A construção do outro
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A construção do outro Document Transcript

  • 1. Manufacturing Otherness
  • 2. Manufacturing Otherness: Missions and Indigenous Cultures in Latin America Edited by Sergio Botta
  • 3. Manufacturing Otherness: Missions and Indigenous Cultures in Latin America, Edited by Sergio Botta This book first published 2013 Cambridge Scholars Publishing 12 Back Chapman Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE6 2XX, UK British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Copyright © 2013 by Sergio Botta and contributors All rights for this book reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. ISBN (10): 1-4438-5160-4, ISBN (13): 978-1-4438-5160-2
  • 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS Lists of Illustrations .................................................................................. vii Introduction ................................................................................................. 1 Manufacturing Otherness: Missions and Indigenous Cultures in Latin America Sergio Botta Chapter One ............................................................................................... 11 Towards a Missionary Theory of Polytheism: The Franciscans in the Face of the Indigenous Religions of New Spain Sergio Botta Chapter Two .............................................................................................. 37 The Doctrine of Juli: Foundation, Development and the New Identity in a Shared Space Virginia Battisti Delia Chapter Three ............................................................................................ 63 Jesuits and Indians in the Borderlands (Vice-Royalty of Peru, 16th-18th Centuries) Nikolai Rakutz Chapter Four .............................................................................................. 95 Making the Indigenous Speak: The Jesuit Missionary Diego de Rosales in Colonial Chile, 17th Century Rafael Gaune Chapter Five ............................................................................................ 121 Negation and Exaltation of the sertanistas of São Paulo in the Discourses of Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix, D. José Vaissette and Gaspar da Madre de Deus (1756-1774) Michel Kobelinski
  • 5. vi Table of Contents Chapter Six .............................................................................................. 149 Demonym Cartography: Native Peoples and Inquisition in Portuguese America (18th Century) Maria Leônia Chaves de Resende Chapter Seven .......................................................................................... 177 Christian Bodies, Other Bodies: Processes of Conversion and Transformation in Northeastern Amazonia Vanessa Elisa Grotti Chapter Eight ........................................................................................... 191 Indian Missionary or Pastor? Reflections on a Religious Trajectory in the Amazon Paride Bollettin Chapter Nine ............................................................................................ 211 The Indigenist Missionary Council: A Brazilian Experience between Culture and Faith Marcos Pereira Rufino Chapter Ten ............................................................................................. 231 Religious Contexts, Missionary Action and Indigenous Activism in the Western Brazilian Amazon Sidnei Clemente Peres Chapter Eleven ........................................................................................ 253 Seeing is Believing? Vision and Indigenous Agency in the Anglican Evangelisation of the Paraguayan Chaco Alejandro Martínez Chapter Twelve ....................................................................................... 273 The Hidden Heritage Valéria Nely Cezár de Carvalho Contributors ............................................................................................. 283 Index ........................................................................................................ 287
  • 6. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 4.1: “Lautaro” in Diego de Ocaña, Relación del viaje a Chile ........... Table 6.1: Region - 18th Century .................................................................. Table 6.2: Denounces - Period - 18th Century .............................................. Table 6.3: Reason of the Denouncement - 18th Century ............................... Table 6.4: 18th Century ................................................................................. Map 11.1: The main locations of Anglican stations and Indigenous settlements in Paraguayan ........................................................................ Figure 11.1: “Indians of Paraguay” .............................................................. Figure 11.2: “Riacho Fernández, mission station in Gran Chaco” ................ Figure 11.3: “Boy” ........................................................................................ Figure 11.4: “Sports at feast, Chaco” ...........................................................
  • 7. CONTRIBUTORS Virginia Battisti Delia is an Independent Researcher in History and Cultural Anthropology. She received a BA in 2006 at Sapienza University of Rome (Italy) and then moved to Lima (Peru) where she attended a Master’s degree program in Andean Anthropology and History at Pontificia Universidad Católica. Her thesis was devoted to the Jesuit mission of Juli (Lake Titicaca). She is currently working as a Lecturer at Universidad Cientifica del Sur, teaching Anthropology, and as freelance journalist on Latin America topics. Paride Bollettin received a BA in History at University of Padova (Italy) in 2005, a MA in Anthropology at University of Perugia (Italy) in 2007 and a PhD in Anthropology at University of Siena (Italy) in 2011. He has currently a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Centro de Estudos Ameríndios at the University of São Paulo (Brazil). He has written various articles for academic journals and published several books as editor: Amazzonia Indigena (with Gerardo Bamonte. Roma: Bulzoni, 2008), Ricerca sul Campo in Amazzonia (with Umberto Mondini. Roma: Bulzoni, 2009), Lévi-Strauss visto dal Brasile (with Renato Athias. Bologna: Cleup, 2011) and Etnografie Amazzoniche (with Umberto Mondini. Bologna: Cleup, 2001). Sergio Botta (PhD in History of Religions) is Assistant Professor at Sapienza University of Rome (Italy). His research focuses on Indigenous religions and colonial discourses in the Americas, with particular regard to missionary literature. He is also devoted to Method and Theory in the Study of Religions, and to such topics as Religions and the Arts, and Shamanism. The results are published in three monographs and several edited books. He has written articles that have appeared in academic journals. He has given invited talks and colloquia at different institutes. He has spent several periods as a fellow in Mexico, Guatemala, Spain and England. He is the Chief of the Editorial Committee of the academic journal Studi e Materiali di Storia delle Religioni. Valéria Nely Cézar de Carvalho (PhD in Anthropology) is a Researcher in Nucleo de História Indígena e do Indigenismo of the University of São
