• Save
Mgv Tree Planting
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,214
On Slideshare
1,095
From Embeds
119
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 119

http://fyi.uwex.edu 118
http://rock.uwex.edu 1

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Trees do many things for our environements. Their canopies collect air-borne dirt and debris, as well as pollutants. They also catch the water in the canopy and funnel the water down their trunks to the ground to slow storm water runoff. Shade and Evapotransporation from the trees moving water from the roots to the shoots can cool the hot cement in city areas. Planting trees to the north side of your home can block cold winter winds. Light colored cement can cause glare. Shade from trees can reduce glare, making it easier on our eyes.
  • Property value can be increased from 10 to 20% by the presence of trees. Studies have found that buildings with trees present stay occupied longer and attract more customers than areas without trees. Shade from trees can cool your home, reducing air conditioning bills.
  • Various studies have found that trees improve our health! Hospital patients recover faster when they can recuperated looking upon trees than when not. Research from the University of Illinois found that residents in Chicago’s housing projects got along better in the areas with trees present. Trees are a source of community pride! Look at how people respond when cherished trees are removed. We commemorate people’s lives by planting memorial trees. Where do we go when we want to relax? We go back to nature to be around trees!
  • During a 40-year life span of a tree….
  • Notice that the average life span for a tree in the average city spot is only 32 years! We are not even reaching 40 years for most of our trees! Downtown locations are extremely hard on trees with compacted soils and droughty conditions. As the conditions improve as we move to suburbia, trees are living longer but still are not the long-lived, vigorous specimens they could be. Admittedly, humans take their toll on trees. Pollution, construction, introduction of exotic pests and diseases can contribute to a trees decline. But we also make many mistakes by choosing the wrong tree for a given environment, fail to prune the tree correctly, plant incorrectly, and do not realize what it takes to keep a growing tree happy and healthy.
  • This is the oldest white oak in Madison, Wisconsin. It is over 200 years old. No argument: trees are the oldest, living things on the face of the earth.
  • Not everyone is fortunate to own the largest tree in their community. Often, we have to start with these type of trees.
  • Sometimes we inherit some ugly specimens.
  • What we will cover in this presentation…
  • Obviously, a very bad place to plant a tree.
  • Silver Maple outgrowing it’s location. Silver Maple is also very weak wooded tree, prone to storm damage.
  • You need to look around and analyze the site before you plant. Willows under powerlines are obviously not the best choice.
  • Some trees also have preferences for things such as light, soil type, moisture, pH, salt and other conditions. Pin oak, for instance, suffer from iron chlorosis on the high pH soils found in the Midwest.
  • Consider litter production: oaks (acorns), honeylocust (seed pods), black walnut (nuts). Also consider toxicity. Black walnuts produce juglone, a substance toxic to many other plants.
  • This talk emphasizes plant large, deciduous shade trees. From this, we can extrapolate the information to our shrubs and conifers. When purchasing trees, look for a tree with a single leader (or central growing point that will give the tree height) Small trees, shrubs, and specialty items may be different. Look for signs of insects, disease, and damage. A healthy tree will establish faster than a damaged or sick tree. Make sure that the nursery maintains the plant. Again, plant health is important for establishment. Tree selection can be tricky. Some species have a broad range. However, seed stock can differ from North to South. Plants grown in southern climates are acclimated to a long growing season. Growing seeds from these plants in the north can result in problems: leaves will want to form while it’s still cold in Wisconsin; tree’s will also want to keep the leaves on longer during our first frost. Be sure to purchase trees whose seed stock originates in a climate and growing season similar to ours. Buying trees from reputable nurseries is an easy way to avoid this problem.
  • Diagram discussing qualities of good planting stock.
  • Examples of problems: damage during transportation, neglected root ball, insect galls on a branch.
