accomplishing its goals.<br />23<br />
    25. 25. What is Project Management ?<br />Executing <br />Executing consists of the processes used to complete the work defined in the project management plan to accomplish the project's requirements. Execution process involves coordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project in accordance with the project management plan. <br />24<br />
    26. 26. What is Project Management ?<br />Monitoring and controlling<br />Monitoring and controlling consists of those processes performed to observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and corrective action can be taken, when necessary, to control the execution of the project. The key benefit is that project performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the project management plan.<br />25<br />
    27. 27. What is Project Management ?<br />Closing<br />Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof. Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned.<br />26<br />
    28. 28. What is Project Management ?<br />Project management triangle (ca.1950-2009)Like any human undertaking, projects need to be performed and delivered under certain constraints. Traditionally, these constraints have been listed as "scope," "time," and "cost". These are also referred to as the "Project Management Triangle," where each side represents a constraint. One side of the triangle cannot be changed without affecting the others.<br />27<br />
    29. 29. What is Project Management ?<br />28<br />Project management triangle (ca.1950-2009)<br />
    30. 30. Project Management Tools<br />Projects are successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and to performance requirements. In order to bring the many components of a large project into control there is a large toolkit of techniques, methodologies, and tools. <br />These techniques provide the tools for managing different components involved in a project: planning and scheduling, developing a product, managing financial and capital resources, and monitoring progress. However the success of a project will always rest on the abilities of a project manager and the team members. Some classical tools used by Project Manager to design and manage project are WBS, GANTT and PERT. <br />29<br />
    31. 31. Project Management Tools<br />Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) <br />WBS is a fundamental tool commonly used in project management and systems engineering. This tool is related to planning and scheduling a project. Basically it is a functional decomposition of the tasks of the project.<br />WBS is a tree-like structure that allows summing of subordinate costs for tasks, materials, etc., into their successively higher level “parent” tasks, materials, etc. For each element of the WBS a description of the task to be performed is provided. In other words: the total work of the project is broken down into the major subtasks. It starts with the end objective required and successively subdividing it into manageable components in terms of size and complexity.<br />30<br />
    32. 32. Project Management Tools<br />Gantt Charts<br />A Gantt chart is a popular type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. These chart was developed by the industrial engineer and management expert Henry Gantt in 1916 to control munitions production.<br />Heunderstood then that a visual display of these phase could be crucial in communicating the plan to the others. Gantt charts are used for planning, scheduling and then recording progress against these schedules. In these charts, each activity is represented on a timeline, with a start and finish date. Gantt charts may also show dependencies between activities, e.g. if an activity is a prerequisite of an other, the two activities are connected with a finish-to-start relationship.<br />31<br />
    33. 33. Project Management Tools<br />This system was designed originally to track time in projects involving concurrent activity and to monitor and control expenditures of time. PERT may be used in Project Management to provide a visual representation of a project and its tasks. <br />PERT makes easier to calculate the maximum time needed to complete each task (under general deadlines), and the time needed to complete the total project.<br />32<br />Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)<br />PERT came into popular use between 1956 and 1958 (now is used seldom).<br />
    34. 34. What is the tool loved by 90% of PMs?<br />2010 © Giunti Labs<br />33<br />
    35. 35. PM in real context: ELSPM framework<br />34<br />Opportunity management<br />CS<br />Solution<br />promotion<br />PCA<br />PEA<br />Assessment<br />PS<br />Resource Allocation<br />Initiation<br />Roadmap strategy<br />Project Execution<br />CA<br />S<br />R<br />V<br />D<br />Specification <br />& Planning<br />Design &<br />Implementation<br />Verification & Validation<br />Delivery<br />Preparation<br />Roll-out<br />PC<br />PES<br />Maintenance & Support<br />
    36. 36. Project Execution – Project Execution Start <br />CA<br />S<br />R<br />V<br />D<br />Specification <br />& Planning<br />Design &<br />Implementation<br />Verification & Validation<br />Delivery<br />Preparation<br />Roll-out<br />PC<br />PES<br />The Project Execution Start is the milestone that identifies the real start of the Project Execution with the commitment of Customer and the confirmation that resources to support the project upon PEA gate’s decision have been assigned<br />Contract with internal / external suppliers are signed off<br />A kick-off meeting with major stakeholders has been held<br />35<br />
    37. 37. Project Execution – Specification & Planning<br />CA<br />S<br />R<br />V<br />D<br />Specification <br />& Planning<br />Design &<br />Implementation<br />Verification & Validation<br />Delivery<br />Preparation<br />Roll-out<br />PC<br />PES<br />Requirements are fully analyzed, investigated, detailed and base-lined. Additional documentation is produced such as Functional and Non-Functional Requirements Specifications.<br />In case of Content development project, the Storyboard is developed.<br />User Acceptance Test documentation is prepared when required<br />A Project Management Plan (PMP) to integrate the output of the phase is developed<br />36<br />
