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Vegetables A To Z

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by Phyllis Both, Sauk County UW-Extension

by Phyllis Both, Sauk County UW-Extension

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Vegetables A To Z Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Vegetables A to Z Presented by: Phyllis Both Sauk County UW Extension Horticulture Educator
  • 2. Asparagus
    • Well prepared bed
    • Trench 8 inches deep
    • 1 – 2 cups complete fertilizer – 10 foot row
    • Compost or well rotted manure
    • Backfill
    • Plant crowns 10 – 15 inches apart
    • Fall care: mulch
    • Harvest after second year
    • Ferns feed roots
    • Cut when brown and compost
    • Diseases
      • Rust
      • Fusarium wilt
      • Stem and Crown rot
    • Insects
      • Asparagus beetle
    • Control
      • Rotenone - Pyrethrin
  • 3. DIAGRAM OF PROPER ASPARAGUS PLANTING
  • 4. Beans
    • Soil temp: 60° - 85° F
    • 1 inch apart – NO THINNING
    • pH: 5.5 to 6.5
      • Mildly acidic
    • Very light feeders – excess nitrogen produces large plants, but no fruit
    • Mulch to conserve moisture
    • Harvest 2 weeks after bloom
    • Diseases – many
      • Avoid wetting foliage
      • 4 year rotation
    • Insects
      • Mexican bean beetles
      • Bean weevils
    • Control
      • Optimum soil conditions; fast growth
      • Hand pick
      • Rotenone - Pyrethrin
  • 5. Pole Beans
    • Same culture as bush beans
    • Need support
    • 6 seeds per pole
  • 6. Peas
    • Cool season crop
      • Soil temp: 40° - 75° F
    • Plant 1 inch apart
    • Plant 1 – 1-1/2 inches deep
    • No thinning
    • Fertilizer: side dress
      • 1 cup complete fertilizer and 1 cup bone meal per 10 foot row
      • Mulch roots
    • Bush peas ripen at the same time
    • Pole peas need support and ripen over a longer period of time
    • Diseases
      • Fusarium wilt (pea rot)
      • Crop rotation
      • Disease resistant cultivars
    • Insects
      • Pea aphid
    • Control
      • Soapy water spray
      • Rotenone - Pyrethrin
  • 7. Other Legumes
    • Lima Beans
      • 75 to 85 days
    • Edamame Beans (soy)
      • 85 days
    • Yard Long
      • 85 days
    • Harcots (french filet)
      • Very tender; highest quality
    • Shelling Beans
      • Field dry
      • Freeze for 2 weeks to eliminate bean weevils
    • Fava Beans
      • Heavy soil/manure
      • Harvest young or dry
    • Runner Beans
      • Need pollination
      • Edible
      • Decorative
  • 8. Legumes, continued
    • Legumes are important for sustainable gardening
    • Legumes form a symbiotic relationship from the air to create nitrogen nodules on their roots called nitrogen fixing (Rhizobial bacteria)
    • To insure Rhizobial bacteria, use a legume inoculant
    • Less fertilizer in the future
    • Turn legumes back into the soil or compost the tops – leave the roots
  • 9. NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA NODULES SOIL LEVEL LEGUME PLANT
  • 10. Brassica/Cole Crops
    • All cool season crops
    • They include:
      • Brussels sprouts
      • Cabbage
      • Broccoli
      • Cauliflower
      • Kale
      • Kohlrabi
      • Chinese cabbage
      • Turnips
      • Rutabagas
      • Pak choi
  • 11. Brussels Sprouts
    • Harvest after two frosts; cold sweetens sprouts
    • pH: 6.0; slightly acid
    • Very little nitrogen
    • Loose heads
    • Maturity = Date of Transplant
      • Add 25 – 35 days if direct seeding
    • Harvest:
      • Do not remove leaves
      • Bottom to top
      • Break off leaves under harvested sprouts only
      • Once over harvest – pinch out growing tip when sprouts are ½ to ¾ inch in diameter
    • Disease
      • Rotate crops
    • Insects
      • Cabbage worms
      • Maggots
    • Control
      • B.T.
