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Vegetables A To Z
 

Vegetables A To Z

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by Phyllis Both, Sauk County UW-Extension

by Phyllis Both, Sauk County UW-Extension

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    Vegetables A To Z Vegetables A To Z Presentation Transcript

    • Vegetables A to Z Presented by: Phyllis Both Sauk County UW Extension Horticulture Educator
    • Asparagus
      • Well prepared bed
      • Trench 8 inches deep
      • 1 – 2 cups complete fertilizer – 10 foot row
      • Compost or well rotted manure
      • Backfill
      • Plant crowns 10 – 15 inches apart
      • Fall care: mulch
      • Harvest after second year
      • Ferns feed roots
      • Cut when brown and compost
      • Diseases
        • Rust
        • Fusarium wilt
        • Stem and Crown rot
      • Insects
        • Asparagus beetle
      • Control
        • Rotenone - Pyrethrin
    • DIAGRAM OF PROPER ASPARAGUS PLANTING
    • Beans
      • Soil temp: 60° - 85° F
      • 1 inch apart – NO THINNING
      • pH: 5.5 to 6.5
        • Mildly acidic
      • Very light feeders – excess nitrogen produces large plants, but no fruit
      • Mulch to conserve moisture
      • Harvest 2 weeks after bloom
      • Diseases – many
        • Avoid wetting foliage
        • 4 year rotation
      • Insects
        • Mexican bean beetles
        • Bean weevils
      • Control
        • Optimum soil conditions; fast growth
        • Hand pick
        • Rotenone - Pyrethrin
    • Pole Beans
      • Same culture as bush beans
      • Need support
      • 6 seeds per pole
    • Peas
      • Cool season crop
        • Soil temp: 40° - 75° F
      • Plant 1 inch apart
      • Plant 1 – 1-1/2 inches deep
      • No thinning
      • Fertilizer: side dress
        • 1 cup complete fertilizer and 1 cup bone meal per 10 foot row
        • Mulch roots
      • Bush peas ripen at the same time
      • Pole peas need support and ripen over a longer period of time
      • Diseases
        • Fusarium wilt (pea rot)
        • Crop rotation
        • Disease resistant cultivars
      • Insects
        • Pea aphid
      • Control
        • Soapy water spray
        • Rotenone - Pyrethrin
    • Other Legumes
      • Lima Beans
        • 75 to 85 days
      • Edamame Beans (soy)
        • 85 days
      • Yard Long
        • 85 days
      • Harcots (french filet)
        • Very tender; highest quality
      • Shelling Beans
        • Field dry
        • Freeze for 2 weeks to eliminate bean weevils
      • Fava Beans
        • Heavy soil/manure
        • Harvest young or dry
      • Runner Beans
        • Need pollination
        • Edible
        • Decorative
    • Legumes, continued
      • Legumes are important for sustainable gardening
      • Legumes form a symbiotic relationship from the air to create nitrogen nodules on their roots called nitrogen fixing (Rhizobial bacteria)
      • To insure Rhizobial bacteria, use a legume inoculant
      • Less fertilizer in the future
      • Turn legumes back into the soil or compost the tops – leave the roots
    • NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA NODULES SOIL LEVEL LEGUME PLANT
    • Brassica/Cole Crops
      • All cool season crops
      • They include:
        • Brussels sprouts
        • Cabbage
        • Broccoli
        • Cauliflower
        • Kale
        • Kohlrabi
        • Chinese cabbage
        • Turnips
        • Rutabagas
        • Pak choi
    • Brussels Sprouts
      • Harvest after two frosts; cold sweetens sprouts
      • pH: 6.0; slightly acid
      • Very little nitrogen
      • Loose heads
      • Maturity = Date of Transplant
        • Add 25 – 35 days if direct seeding
      • Harvest:
        • Do not remove leaves
        • Bottom to top
        • Break off leaves under harvested sprouts only
        • Once over harvest – pinch out growing tip when sprouts are ½ to ¾ inch in diameter
      • Disease
        • Rotate crops
      • Insects
        • Cabbage worms
        • Maggots
      • Control
        • B.T.
    • Broccoli
      • Trouble-free
      • Early planting important
      • pH: 6.0 – 6.8
      • Soil temp: 55° - 75° F for transplants; direct sow in April
      • Plant 18 – 36 inches apart
      • Fertilizer:
        • ¼ - ½ cup complete fertilizer per plant OR
        • ½ cup bloodmeal OR
        • ½ cup composted chicken manure
      • Disease:
        • Rotate crop
      • Insects
        • Cabbage worm
        • Loopers
        • Root maggots
      • Prevention: Row covers
      • Control
