O.s. lab all_experimets


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O.s. lab all_experimets

  1. 1. Course: Bachelor of Technology Branch: Computer Science & Engineering Semester: 6th GURU JAMBHESHWAR UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, HISAR Submitted To: - Submitted By:- Mr. Ajit Noonia Mukesh Kumar Asstt. Professor in CSE Deptt. 1110751908 Department of Computer Science & Engineering Prannath Parnami Institute of Management & Technology, Hisar Prannath Parnami Universe, Website: ppu.edu.in
  2. 2. INDEX Sr. No. Name of Experiment Date Remarks 1 Study of WINDOWS 2000 Operating System. 2 WAP simulate FCFS C.P.U. Scheduling algorithm. 3 WAP to simulate SJF C.P.U. Scheduling algorithm. 4 WAP simulate Priority C.P.U. Scheduling algorithm 5 WAP simulate Round Robin C.P.U. Scheduling algorithm. 6 WAP in C Banker’s algorithm for Deadlock Avoidance. 7 WAP in C to implement FIFO page replacement algorithm. 8 WAP in C to implement LRU page replacement algorithm.
  3. 3. EXPERIMENT NO.=1 Aim:-- Study of WINDOWS 2000 Operating System. Introduction to Window 2000:- Windows 2000 is an operating system for use on both client and server computers. It was produced by Microsoft and released to manufacturing on December 15, 1999 and launched to retail on February 17, 2000. It is the successor to Windows NT 4.0, and is the last version of Microsoft Windows to display the "Windows NT" designation. It is succeeded by Windows XP (released in October 2001) and Windows Server 2003 (released in April 2003). During development, Windows 2000 was known as Windows NT 5.0. Four editions of Windows 2000 were released: Professional, Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server; the latter was both released to manufacturing and launched months after the other editions. While each edition of Windows 2000 was targeted at a different market, they shared a core set of features, including many system utilities such as the Microsoft Management Console and standard system administration applications. Support for people with disabilities was improved over Windows NT 4.0 with a number of new assistive technologies and Microsoft increased support for different languages and locale information. All versions of the operating system support NTFS 3.0, Encrypting File System, as well as basic and dynamic disk storage. The Windows 2000 Server family has additional features, including the ability to provide Active Directory services (a hierarchical framework of resources), Distributed File System (a file system that supports sharing of files) and fault- redundant storage volumes. Windows 2000 can be installed through either a manual or unattended installation. Unattended installations rely on the use of answer files to fill in installation information, and can be performed through a bootable CD using Microsoft Systems Management Server, by the System Preparation Tool. Microsoft marketed Windows 2000 as the most secure Windows version ever at the time; however, it became the target of a number of high-profile virus attacks such as Code Red and Nimda. For ten years after its release, it continued to receive patches for security vulnerabilities nearly every month until reaching the end of its lifecycle on July 13, 2010. System Components:-- The architecture of Windows is a layered system of modules, as shown in Figure. The main layers are the HAL, the kernel, and the executive, all of which run in protected mode, and a large collection of subsystems that run in user mode. The user-mode subsystems are in two categories. The environmental subsystems emulate different operating systems the protection subsystems provide security functions. One of the chief advantages of this type.
  4. 4. Fig. Windows block diagram 16-Bit Windows Environment:-- The Win16 execution environment is provided by a VDM that incorporates additional software, called Windows on Windows, that provides the Windows 3.1 kernel routines and stub routines for window-manager and graphical device- interface (GDI) functions. The stub routines call the appropriate Win32 subroutines—converting, or thunking, 16-bit addresses into 32-bit ones. Applications that rely on the internal structure of the 16-bit window manager or GDI may not work, because Windows on Windows does not really implement the 16-bit API. Windows on Windows can multitask with other processes on Windows, but it resembles Windows 3.1 in many ways. Only oneWin16 application can run at a time, all applications are single threaded and reside in the same address space, and all share the same input queue. These features imply that an application that stops receiving input will block all the other Win16 applications, just a in Windows 3.x, and one Win16 application can crash other Win16 applications by corrupting the address space. Multiple Win16 environments can coexist, however, by using the command start /separate win16application from the command line.