  • 12. Broccoli
    • Trouble-free
    • Early planting important
    • pH: 6.0 – 6.8
    • Soil temp: 55° - 75° F for transplants; direct sow in April
    • Plant 18 – 36 inches apart
    • Fertilizer:
      • ¼ - ½ cup complete fertilizer per plant OR
      • ½ cup bloodmeal OR
      • ½ cup composted chicken manure
    • Disease:
      • Rotate crop
    • Insects
      • Cabbage worm
      • Loopers
      • Root maggots
    • Prevention: Row covers
    • Control
      • B.T. & I.T. molasses and wheat bran around the base of the plant
  • 13. Cauliflower
    • Transplants best after danger of frost
    • Soil pH: 6.5 – 7.0; sweet
      • Rich soil
      • Compost and complete fertilizer ¼ to ½ cup per plant
    • Stressed plants will not produce a head
    • Too much nitrogen or not enough boron produce hollow stems
    • Blanching: some self wrap
      • Tie inner leaves around curd when it’s forming
    • Flowerets begin to separate at maturity
    • Disease – same as all brassicas
    • Insects – same as all brassicas
    • Varieties:
      • Yellow
      • Cream
      • Burgundy
      • White
      • Pink
  • 14. Cabbage
    • Cool and moist
    • Soil pH: 6.5
    • Fertilizer: Relatively high
      • ½ cup complete fertilizer per plant
    • Types:
      • Early
        • Cabbage mature fast and tend to split if not harvested early
      • Mid-Season & Winter
        • Slow growing
        • Hold much longer
        • Several months
    • Tips: Start with a good cultivar
      • Early:
        • Green - Charmant (66 day)
        • Green - Parel
      • Late:
        • Red – Ruby Ball (78 day)
        • Green – Stein’s Late Flat (95 day)
  • 15. Corn
    • Isolate your varieties
      • Plant varieties at least 25 feet apart OR
      • Plant with a 10 day maturation difference
    • Soil temp:
      • Treated seed: 55° F
      • Untreated seed: 65° F
    • Fertilizer
      • Pre-planting
      • High phosphate starter
    • Seed bed:
      • Smooth, uniform depth
      • Shallow; ¾ to 1 inch
    • Half silk date: Note date
    • Harvest:
      • 18 to 24
      • Warm weather favors earlier maturity
    • Refrigerate:
      • Cool in ice water to remove heat
  • 16. Vine Crops do NOT like to be transplanted! Cucumbers
    • Direct seed
    • Soil temp: 70° F – will not germinate in soil below 50° F
    • Mulch after soil is warm
    • Harvest:
      • Pick daily
    • Disease
      • Choose resistant varieties
      • Provide good growing conditions
    • Insects
    • Control
      • Provide row covers
      • Rotenone – Pyrethrin when flowers are closed for the evening
  • 17. Summer Squash
    • Direct seed
    • Soil temp:
      • 62° F for treated seed
      • 70° F for untreated seed
    • Harvest:
      • Pick 2 – 3 times per week
    • Disease
      • Same as for cucumbers
    • Insects
      • Squash Vine Borers – worst pest
    • Control
      • Floating row covers
      • Rotenone – Pyrethrin
      • Cover base of plant OR
      • Teaspoon of carbaryl to the base of the plant when very young
  • 18. Winter Squash & Pumpkins
    • Direct seed
      • Plant in hills or rows
    • Soil temp:
      • 62° F for treated seed
      • 70° F for untreated seed
    • Harvest:
      • Pick before heavy frost
      • Cure in a frost-free area to harden – 5 to 7 days
      • Store at 50° - 55° F
    • Disease – same as cucumbers
    • Insects
      • Squash bugs
      • Squash Vine Borers
    • Control
      • Kill Squash bugs at nymph stage
        • Check under leaves for egg masses
        • Spray nymphs with carbaryl or rotenone after blossoms are closed at night
      • Squash vine borers
        • Carbaryl - 1 teaspoon at base of plant and 1 teaspoon at each node that roots along the vine
    • NOTE: Squash vine borers do not affect Butternut Squash
  • 19. Tomatoes
    • Start indoors or buy seedlings
    • Plant deep – roots form along stem
    • Plants do not need to be protected if night temps are above 45° F; cover if frost is predicted
    • Fertilizer
      • Very little nitrogen, abundant phosphorus
    • Types:
      • Determinate varieties grow to a certain height and stop; no pruning
      • Indeterminate will grow until frost; prune for best results
    • Disease
      • Plant healthy plants
      • Avoid overhead watering, especially in evenings
      • Use fungicide for vegetable crops
      • Do not use tobacco products near tomatoes
    • Insects
      • Tomato Hornworm
      • Potato Beetles
    • Control
      • Hornworms: hand pick or Dipel
      • Beetles: B.T. for larvae
      • Rotenone – Pyrethrin
    • Blossom End Rot
      • Even supply of moisture – mulch
      • Soil test for calcium
  • 20. Peppers – Seed Tomatoes
    • Soil temp: 70° F – Important!