  • Discuss the basic parts of a woody ornamental Trunk and shoots are the above ground portion of the plant. Bark is present to protect these tissues from wind, rain, snow, etc. Lenticels (small openings in the tissue) bring oxygen to the tissues or respiration. Green tissue in the leaves does photosynthesis, creating the sugars needed for growth. Below ground are the roots. Roots will grow away from light (phototropic) and are responsible for absorbing water and nutrients (supports the stems and shoots). Oxygen is needed, too, for respiration.
  • Who has planted a tree like this? This was once the recommended planting method. Now we realize, it is a planting TOMB, not a planting HOLE. Correcting this habit is a major re-education process for both consumers and industry professionals
  • How do roots grow? Roots grow in the top 6-8” of soil, where the oxygen is. Roots also grow approximately 5x’s the height of the tree (depending on species, soil, environment, etc)
  • root flare is below soil grade. Roots grow upwards to top 6 inches of soil where oxygen is plentiful. Girdling roots– roots grow upward and damage the trunk as the tree’s diameter increases; this may take years to develop. Basal rot– rotting of the trunk may occur when it is buried in the soil which lead to overall tree decline; trunk cracks may also appear due to the death of tissue at the base of the trunk.
  • One result of deep planting is placing bark (designed for an above ground environment) under ground. The constant exposure to a moist, dark environment allows microbes to penetrate the bark and cause a wound. This wound becomes the starting point for a split which expands with the seasonal freezing/thawing. The resulting “frost crack” is a sign of a deep planted tree.
  • Lack of a strong base makes a tree more susceptible to failure during highwinds.
  • Surface Girdling root on norway maple A girdling root will be a root in contact with and crossing the trunk. Root tissue is anatomically and physiologically different from trunk tissue. Because the water conducting tissues of the trunk are just under the bark, the root collapses these tissue making it difficult for water to move into the canopy. Unfortunately, not all girdling root diagnostics are this easy!
  • Review signs of tree stress and deep planting problems Note there is no recommendations for remedy, only prevention
  • Girdling roots is a common problem with trees. We first notice stressed trees with early fall coloration.
  • Extreme root girdling will lead to tree defoliation (compare like trees)
  • To properly plant a tree, we must put the “root flare” at the natural soil grade, or slightly higher in heavy soils. “ Plant high, survive. Plant low, won’t grow”
  • The root flare is a critical part of the tree. It’s the oldest part of the tree, originating at seed germination. It is a buttressing system for support. The tissues are capable of storing sugars produced during photosyntheses. Importantly, it’s the transition from trunk tissue to root tissue. It’s a highly sensitive area that is best location when arborists need to treat trees with injections.
  • There are 3 ways primary ways in which Master Gardeners can purchase trees. With each, we must find the root flare.
  • Bareroot trees come with no soil in contact with the roots. The trees are dormant, thus can tolerate this. A typical tree will be grafted. The scion is grafted onto the root stock. Where the two meet is the bud-graft union. This is an important landmark we will use in the upcoming slides. The root flare is easy to find without soil in the way!
  • The roots of the plant are obvious. Large roots are present and are responsible for support and storage for the young tree. Small fibrous roots come off the larger ones. These are responsible for water and nutrient uptake. Notice the adventitious roots? These grow as a response to the tree being stored in a dark, moist environment. These should be removed with a clean, sharp pair of pruning shears. These roots, though functional, are not the best when planting. You should always find the root flare if possible.
  • The tree is dug with the original soil and placed in burlap for shipping Root ball may or may not have a wire basket on the outside of the burlap for support. Avoid using the trunk of the tree to move the root ball since severe root damage may occur. Because the roots are intact with soil, Ball and Burlapped trees can be planted throughout the year. Advantages: Stock is available to plant throughout the year. Larger and provides greater visual impact Disadvantage: expensive. Heavy and difficult to move and plant. Difficult to locate the root flare and plant at the proper depth.