  5. 5. Win32 Environment:-- As mentioned earlier, the main subsystem in Windows is theWin32 subsystem. It runs Win32 applications and manages all keyboard, mouse, and screen I/O. Since it is the controlling environment, it is designed to be extremely robust. Several features of Win32 contribute to this robustness. Unlike processes in the Win16 environment, each Win32 process has its own input queue. The window manager dispatches all input on the system to the appropriate process’s input queue, so a failed process will not block input to other processes. The Windows kernel also provides preemptive multitasking, which enables the user to terminate applications that have failed or are no longer needed. In addition, Win32 validates all objects before using them, to prevent crashes that could otherwise occur if an application tried to use an invalid or wrong handle. The Win32 subsystem verifies the type of the object to which a handle points before using that object. The reference counts kept by the object manager prevent objects from being deleted while they are still being used and prevent their use after they have been deleted. Domains:-- Many networked environments have natural groups of users, such as students in a computer laboratory at school or employees in one department in a business. Frequently, we want all the members of the group to be able to access shared resources on their various computers in the group. To manage the global access rights within such groups, Windows uses the concept of a domain. Previously, these domains had no relationship whatsoever to the domain name system (DNS) that maps Internet host names to IP addresses; now, however, they are closely related. Specifically, a Windows domain is a group of Windows workstations and servers that share a common security policy and user database. Since Windows now uses the Kerberos protocol for trust and authentication, a Windows domain is the same thing as a Kerberos realm. Previous versions of NT used the idea of primary and backup domain controllers; now all servers in a domain are domain controllers. In addition, previous versions required the setup of one way trusts between domains. Windows uses a hierarchical approach based on DNS and allows transitive trusts that can flow up and down the hierarchy. This approach reduces the number of trusts required for n domains from n ∗ (n−1) to O(n). The workstations in the domain trust the domain controller to give correct information about the access rights of each user (via the user’s access token). All users retain the ability to restrict access to their own work stations, no matter what any domain controller may say. Because a business may have many departments and a school may have many classes, it is often necessary to manage multiple domains within a single organization. A domain tree is a contiguous DNS naming hierarchy for managing multiple domains. For example, bell-labs.com might be the root of the tree, with research.bell- labs.com and pez.bell-labs.com as children—domains research and pez. A forest is a set of noncontiguous names. An example would be the trees bell-labs.com and/or lucent.com. A forest may be made up of only one domain tree, however. Trust relationships can be set up between domains in three ways: one-way, transitive, and cross-link. Versions of NT through Version 4.0 allowed only one-way trusts to be set up. A one- way trust is exactly what its name implies: Domain A is told it can trust domain B. However, B will not trust A unless another relationship is configured. Under a transitive trust, if A trusts B and B trusts C, then A, B, and C all trust one another, since transitive trusts are two-way by default. Transitive trusts are enabled by default for new domains in a tree and can be configured only among domains within a forest. The third type, a
  6. 6. cross-link trust, is useful to cut down on authentication traffic. Suppose that domains A and B are leaf nodes and that users in A often use resources in B. If a standard transitive trust is used, authentication requests must traverse up to the common ancestor of the two leaf nodes; but if A and B have a cross linking trust established, the authentications can be sent directly to the other node. System Administrator of Window 2000:-- Features of Window 2000:--
  7. 7. Features Functions Benefits Greater system stability Improved hardware support  Supports AGP, DVD, USB, IEEE 1394.  Improved DirectX® and DirectSound® support. Computers are more compatible and more stable than with previous Microsoft® operating systems. This is due in part to fewer driver conflicts and increased ease of setup. Improved program support  Microsoft claims 600 new programs tested as being compatible.  Improved productivity, through ability to use a wider variety of programs.  Less downtime spent troubleshooting technical issues associated with program incompatibility. New Microsoft® Windows® Installer  Provides a standard format for program setup, including installation and repair.  Tracks key files and automatically replaces or repairs damaged files.  Helps to provide more reliable programs.  Contributes to efficiency in systems management.  Helps prevent DLL conflicts. Auto restart of failed services  Automatically caches data in progress.  Better retention of data.  Less downtime.  Improved stability.