    • Plant after June 1
    • Black plastic mulch will keep soil warm
    • Fertilizer:
      • Very little nitrogen
    • Disease
      • Drip irrigate
      • Well drained soil
    • Insects
      • Cutworms
    • Control
      • Use a collar for cutworms
      • Rotenone – Pyrethrin for other insects
    • Problems:
      • Hot or cold extremes
      • Sunscald – not enough foliage
      • Blossom End Rot – irregular moisture
      • Bacterial spot – seed-born
  • 21. Onions
    • Plant in early spring
      • Sets
      • Plants
      • Seed in April; indoor in February
    • Plant no deeper than 1 inch
    • Plant 4 inches apart
    • Soil pH: 6.2 to 6.8
    • Soil: Rich, highly organic, muck, sandy soil
    • Temp: cool season
    • Fertilizer
      • Ammonium sulphate (21-0-0) every 2 weeks
      • Stop when onions begin to bulb
    • Very important to weed onions
    • Types:
      • Hard Storage
      • Short Storage – sweet
      • Long Day
      • Short Day (southern growers)
    • Dry onions in the sun for 2 days
      • To prevent sunscald, cover lightly
      • Once onions are dry, cut top back to 1 inch and clip roots
      • Onions continued on next slide
  • 22. Onions continued
    • Disease
      • Many onions diseases
      • Set grown onions are more prone to disease
    • Insects: Few
    • Control
      • Use a vegetable fungicide early
      • Rotate crops
  • 23. Garlic
    • Culture: same as onions and leeks
    • For best garlic, plant in the fall (October)
    • Very winter hardy
    • Larger the clove, the larger the garlic
    • Types:
      • Stiffneck
        • Recommended
        • Large cloves
        • Stiff center
        • Produces scapes – can be used in stir fry
      • Softneck
        • Garlic mostly used on the west coast
      • Elephant garlic
        • Not a garlic
        • Belongs to the shallot family
  • 24. Leeks
    • Easy to grow
    • Soil temp: 55° - 75° F
    • Soil: Rich
      • Use guidelines for onions
    • Plant using handle of shovel
      • Make holes 6 to 8 inches deep so leaf just protrudes above the soil
      • Water to settle soil
    • Storage:
      • Store at 32°F for 2 – 3 months
      • Freeze
    • Disease:
      • Same as onions
  • 25. Leafy Vegetables
    • Chard
    • Best vegetable for a crop all summer
    • Any soil
    • Nitrogen fertilizer or bloodmeal
    • Belongs to the beet family
    • Lettuce
    • Easy cool season crop
    • Important to thin seedlings
    • Good for fall crop
    • Head Lettuce
    • Start seeds indoors in March or buy nursery plants
    • Well drained soil or plant on small hill
    • Tends to rot at base
    • Spinach
    • Very cool weather crop
    • Good fall crop
    • Start mid-March as soon as soil can be worked
    • Bolts in warm weather
    • New Zealand Spinach
    • Warmer season crop
    • Similar to spinach
    • Tolerates warm weather
  • 26. Root Crops
    • Soil:
      • Loose, sandy
    • Fertilizer:
      • Super phosphate
      • Bonemeal
      • Low nitrogen
    • Be ruthless about thinning
    • For carrots – must have moist soil to germinate, sprinkle soil lightly daily
    • Disease
      • Blights
    • Insects
      • Wireworms
      • Leafminers
    • Control
      • Copper fungicide for blight
      • Row covers for insects
  • 27. Potatoes
    • Light, sunny location
    • Soil: well drained
    • pH: 4.8 to 6.5 (acidic)
    • Temperature: cool
    • Moisture: uniform
    • Planting:
      • Cut seed potatoes in pieces and let dry for about one week in a warm area
      • Plant 12 inches apart and rows 24 inches apart
      • Plant seed in spring about April 1 st for early potatoes
    • Late potatoes keep well in winter
    • Fertilizer:
      • Fertilize as you would onions
        • Blood meal/lawn fertilizer (1 st feeding)
      • Nitrogen early, then potassium
        • Bone meal/super phosphate (later feedings)
    • Disease
      • Nitrogen deficiency (yellow leaves)
    • Insects
      • Potato beetles (major problem)
    • Control
      • Carbaryl
  • 28. Cover Crops
    • Why?
      • Prevent erosion
      • Prevent weeds
      • Catch crop to use nutrients that would otherwise leach into groundwater
      • Increase soil fertility
      • Aerate soil
      • Use as mulch
    • No till gardens
      • Annual oats
      • Field peas
      • Soybeans
    • Perennial cover crops
      • White clover
      • Alfalfa
      • Crimson clover
      • Rye
  • 29.  
  • 30.