  • 8. 284 Contributors Paulo (Brazil). She has studied History and Anthropology and has been carrying on research on Indigenous societies in different historical archives, both in Brazil and Europe. Her contributions offer a large view about Brazilian expansion into Indigenous territories, especially in northwestern Amazonia. Maria Leônia Chaves de Resende is Associate Professor of History of the Native peoples of the Americas (University of São João del-Rei Brazil) and Researcher at the Centre for Overseas History (Centro de História de Além-Mar, CHAM) of Universidade Nova de Lisboa and Universidade das Açores (Portugal). Her researches focus on the IberoAmerican Atlantic World (Brazil and Portugal), with an emphasis on its social and cultural history. She received a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in History from Universidade Nova de Lisboa and several grants from prestigious institutions such as the Fulbright Program (University of Texas, 1999), the National Library of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, 2005), CAPES (Brazil, 2007), Fundação para Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT, Portugal, 2008), CNPq and FAPEMIG (2009-2011). Rafael Gaune is a PhD candidate in Modern History at the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa (Italy). He gained his undergraduate degree at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile and completed his MA at the “Roma Tre” University (Italy). He is currently professor at the Andres Bello University (Santiago, Chile). His research interests include the relationship between the global and the local through the Society of Jesus in Early Modern Latin America. Vanessa Elisa Grotti is a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow at ISCA and Research Fellow in Wolfson College. Her study includes archival and ethnographic data-collection of healthcare systems. She was Research Fellow at the Laboratoire d’Anthropologie Sociale (EHESS-Collège de France, Paris) (2007-08) and at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (2007). She was awarded her PhD in Social Anthropology at the University of Cambridge in 2007. Her doctoral thesis is a study of kinship, change and social transformation among Central Carib populations of northeastern Amazonia. She has conducted fieldwork in northern Amazonia since 2003 and in Burkina Faso in 2007. She is author of Nurturing the Other: Wellbeing, Social Body and Transformability in Northeastern Amazonia (forthcoming) and, as editor, of Animism in Rainforest and Tundra: Personhood, Animals and NonHumans in Contemporary Amazonia and Siberia (with M. Brightman and
  • 9. Manufacturing Otherness 285 O. Ulturgasheva) and The “frontier” in Amazonia and Siberia (with M. Brightman and O. Ulturgasheva). Michel Kobelinski is Assistant Professor of History at Universidade Estadual do Paraná (UNESPAR, Brazil). He received his MA and his PhD at Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, Brazil). He has also carried out research in Anthropology and Museology while working for Companhia Paranaense de Energia Elétrica (COPEL). His researches focus on History and Culture, Sensitivities and Nature. He has published the book Ufanismo e Ressentimento: de Minas Gerais aos Sertões de São Paulo (século XVIII) (2012). Alejandro Martínez received his PhD in Social Anthropology at Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). He is currently Postdoctoral Research Fellow at CONICET (National Council of Research, Argentina). He is Assistant Professor at Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina). He has published “Evangelization, visual technologies and Indigenous responses,” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 34, no. 2 (2010): 83-86; “Antropología misionera, interculturalidad y colonialidad. Las etnografías anglicanas del Chaco paraguayo (1890-1914),” in Actas electrónicas del IV Simposio Internacional sobre Religiosidad, Cultura y Poder (Buenos Aires: Museo Roca, 2012). Sidnei Clemente Peres received his PhD in Social Sciences at Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). He is currently Assistant Professor of the Programa de Pós-Graduação in Sociology at Universidade Federal Fluminense (PPGS/UFF). He works academically and professionally with Indigenous groups and organisations in the NorthWest of Rio Negro (Western Amazonia - Brazil). He is currently project coordinator on identification of Indigenous lands. He has publicshed the book A política da identidade: o movimento indígena no Rio Negro (EDUA/Valer, forthcoming). Nikolai Rakutz received his PhD at the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology RAS of Moscow State University (Russia) with a thesis dedicated to “Corónica Moralizada by P. Antonio de la Calancha as ethnographic source.” He is currently working as Senior Resercher at the Institute for Latin American Studies, RAS (Moscow State University). He has been Associate Professor in the Social Anthropology Research and Eduction Centre of Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow.
  • 10. 286 Contributors He is a member of “Circolo Amerindiano” (Perugia, Italy). His main areas of research are Anthropology and Ethnohistory of Amerindian Peoples of South America. Marcos Pereira Rufino received his PhD in Social Anthropology at the University of São Paulo (Brazil). He is currently Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Universidade Federal de São Paulo. He is working at ISA (Instituto Socio-Ambiental) in a program on Indigenous People in Brazil and on a thematic project about Christian activity with Indigenous people of CEBRAP (Centro Brasileiro de Análise e Planejamento), and in the School of Sociology of São Paulo. Among his interests are the relationship between Catholic missionaries and Indigenous people of Brazil from the 1970s and the participation of the Catholic Church in the environmental movement.