  8. 8. Increased manageability Active directory  Dynamic linking of system, user, and enterprise information.  For the system administrator, simplified system and asset administration over the network.  For the user, easier access to shared network devices. IntelliMirror®  Duplicates user profiles and data, including security permissions, directory accesses, and local computer data and programs onto the server.  Faster installation of new computers.  Protection from data loss.  Group setup of security and access levels.  Easier administration of portable computers.  Better support of roaming users.  Easier replacement of failed computers — reduces downtime.  Easier administration of corporate standards.  Distribution of software upgrades without a service call; provides unattended installation procedures. ACPI  Manages system, device, processor power, battery, and system events.  Provides instant on, instant off power.  Offers power-saving features.  Provides Wake up on LAN feature.  Power savings equate to lower electricity bills.  Remote systems management through Wake up on LAN.  Improved mobile power management. Web Based Enterprise Management (WBEM)  Support for Internet protocol standards.  Allows IT managers to manage their environments from anywhere with Web access.  Allows easier management of remote computers.
  9. 9. Increased performance Optimized for Pentium® II processors and above.  Takes advantage of the latest advances in Intel® processing technologies.  According to Microsoft, greater computer performance over Windows 95.  Higher program performance. Enhanced search for files or folders  Automatically lists recent network locations visited and allows user to search multiple network resources and recently visited Internet resources simultaneously.  Makes searching for information more automated. Greater system security Encrypted File System with NTFS 5.0  Ability to encrypt data to the local hard disk.  Applies additional security permissions to the hard disk and uses the Encrypting File System (EFS) to protect sensitive information.  Protects hard disk data even if the hard disk is physically removed from the computer. Public key support  Allows digital signatures for programs, drivers, and computers.  Verifies authenticity of components.  Allows users to set up secure network communications over a public network.  Authenticates e-mail source. Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)  Encrypts of data above the network layer.  Helps protect against unauthorized users obtaining information over the Internet through the World Wide Web and maintains confidentiality. Greater Web-browsing experience Internet Explorer 5.0  According to Microsoft, offers a 20 percent increase in the speed of Web page loading.  Improves the organization of Favorites.  Increased productivity.  Greater flexibility in organizing URLs.
  10. 10. Experiment No.=2 Aim:-- WAP simulate FCFS C.P.U. Scheduling algorithm. #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { char pn[10] [10]; int arr[10],bur[10],star[10],finish[10],tat[10],wt[10],i,n; int totwt=0, tottat=0; clrscr(); printf("enter the no of process "); scanf("%d",&n); for(i=0;i<n;i++) { printf("enter the process name, arrival time & burst time"); scanf("%s%d%d",&pn[i], &arr[i], &bur[i]); } for(i=0;i<n;i++) { if(i==0) { star[i]=arr[i]; wt[i]=star[i]-arr[i]; finish[i]=star[i]+bur[i]; tat[i]=finish[i]-arr[i]; } else { star[i]=finish[i-1]; wt[i]=star[i]-arr[i]; finish[i]=star[i]+bur[i]; tat[i]=finish[i]-arr[i]; }} printf("n pname arrtime burtime start tat finish"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) { printf("n %s %6d % 6d%6d%6d%6d" ,pn[i],arr[i],bur[i],star[i],tat[i],finish[i]); totwt +=wt[i]; tottat+=tat[i]; } printf("n average waiting time: %f",(float) totwt/n); printf("n average turn around time: %f",(float) totwt/n); getch(); } Output:--
