Sakai History Courseware Management System Started in 2004 Michigan, Indiana, Stanford, MIT (and Berkeley) Mellon Foundation Grant 2.6 release in QA
Why Start Sakai? 5 Schools with Homegrown CMS Inefficient to build 5 systems Wanted to maintain control Experts in teaching and learning Desire to work together and share knowledge
Why Sakai? Stanford wrote about 20% of the original code in Sakai. What we have received in return is five times what we have put in, a tremendous return on investment. The value of community source is very real to us. Lois Brooks Director of Academic Computing Stanford University Coursework, Stanford University
Course Management Research & Collaboration Sakaibrary Portfolios Defining Sakai: Product Scope COURSE MANAGEMENT — all the tools of a modern course management system. RESEARCH & COLLABORATION — project sites for research and work group collaboration. SAKAIBRARY — Library-led component to add citations directly into Sakai. PORTFOLIOS — Open Source Portfolio (OSP) is a core part of Sakai.
Defining Sakai: Community COMPOSITION — educational institutions & commercial enterprises working in partnership with standards bodies & other open-source initiatives. GOALS — work collaboratively to develop innovative software applications designed to enhance teaching, learning, research & collaboration in education. VALUES — knowledge sharing, information transparency, meritocracy. Educational Institutions Standards Bodies Open Source Commercial Affiliates
Sakai on the ground 200+ PRODUCTION/PILOT DEPLOYMENTS: From 200 to 200,000 users
Sakai on the ground 5 of top 10 Universities run Sakai Stanford Berkeley Cambridge Columbia Oxford #11 also runs Sakai (Yale)
Sakai on the ground CTOOLS, University of Michigan First production Sakai deployment, 2004
Defining Sakai: Code OPEN LICENSING — Sakai’s software is made available under the terms of the ECL, a variant of the Apache license. The ECL encourages a wide range of use, including commercial use. NO FEES OR ROYALTIES — Sakai is free to acquire, use, copy, modify, merge, publish, redistribute & sublicense for any purpose provided our copyright notice & disclaimer are included. NO “COPYLEFT” RESTRICTIONS — unlike GPL redistributed derivative works are neither required to adopt the Sakai license nor publish the source code as open-source. EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY LICENSE (ECL)
Increasing Global Diversity In 2006, 81% were in North America
Defining Sakai: Foundation MISSION — manage & protect intellectual property; provide basic infrastructure & small staff; help coordinate design, development, testing & distribution of software; champion open source & open standards. GOVERNANCE — ten board members elected by member reps to serve three-year terms; Executive Director manages day-to-day operations. PARTNERS — over 100 member organizations contribute $10K per year ($5K for smaller institutions). BUDGET — funds 4-6 staffers, admin services, computing infrastructure, project coordination, conferences, Sakai Fellows Program, advocacy & outreach activities.
Why Sakai? UCT decided to move to open source in 2004, migrating from WebCT & a home-grown system. Open source offers the advantages of flexibility & avoids the risks of vendor lock-in & escalating license costs. We were attracted to Sakai by the size & expertise of the community around it. Stephen Marquard, Learning Technologies Coordinator, University of Cape Town
Sakai 3 Themes Content Authoring and Management Academic Networking Breaking the Site Boundary Academic Workflows, not (just) Tools Sakai, Thick or Thin Sakai Everywhere
Academic Networking Content People Academic Networking People are important, but “friends” aren’t enough Content-based – Who is reading the same articles? Activity based – Who has taken the same classes?
Sakai 2: Users & Sites Site A Site B User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 User 5 . . . User N User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 User 5 . . . User N Group B1 Group A1 Users and groups exist within the context of a site.
Groups & Sites (call them spaces?) Separated Member of a group – People with something in common Access to a space – Collection of content & functionality Support for hierarchy Sakai 3 Groups & Sites Group 1.1 Space AA Space A Group 1 Space AB Group 1.2 Space B Group 2 Space C Group 3
Kernel Tool Sakai 2 Architecture Kernel Service Tool Tool Service Service Kernel Service Service Tool Tool Service Tool
Academic Workflow Beyond Tool Silos Academic work flows often cross tool boundaries Anything can be graded! Anything can be discussed! This is beginning to appear in Sakai 2 But more needs to be done Example: Instructor puts into syllabus an assignment to create a discussionpost that will be graded. 4 tools for both instructors and students!
Academic Workflow Example Select text & click “Create Assignment” All Media Images Videos Audio Forums Tests Site Pages Polls Jackson Response Forum (3 posts) Create Assignment… Name: Jackson Reading Response Due Date: September 10, 2009 Points: 10 (of 150) Type: Individual Description:Respond to the Jackson article in no more than 500 words. Post that response to the class discussion forum. Link To: Select... Class Intro Forum (27 posts) Forums Edit Assignment Information Some Other Forum (0 posts) Create Cancel Advanced Options… Link to Something Choose New…
Student View Assignment: Jackson Reading Response Due Date: September 10, 2009 ( due tomorrow) Status: Not submitted Points: 10 possible (of 150). Description:Respond to the Jackson article in no more than 500 words. Post that response to the class discussion forum. Read more… Link(s): Jackson Response Discussion Forum (Create Post…)
Student View, Graded Assignment: Jackson Reading Response Due Date: September 10, 2009 (due date passed) Status: Submitted and Graded Points: 9/10 (of 150). View feedback Description:Respond to the Jackson article in no more than 500 words. Post that response to the class discussion forum. Read more… Link(s): Jackson Response Discussion Forum (go to Forum now)
Sakai, Thick or Thin Multiple Configurations Sakai as CMS Sakai as Collaboration System Sakai as Portfolio System Sakai Integrations Google Applications Social Networks (Open Social, Facebook) Sakai does not need to do everything for everyone
Sakai 3 Technology Goals Scalability Remove bottlenecks from Sakai 2 Improve cluster support Developer Productivity Faster builds UX & back-end development separated Code Quality & Maintenance Reliance on other open source efforts Increase unit testing Easier to install/build To improve initial experience for new developers
JCR as Content Store Standards-based JSR 170 Ships with Apache Jackrabbit, but can be changed Everything as content Discussion post, User profile information, etc. Components put Content into JCR Content store Sakai Kernel creates relational indices in DB Component doesn’t need to do anything Automatic tracking of most events by kernel
When Q1 2009: Sakai 2.6 Q3 2009: Sakai 2.6.# A maintenance release for fall production 2010 Q1: Sakai 2.7 (New assignments tool and gradebook?) Later: First versions of Sakai 3 Not functionally equivalent to 2.7 Suitable for new adoptions “Hybrid” version for existing Sakai schools 2011 Sakai 3 as full replacement Maintenance releases for Sakai 2.7 through 2013 No version 2.8