        • B.T. & I.T. molasses and wheat bran around the base of the plant
    • Cauliflower
      • Transplants best after danger of frost
      • Soil pH: 6.5 – 7.0; sweet
        • Rich soil
        • Compost and complete fertilizer ¼ to ½ cup per plant
      • Stressed plants will not produce a head
      • Too much nitrogen or not enough boron produce hollow stems
      • Blanching: some self wrap
        • Tie inner leaves around curd when it’s forming
      • Flowerets begin to separate at maturity
      • Disease – same as all brassicas
      • Insects – same as all brassicas
      • Varieties:
        • Yellow
        • Cream
        • Burgundy
        • White
        • Pink
    • Cabbage
      • Cool and moist
      • Soil pH: 6.5
      • Fertilizer: Relatively high
        • ½ cup complete fertilizer per plant
      • Types:
        • Early
          • Cabbage mature fast and tend to split if not harvested early
        • Mid-Season & Winter
          • Slow growing
          • Hold much longer
          • Several months
      • Tips: Start with a good cultivar
        • Early:
          • Green - Charmant (66 day)
          • Green - Parel
        • Late:
          • Red – Ruby Ball (78 day)
          • Green – Stein’s Late Flat (95 day)
    • Corn
      • Isolate your varieties
        • Plant varieties at least 25 feet apart OR
        • Plant with a 10 day maturation difference
      • Soil temp:
        • Treated seed: 55° F
        • Untreated seed: 65° F
      • Fertilizer
        • Pre-planting
        • High phosphate starter
      • Seed bed:
        • Smooth, uniform depth
        • Shallow; ¾ to 1 inch
      • Half silk date: Note date
      • Harvest:
        • 18 to 24
        • Warm weather favors earlier maturity
      • Refrigerate:
        • Cool in ice water to remove heat
    • Vine Crops do NOT like to be transplanted! Cucumbers
      • Direct seed
      • Soil temp: 70° F – will not germinate in soil below 50° F
      • Mulch after soil is warm
      • Harvest:
        • Pick daily
      • Disease
        • Choose resistant varieties
        • Provide good growing conditions
      • Insects
      • Control
        • Provide row covers
        • Rotenone – Pyrethrin when flowers are closed for the evening
    • Summer Squash
      • Direct seed
      • Soil temp:
        • 62° F for treated seed
        • 70° F for untreated seed
      • Harvest:
        • Pick 2 – 3 times per week
      • Disease
        • Same as for cucumbers
      • Insects
        • Squash Vine Borers – worst pest
      • Control
        • Floating row covers
        • Rotenone – Pyrethrin
        • Cover base of plant OR
        • Teaspoon of carbaryl to the base of the plant when very young
    • Winter Squash & Pumpkins
      • Direct seed
        • Plant in hills or rows
      • Soil temp:
        • 62° F for treated seed
        • 70° F for untreated seed
      • Harvest:
        • Pick before heavy frost
        • Cure in a frost-free area to harden – 5 to 7 days
        • Store at 50° - 55° F
      • Disease – same as cucumbers
      • Insects
        • Squash bugs
        • Squash Vine Borers
      • Control
        • Kill Squash bugs at nymph stage
          • Check under leaves for egg masses
          • Spray nymphs with carbaryl or rotenone after blossoms are closed at night
        • Squash vine borers
          • Carbaryl - 1 teaspoon at base of plant and 1 teaspoon at each node that roots along the vine
      • NOTE: Squash vine borers do not affect Butternut Squash
    • Tomatoes
      • Start indoors or buy seedlings
      • Plant deep – roots form along stem
      • Plants do not need to be protected if night temps are above 45° F; cover if frost is predicted
      • Fertilizer
        • Very little nitrogen, abundant phosphorus
      • Types:
        • Determinate varieties grow to a certain height and stop; no pruning
        • Indeterminate will grow until frost; prune for best results
      • Disease
        • Plant healthy plants
        • Avoid overhead watering, especially in evenings
        • Use fungicide for vegetable crops
        • Do not use tobacco products near tomatoes
      • Insects
        • Tomato Hornworm
        • Potato Beetles
      • Control
        • Hornworms: hand pick or Dipel
        • Beetles: B.T. for larvae
        • Rotenone – Pyrethrin
      • Blossom End Rot
        • Even supply of moisture – mulch
        • Soil test for calcium
    • Peppers – Seed Tomatoes
      • Soil temp: 70° F – Important!
      • Plant after June 1
      • Black plastic mulch will keep soil warm
      • Fertilizer:
        • Very little nitrogen