  11. 11. Experiment No.=3
  12. 12. Aim:-- WAP to simulate SJF C.P.U. Scheduling algorithm. #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int i,j,n,brust_time[10],start_time[10],end_time[10],wait_time[10],temp,tot; float avg; clrscr(); printf("Enter the No. of jobs:"); scanf("%d",&n); for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { printf("Enter %d process burst time:",i); scanf("%d",&brust_time[i]); } for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { for(j=i+1;j<=n;j++) { if(brust_time[i]>brust_time[j]) { temp=brust_time[i]; brust_time[i]=brust_time[j]; brust_time[j]=temp; } } if(i==1) { start_time[1]=0; end_time[1]=brust_time[1]; wait_time[1]=0; } else { start_time[i]=end_time[i-1]; end_time[i]=start_time[i]+brust_time[i]; wait_time[i]=start_time[i]; } } printf("nn BURST TIME t STARTING TIME t END TIME t WAIT TIMEn"); printf("n ********************************************************n"); for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
  13. 13. { printf("n %5d %15d %15d %15d",brust_time[i],start_time[i],end_time[i],wait_time[i]); } printf("n ********************************************************"); for(i=1,tot=0;i<=n;i++) tot+=wait_time[i]; avg=(float)tot/n; printf("n AVERAGE WAITING TIME=%f",avg); for(i=1,tot=0;i<=n;i++) tot+=end_time[i]; avg=(float)tot/n; printf("nn AVERAGE TURNAROUND TIME=%f",avg); for(i=1,tot=0;i<=n;i++) tot+=start_time[i]; avg=(float)tot/n; printf("nn AVERAGE RESPONSE TIME=%fnn",avg); getch(); } Output:--
  14. 14. Experiment No.=4 Aim:-- WAP simulate Priority C.P.U. Scheduling algorithm. #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> int main()
  15. 15. { int i,j,n,time,sum_wait=0,sum_turnaround=0; int smallest,at[10],bt[10],priority[10],remain; printf("Enter no of Processes : "); scanf("%d",&n); clrscr(); remain=n; for(i=0;i<n;i++) { printf("Enter arrival time, burst time and priority for process p%d :",i+1); scanf("%d",&at[i]); scanf("%d",&bt[i]); scanf("%d",&priority[i]); } priority[9]=11; printf("nnProcesst|Turnaround time|waiting timen"); for(time=0;remain!=0;) { smallest=9; for(i=0;i<n;i++) { if(at[i]<=time && priority[i]<priority[smallest] && bt[i]>0) { smallest=i; }} time+=bt[smallest]; remain--; printf("P[%d]t|t%dt|t%dn",smallest+1,time-at[smallest],time-at[smallest]-bt[smallest]); sum_wait+=time-at[smallest]-bt[smallest]; sum_turnaround+=time-at[smallest]; bt[smallest]=0; } printf("nAvg waiting time = %fn",sum_wait*1.0/n); printf("Avg turnaround time = %f",sum_turnaround*1.0/n); return 0; } Output:--
  16. 16. Experiment No.=5 Aim:-- WAP simulate Round Robin C.P.U. Scheduling algorithm.
  17. 17. #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> int main() { int i,j,n,time,remain,flag=0,ts; int sum_wait=0,sum_turnaround=0,at[10],bt[10],rt[10]; printf("Enter no of Processes : "); scanf("%d",&n); clrscr(); remain=n; for(i=0;i<n;i++){ printf("Enter arrival time and burst time for Process P%d :",i+1); scanf("%d",&at[i]); scanf("%d",&bt[i]); rt[i]=bt[i]; } printf("Enter time slice"); scanf("%d",&ts); printf("nnProcesst|Turnaround time|waiting timenn"); for(time=0,i=0;remain!=0;) { if(rt[i]<=ts && rt[i]>0){ time+=rt[i]; rt[i]=0; flag=1; } else if(rt[i]>0){ rt[i]-=ts; time+=ts; } if(rt[i]==0 && flag==1) { remain--; printf("P[%d]t|t%dt|t%dn",i+1,time-at[i],time-at[i]-bt[i]); sum_wait+=time-at[i]-bt[i]; sum_turnaround+=time-at[i]; flag=0; }if(i==n-1) i=0; else if(at[i+1]<=time) i++; } printf("nAvg sum_wait = %fn",sum_wait*1.0/n); printf("Avg sum_turnaround = %f",sum_turnaround*1.0/n); return 0; } Output:--
  18. 18. Experiment No.=6 Aim:-- WAP in C Banker’s algorithm for Deadlock Avoidance.