    38. 38. CA<br />S<br />R<br />V<br />D<br />Specification <br />& Planning<br />Design &<br />Implementation<br />Verification & Validation<br />Delivery<br />Preparation<br />Roll-out<br />PC<br />PES<br />To confirm that the project deliverables are specified and all activities have been planned. <br />Input required: <br /> Functional and Non Functional Requirements Specs<br /> Project Charter & Project Management Plan<br /> Validated Storyboard<br /> User Acceptance Test when required<br /> Detailed project plan is available on project server<br />37<br />Project Execution – Project Execution Start <br />
    39. 39. CA<br />S<br />R<br />V<br />D<br />Specification <br />& Planning<br />Design &<br />Implementation<br />Verification & Validation<br />Delivery<br />Preparation<br />Roll-out<br />PC<br />PES<br />Design and implement the project component parts<br />Test Design and Test Case Design are developed<br />The agreed deliverables and project components are implemented by the production lines (SW development or Content development) <br />Project Execution – Design & Implementation<br />38<br />
    40. 40. CA<br />S<br />R<br />V<br />D<br />Specification <br />& Planning<br />Design &<br />Implementation<br />Verification & Validation<br />Delivery<br />Preparation<br />Roll-out<br />PC<br />PES<br />The product or all of its components developed is ready to be internally released<br />Inputs required: <br /> Product and/or its component(s) is/are available<br /> Release Note is available<br /> Design “components” documentation is available<br /> Test Design and Test Case Design are available<br /> Unit/Module tests have been performed and passed<br /> All Test specifications are approved<br />39<br />Project Execution – R – Released<br />
    41. 41. CA<br />S<br />R<br />V<br />D<br />Specification <br />& Planning<br />Design &<br />Implementation<br />Verification & Validation<br />Delivery<br />Preparation<br />Roll-out<br />PC<br />PES<br />To verify product and validate it against requirements<br />Test Departement will test the released product or its components and validate it against the requirements according to the test specifications. <br />The customer might be involved in the validation process. For content production projects the prototype is validated by the customer. <br />40<br />Project Execution – Verification & Validation<br />
    42. 42. CA<br />S<br />R<br />V<br />D<br />Specification <br />& Planning<br />Design &<br />Implementation<br />Verification & Validation<br />Delivery<br />Preparation<br />Roll-out<br />PC<br />PES<br />The product or all of its components have been verified and validated against its specifications<br />Inputs:<br />Approved test and quality reports<br /> Approved PR/CR overview list<br /> Content production is validated by the customer<br /> Reviewed Release Note with known limitations<br /> Optionally reviewed project documentation<br />41<br />Project Execution – V – Validated<br />
    43. 43. CA<br />S<br />R<br />V<br />D<br />Specification <br />& Planning<br />Design &<br />Implementation<br />Verification & Validation<br />Delivery<br />Preparation<br />Roll-out<br />PC<br />PES<br />To prepare the delivery of the product to Customer<br />To organize the internal transfer of responsibility to Support department<br />Resources from maintenance and support are reserved<br />Delivery Notes is compiled (from public contents of RN)<br />Rework on the content production project has been completed<br />42<br />Project Execution – Delivery Preparation<br />
    44. 44. CA<br />S<br />R<br />V<br />D<br />Specification <br />& Planning<br />Design &<br />Implementation<br />Verification & Validation<br />Delivery<br />Preparation<br />Roll-out<br />PC<br />PES<br />The product or all of its components can be delivered to the Customer<br />Inputs:<br /> A Delivery Note is available<br /> Marketing Support Material/Guidelines (for Product)<br /> User Manual<br /> List of PRs/CRs reviewed and checked<br /> Rework has been completed for content production<br /> Knowledge and documentation transferred to Support team<br />43<br />Project Execution – D – Delivered<br />
    45. 45. CA<br />S<br />R<br />V<br />D<br />Specification <br />& Planning<br />Design &<br />Implementation<br />Verification & Validation<br />Delivery<br />Preparation<br />Roll-out<br />PC<br />PES<br />Some project team resources will be maintained at GL to provide support for early reported Customer issues and for Customer Acceptance. <br />Knowledge transfer to the Support & Maintenance team will be completed.<br />Project & process best practices and improvements are captured along with lessons learned and project information is archived.<br />At the end of this phase, the project goes to project closure and responsibility over the product support passes to the Maintenance & Support team. <br />44<br />Project Execution – Roll-out<br />
    46. 46. CA<br />S<br />R<br />V<br />D<br />Specification <br />& Planning<br />Design &<br />Implementation<br />Verification & Validation<br />Delivery<br />Preparation<br />Roll-out<br />PC<br />PES<br />This milestone is tracked to formalize the Acceptance of the project deliverable(s) by the Customer<br />The Delivery and Acceptance Note is signed off<br />45<br />Project Execution – CA – Customer Acceptance<br />
    47. 47. CA<br />S<br />R<br />V<br />D<br />Specification <br />& Planning<br />Design &<br />Implementation<br />Verification & Validation<br />Delivery<br />Preparation<br />Roll-out<br />PC<br />PES<br />To close the project and sets the start of Maintenance & Support activities when applicable<br />Project Closure Report is available and lessons learned have been captured, project documentation is correctly archived <br />The project is formally closed<br />Transfer of responsibility to Maintenance & Support team is completed<br />Resources allocation for Maintenance & Support activities are approved<br />Project Execution – Project Closure<br />46<br />
    48. 48. Project Completion<br />47<br />