      • Disease
        • Drip irrigate
        • Well drained soil
      • Insects
        • Cutworms
      • Control
        • Use a collar for cutworms
        • Rotenone – Pyrethrin for other insects
      • Problems:
        • Hot or cold extremes
        • Sunscald – not enough foliage
        • Blossom End Rot – irregular moisture
        • Bacterial spot – seed-born
    • Onions
      • Plant in early spring
        • Sets
        • Plants
        • Seed in April; indoor in February
      • Plant no deeper than 1 inch
      • Plant 4 inches apart
      • Soil pH: 6.2 to 6.8
      • Soil: Rich, highly organic, muck, sandy soil
      • Temp: cool season
      • Fertilizer
        • Ammonium sulphate (21-0-0) every 2 weeks
        • Stop when onions begin to bulb
      • Very important to weed onions
      • Types:
        • Hard Storage
        • Short Storage – sweet
        • Long Day
        • Short Day (southern growers)
      • Dry onions in the sun for 2 days
        • To prevent sunscald, cover lightly
        • Once onions are dry, cut top back to 1 inch and clip roots
        • Onions continued on next slide
    • Onions continued
      • Disease
        • Many onions diseases
        • Set grown onions are more prone to disease
      • Insects: Few
      • Control
        • Use a vegetable fungicide early
        • Rotate crops
    • Garlic
      • Culture: same as onions and leeks
      • For best garlic, plant in the fall (October)
      • Very winter hardy
      • Larger the clove, the larger the garlic
      • Types:
        • Stiffneck
          • Recommended
          • Large cloves
          • Stiff center
          • Produces scapes – can be used in stir fry
        • Softneck
          • Garlic mostly used on the west coast
        • Elephant garlic
          • Not a garlic
          • Belongs to the shallot family
    • Leeks
      • Easy to grow
      • Soil temp: 55° - 75° F
      • Soil: Rich
        • Use guidelines for onions
      • Plant using handle of shovel
        • Make holes 6 to 8 inches deep so leaf just protrudes above the soil
        • Water to settle soil
      • Storage:
        • Store at 32°F for 2 – 3 months
        • Freeze
      • Disease:
        • Same as onions
    • Leafy Vegetables
      • Chard
      • Best vegetable for a crop all summer
      • Any soil
      • Nitrogen fertilizer or bloodmeal
      • Belongs to the beet family
      • Lettuce
      • Easy cool season crop
      • Important to thin seedlings
      • Good for fall crop
      • Head Lettuce
      • Start seeds indoors in March or buy nursery plants
      • Well drained soil or plant on small hill
      • Tends to rot at base
      • Spinach
      • Very cool weather crop
      • Good fall crop
      • Start mid-March as soon as soil can be worked
      • Bolts in warm weather
      • New Zealand Spinach
      • Warmer season crop
      • Similar to spinach
      • Tolerates warm weather
    • Root Crops
      • Soil:
        • Loose, sandy
      • Fertilizer:
        • Super phosphate
        • Bonemeal
        • Low nitrogen
      • Be ruthless about thinning
      • For carrots – must have moist soil to germinate, sprinkle soil lightly daily
      • Disease
        • Blights
      • Insects
        • Wireworms
        • Leafminers
      • Control
        • Copper fungicide for blight
        • Row covers for insects
    • Potatoes
      • Light, sunny location
      • Soil: well drained
      • pH: 4.8 to 6.5 (acidic)
      • Temperature: cool
      • Moisture: uniform
      • Planting:
        • Cut seed potatoes in pieces and let dry for about one week in a warm area
        • Plant 12 inches apart and rows 24 inches apart
        • Plant seed in spring about April 1 st for early potatoes
      • Late potatoes keep well in winter
      • Fertilizer:
        • Fertilize as you would onions
          • Blood meal/lawn fertilizer (1 st feeding)
        • Nitrogen early, then potassium
          • Bone meal/super phosphate (later feedings)
      • Disease
        • Nitrogen deficiency (yellow leaves)
      • Insects
        • Potato beetles (major problem)
      • Control
        • Carbaryl
    • Cover Crops
      • Why?
        • Prevent erosion
        • Prevent weeds
        • Catch crop to use nutrients that would otherwise leach into groundwater
        • Increase soil fertility
        • Aerate soil
        • Use as mulch
      • No till gardens
        • Annual oats
        • Field peas
        • Soybeans
      • Perennial cover crops
        • White clover
        • Alfalfa
        • Crimson clover
        • Rye
    •  
    •