  19. 19. #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> int max[100][100]; int alloc[100][100]; int need[100][100]; int avail[100]; int n,r; void input(); void show(); void cal(); int main() { int i,j; printf("********** Baner's Algo ************n"); input(); show(); cal(); getch(); return 0; } void input() { int i,j; printf("Enter the no of Processest"); scanf("%d",&n); printf("Enter the no of resources instancest"); scanf("%d",&r); printf("Enter the Max Matrixn"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) { for(j=0;j<r;j++) { scanf("%d",&max[i][j]); }} printf("Enter the Allocation Matrixn"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) { for(j=0;j<r;j++) { scanf("%d",&alloc[i][j]); }} printf("Enter the available Resourcesn"); for(j=0;j<r;j++)
  20. 20. { scanf("%d",&avail[j]); }} void show() { int i,j; printf("Processt Allocationt Maxt Availablet"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) { printf("nP%dt ",i+1); for(j=0;j<r;j++) { printf("%d ",alloc[i][j]); } printf("t"); for(j=0;j<r;j++) { printf("%d ",max[i][j]); } printf("t"); if(i==0) { for(j=0;j<r;j++) printf("%d ",avail[j]); }}} void cal() { int finish[100],temp,need[100][100],flag=1,k,c1=0; int safe[100]; int i,j; for(i=0;i<n;i++) { finish[i]=0; } for(i=0;i<n;i++) { for(j=0;j<r;j++) { need[i][j]=max[i][j]-alloc[i][j]; }} printf("n"); while(flag) { flag=0; for(i=0;i<n;i++) {
  21. 21. int c=0; for(j=0;j<r;j++) { if((finish[i]==0)&&(need[i][j]<=avail[j])) { c++; if(c==r) { for(k=0;k<r;k++) { avail[k]+=alloc[i][j]; finish[i]=1; flag=1; } printf("P%d->",i); if(finish[i]==1) { i=n; }}}}}} for(i=0;i<n;i++) { if(finish[i]==1) { c1++; } else { printf("P%d->",i); }} if(c1==n) { printf("n The system is in safe state"); } else { printf("n Process are in dead lock"); printf("n System is in unsafe state"); } } Output:--
  22. 22. Experiment No.=7 Aim:-- WAP in C to implement FIFO page replacement algorithm. #include<stdio.h>
  23. 23. #include<conio.h> int main() { int i,j,n,a[50],frame[10],no,k,avail,count=0; clrscr(); printf("ENTER THE NUMBER OF PAGES:"); scanf("%d",&n); printf("n ENTER THE PAGE NUMBER :"); for(i=1;i<=n;i++) scanf("%d",&a[i]); printf("n ENTER THE NUMBER OF FRAMES :"); scanf("%d",&no); for(i=0;i<no;i++) frame[i]= -1; j=0; printf("tref stringt page framesn"); for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { printf("%dtt",a[i]); avail=0; for(k=0;k<no;k++) if(frame[k]==a[i]) avail=1; if (avail==0) { frame[j]=a[i]; j=(j+1)%no; count++; for(k=0;k<no;k++) printf("%dt",frame[k]); } printf("n"); } printf("Page Fault Is %d",count); getch(); return 0; } Output:--
  24. 24. Experiment No.=8 Aim:-- WAP in C to implement LRU page replacement algorithm.
  25. 25. #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int q[20],p[50],c=0,c1,d,f,i,j,k=0,n,r,t,b[20],c2[20]; clrscr(); printf("Enter no of pages:"); scanf("%d",&n); printf("Enter the reference string:"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) scanf("%d",&p[i]); printf("Enter no of frames:"); scanf("%d",&f); q[k]=p[k]; printf("nt%dn",q[k]); c++; k++; for(i=1;i<n;i++) { c1=0; for(j=0;j<f;j++) { if(p[i]!=q[j]) c1++; } if(c1==f) { c++; if(k<f) { q[k]=p[i]; k++; for(j=0;j<k;j++) printf("t%d",q[j]); printf("n"); } else { for(r=0;r<f;r++) { c2[r]=0; for(j=i-1;j<n;j--) { if(q[r]!=p[j])
  26. 26. c2[r]++; else break; } } for(r=0;r<f;r++) b[r]=c2[r]; for(r=0;r<f;r++) { for(j=r;j<f;j++) { if(b[r]<b[j]) { t=b[r]; b[r]=b[j]; b[j]=t; } } } for(r=0;r<f;r++) { if(c2[r]==b[0]) q[r]=p[i]; printf("t%d",q[r]); } printf("n"); } } } printf("nThe no of page faults is %d",c); getch(); return 0; } Output:--