Projects Better Faster Cheaper


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Introduction to project management for non-project managers. What is the difference between projects and everything else? And what should you do differently to get them done quickly, with the result you intended? Created by the Technology Leveraging Cooperative. Email us:

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Projects Better Faster Cheaper

  1. 1. Better Faster Cheaper Melinda Korenchuk Technology Leveraging Cooperative
  2. 2. What do you call something: <ul><li>That requires a series of steps </li></ul><ul><li>Performed over a limited time span </li></ul><ul><li>To create a unique result </li></ul>
  3. 3. What kinds of projects do you have? <ul><ul><li>Creating a marketing campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacing a telephone system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing a new database application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanding a facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrading a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding a product line </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Have you ever embarked on a project and found: <ul><li>- it cost more than you budgeted </li></ul><ul><li>- it took longer than you expected </li></ul><ul><li>- you did not achieve what you intended </li></ul><ul><li>- you couldn't get people to use it </li></ul><ul><li>- what you needed changed as you went along </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management is a set of tools and practices to help you address those problems.  </li></ul>
  6. 6. Change &quot;Buy-Install-Pay&quot; to <ul><li>Initiate </li></ul><ul><li>Define outcomes, clarify responsibilities   </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Determine steps, costs, assignments   Execute-Control </li></ul><ul><li>Manage against planned time & costs   Close Handoff to operations </li></ul>
  7. 7.   INITIATE
  8. 8. Before you Buy, Initiate: <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1. Clarify what you expect </li></ul><ul><li>2. Communicate to/with your staff </li></ul><ul><li>3. Commit and budget time and money </li></ul>
  9. 9. Clarify what you expect to have at the end <ul><li>1. Document the functions or features </li></ul><ul><li>2. Define the process changes you expect </li></ul><ul><li>3. Define the savings or new revenue you expect </li></ul><ul><li>4. Define the risk or loss you will avoid </li></ul><ul><li>5. Define what existing systems it will integrate with, and how </li></ul><ul><li>How will you define DONE? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you define SUCCESSFUL? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 10. Communicate with your staff <ul><ul><li>Do the people who will use the new system embrace it? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your staff have the expertise to use it?   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your staff  have the expertise to be part of the project? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did you have all stakeholders participate in the definition of SUCCESS? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Commit Time and Money <ul><li>1. Determine what you are able to spend for the system </li></ul><ul><li>2. Determine the impact on operations' cost </li></ul><ul><li>3. Determine how much staff time can be devoted </li></ul>
  12. 12. Commit your Time <ul><li>Change takes time: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>     - Time to define what you need </li></ul><ul><li>     - Time to design or choose your solution </li></ul><ul><li>     - Time to oversee the development/configuration </li></ul><ul><li>     - Time to test and train </li></ul><ul><li>     - Time to develop/learn new procedures </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  13. 13. Commit the Right Amount of Dollars <ul><li>Project Costs Might Include: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>     - Purchasing a system </li></ul><ul><li>     - Upgrading infrastructure to support the new system </li></ul><ul><li>     - Contractors to do the work </li></ul><ul><li>     - Temps to help staff while they participate </li></ul><ul><li>     - Replacing accessories or supplies </li></ul><ul><li>     - Training staff </li></ul><ul><li>     - Downtime during the transition </li></ul>
  14. 14. Now, how are you going to get it done? <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The PLAN </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why Plan? <ul><li>1. You need to know the steps required to get the job done. </li></ul><ul><li>2. You need to know what it will really cost you. </li></ul><ul><li>3. You need to know who is doing what, and when. </li></ul><ul><li>4. You need to know how long it will really take. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sometimes You <ul><li>will see that the project will cost more than you thought, or take longer than you expected, and </li></ul>Decide not to do it.
  17. 17.   NOT DO IT!!
  18. 18. How to Make a Schedule <ul><li>1. Create a WBS </li></ul><ul><li>2. Assign each task to a person </li></ul><ul><li>3. Determine dependencies between tasks </li></ul><ul><li>4. Determine how long each task will take </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  19. 19. Create a WBS, Step One <ul><li>First, list the major phases of your project.   Example: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1. Define and document requirements </li></ul><ul><li>2. Find and select a vendor </li></ul><ul><li>3. Verify product requirements </li></ul><ul><li>4. Install </li></ul><ul><li>5. Test and Train </li></ul><ul><li>6. Handoff </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Don't forget these