  • When coming from the nursery, B&B trees have soil added on the root flare. Yellow arrow designates the nursery soil line. First thing when planting B&B stock is to locate the root flare and align with soil grade. Move your hand down the trunk into the root ball. You will first come to the bud/graft union. Bud/graft union (orange arrow) -Most trees today are produced by the budding or grafting a particular variety onto a root system -Budding or grafting usually results in the trunk having a larger diameter above the root flare to the point where the bud/graft was performed. The root flare may be 6-8 inches below the bud/graft union.
  • Green arrow points to root flare. This should be at grade, or 1-2” above in heavy soils. Go into the reasons planting too deep is bad for the tree. If this tree was planted at the artificial soil line established in the nursery, note how deep the root flare would have been. Note the lack of roots in the soil ball where the soil was removed. Were we damaging the tree? No.
  • Note dense root mass Where is root flare? Many container grown trees originated as bare root trees and potted. Whips are placed in the pot with flare at bottom and a potting mix is added.
  • Untangle roots if possible No flare yet.
  • Note root flare, bud-graft union, etc.
  • Bareroot trees are very light weight! Because no soil is in contact with the roots, it is easy to find the root flare and assess the health of the root system. However, because of the roots being bare, trees must be dormant. Trees must also be properly stored in a cool, moist environment to prevent dessication of roots. Because trees are dormant, we are limited to planting in only the very early spring (when the ground isn’t frozen!) Also, many trees cannot handle the stress of being barerooted, so you will find a smaller species selection.
  • The major way we plant trees is by purchasing B&B trees. B&B trees have a very wide selection. You can also plant very large trees this way. You are also able to plant trees whenever the ground is workable. The disadvantage is the weight. With the soil present, the added weight makes working with B&B trees difficult. Because of this, additional labor and equipment is required to move the plants, thus adding to the expense. Finally, the soil makes finding the root flare difficult.
  • Containerized plants offer characteristics of both B&B and bareroot. Containerized trees offer a very wide selection. Trees are smaller, thus cheaper (in most cases). Because there is a planting medium in contact with the roots, the trees are active and can be planted at any time of the year the soil is workable. The major drawback of containerized stock is the development of circling roots in the round pots. This can lead to girdling root complications later on in the trees life. Also, the density of the roots in the containers can make it difficult to reach the root flare.
  • Planting holes should be wide and shallow. We want to do our best to invite the roots into the surrounding soil native to the site.
  • CALL DIGGER’S HOTLINE. It’s the law.
  • Advantages: Less expensive, lightweight, condition of root system is easily seen and stock recovers quickly after planting. Disadvantage: limited availability, roots must be kept moist and stock must be planted while dormant. The best time to plant bare root stock is in the early spring before budbreak and also in the fall after the leaves have started to develop fall color, up until frost develops in the soil. Bareroot plants allow can come with more of a root system, are lighter, and easier to plant at the proper depth because the root flare is visible.
  • Again, dig the hole twice as wide as the root system and only as deep as the root flare. Avoid disturbing the bottom of the hole to prevent settling. With your hand, carefully untangle and spread roots outwards away from the trunk. Avoid cramming roots into holes or clumping roots together. This may lead to root girdling. Excessively long roots or damaged roots may be pruned.
  • Backfill with existing soil native to the planting site. Avoid using peat moss or high organic mixes foreign to the planting site. This will favor roots to grow only in the planting hole and reduce the number penetrating the surrounding soil. Stake the tree as discussed with ball and burlapped.
  • The tree is dug with the original soil and placed in burlap for shipping Root ball may or may not have a wire basket on the outside of the burlap for support. Avoid using the trunk of the tree to move the root ball since severe root damage may occur. Because the roots are intact with soil, Ball and Burlapped trees can be planted throughout the year. Advantages: Stock is available to plant throughout the year. Larger and provides greater visual impact Disadvantage: expensive. Heavy and difficult to move and plant. Difficult to locate the root flare and plant at the proper depth.