  20. 20. Create a WBS, Step Two <ul><li>Break them into more specific tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1. Define and document requirements </li></ul><ul><li>     1.1 List the features </li></ul><ul><li>     1.2 Identify the interfaces and users </li></ul><ul><li>2. Find and select a vendor </li></ul><ul><li>     2.1 Create an RFP </li></ul><ul><li>     2.2 Review Proposals </li></ul><ul><li>     2.3 Select </li></ul><ul><li>     2.4 Complete Contract </li></ul><ul><li>             2.4.1 Review Vendor's Template </li></ul><ul><li>             2.4.2 Make changes </li></ul><ul><li>             2.4.3 Approve and sign </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  21. 21. Assign each task to a person <ul><li>1. Define and document requirements </li></ul><ul><li>     1.1 List the features: Joe </li></ul><ul><li>      1.2 Identify the interfaces and users: Bob </li></ul><ul><li>2. Find and select a vendor </li></ul><ul><li>     2.1 Create an RFP: Sally </li></ul><ul><li>     2.2 Review Proposals:  Bob </li></ul><ul><li>      2.3 Select: Bob </li></ul><ul><li>     2.4 Complete Contract </li></ul><ul><li>              2.4.1 Review Vendor's Template: Joe </li></ul><ul><li>              2.4.2 Make changes: Joe </li></ul><ul><li>              2.4.3 Approve and sign: Bob </li></ul>
  22. 22. Determine Dependencies <ul><li>     1.1 List the features </li></ul><ul><li>      1.2 Identify the interfaces and users </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>     2.1 Create an RFP (after 1.1 and 1.2) </li></ul><ul><li>     2.2 Review Proposals (after 2.1) </li></ul><ul><li>      2.3 Select (after 2.2) </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>      2.4.1 Review Vendor's Template (after 2.3) </li></ul><ul><li>     2.4.2 Make changes (after 2.4.1) </li></ul><ul><li>     2.4.3 Approve and sign (after 2.4.2) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Determine How Long Duration vs Work Hours <ul><li>1. Are you juggling other projects? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Are you still doing your regular job? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What is the priority of this project compared to others? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Optimistic estimate; Pessimistic estimate; Most likely </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>              O + (4 * M) + P        2 + (4 * 3) + 6 </li></ul><ul><li>             ----------------------        ------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>                        6                              6 </li></ul>
  24. 24. Determine How Long <ul><li>     1.1 List the features (2 weeks)   </li></ul><ul><li>     1.2 Identify the interfaces and users (2 weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>     2.1 Create an RFP (2 weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>     2.2 Review Proposals (2 days) </li></ul><ul><li>     2.3 Select (1 day) </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>     2.4.1 Review Vendor's Template (1 day) </li></ul><ul><li>     2.4.2 Make changes (3 days) </li></ul><ul><li>     2.4.3 Approve and sign (1 day) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Use a Tool <ul><li>For complex projects, use a project management tool to calculate dates for all your tasks. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Adjust Your Budget <ul><li>1. Top down budget: management guess at project start </li></ul><ul><li>2. Budget estimating based on similar past experience </li></ul><ul><li>3. Bottom up or detailed budgeting based on schedule </li></ul>
  27. 27. Buy-in <ul><li>1. Make sure that all stakeholders know the plan </li></ul><ul><li>2. Make sure that task doers agree to the estimates </li></ul><ul><li>3. Communicate that the start dates and finish dates are real </li></ul>
  28. 28.         Managing to Plan   vs   Activity Monitoring
  29. 29. <ul><li>  </li></ul>
  30. 30. Avoid SCOPE CREEP <ul><li>Have a Change Management Process that assesses the impact to the project COST and TIME. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Focus Your Resources <ul><li>The more you juggle, the less you accomplish </li></ul>
  32. 32. How to Stay on Schedule on a priority project <ul><li>1. Apply more or different resources (pay more) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Re-plan and do more tasks in parallel </li></ul><ul><li>3. Reduce features or quality </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  33. 33. How to Stay on Schedule when juggling <ul><li>1. Stop competing projects </li></ul><ul><li>2. Manage changes more tightly </li></ul><ul><li>3. Make sure you have the right resources </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Project is not done. . . <ul><li>Until the handoff is complete. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Review: <ul><li>INITIATE: Take Time to Clarify Requirements, Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>PLAN:  Layout tasks, durations, assignments, sequences </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGE:  Change control, balance the triple constraints </li></ul><ul><li>CLOSE:  Train, set up maintenance, and hand off </li></ul><ul><li>                      </li></ul>
  36. 36. Projects are little journeys into the unknown.  Go prepared.