  • Determine the location of the root flare within the rootball. Measure the distance from the bottom of the rootball to root flare. Dig only as deep as needed to have the root flare level with the soil surface. Planting hole should be dug twice as wide as the ball or root system To prevent settling, do no disturb the soil in the bottom of the hole. Slope the sides to the bottom of the hole Rough up the sides of the hole to eliminate any smooth, shiny surfaces which may inhibit root penetration Remove tags and trunk guard at this time.
  • Remove upper ½ of the wire basket and burlap. Remove it all if possible.
  • Remove burlap. Avoid burying treated burlap and remove it all. Untreated burlap will breakdown slowly. Leaving the burlap on my promote root girdling.
  • Remove the excess soil burying the root flare.
  • Backfill the planting hole with site-native soil. By using a soil of a different type or texture, you may limit the spread of roots into surrounding soil at the interface. Furthermore, moisture may be trapped in lighter soil in the planting hole, suffocating the roots. To help roots grow, widen the planting site by tilling or spading around the excavated area. This will provide the appearance of a tree being planted dead-center of a planting site!
  • Hmmm? Did they remove the burlapp? Did the wire rust away?
  • Remove the plant from the container. These plants are often grown in soil less mixes that if planted into clay soils will dry out quickly and the roots ill not sufficiently grow out into the existing soil. In addition, if planted intact without spreading out the root system, the chances of developing girdling roots or circling roots is greatly increased, especially for trees. Cut any roots that are growing around the trunk. Spread the roots out by hand to promote growing into surrounding soil. For trees, it is best to bareroot the whole root system by carefully using your hands to remove the soil around the roots system.
  • Note dense root mass Where is root flare? Many container grown trees originated as bare root trees and potted. Whips are placed in the pot with flare at bottom and a potting mix is added.
  • Circling roots of container grown stock. When planting CGS, it is important to remove any of these by either cutting with a knife or untangling by hand.
  • No flare yet.
  • Note root flare
  • Summary:
  • The same principles can be applied to our shrubs. Instead of “flares” we look for the “crown” of the shrub, or the region in which we find shoots originating. Shrubs with a fibrous root system can be planted by scoring the root mass with a blade. Shrubs with thick roots, stolons, or other thick growth can be more difficult to plant. Best to find plant that lack these problems.
  • The number one reason trees fail to establish is lack of water. 1 inch of water per week is a good rule of thumb for successful establishment. Bigger trees may take longer to establish than smaller trees.
  • Staking is necessary to keep the tree from falling over. Staking tight or leaving it staked for too long can lead to poor tree growth and development of weak wood. Stake loosely and check each season.
  • Top image: root flare aligned with soil grade. Roots are spreading away from trunk in top 6 inches of soil. Oxygen is plentiful in this region and roots will go to areas with the most oxygen. Bottom image: root flare is below soil grade. Roots grow upwards to top 6 inches of soil where oxygen is plentiful. Girdling roots– roots grow upward and damage the trunk as the tree’s diameter increases; this may take years to develop. Basal rot– rotting of the trunk may occur when it is buried in the soil which lead to overall tree decline; trunk cracks may also appear due to the death of tissue at the base of the trunk.
  • The problem with wire in hoses.
  • Volcanic mulch job! Piling much like this puts trunk tissue in a dark, moist environment.
  • When applying mulch, leave a 2 to 6 inch ring around the tree to allow the bark to breathe.
  • The right way to plant - note the good things (even wire basket off to side on right. Note that the hole diameter may be a bit optimistic but make as wide as possible.
  • Rock does not provide the same benefits as an organic mulch would.
  • Tree wrap is useful when transporting plants or protecting during winter from vermin damage. Important to remove each spring!
  • Only prune broken branches after planting. Leaving branches on will provide leafy material for photosynthesis, which in turn will help the tree become established. Start pruning regime after establishment. Fertilization is not necessary. Adding fertilizers forces top growth. Our goal with proper pruning is the promotion of root establishment. Driving canopy growth is counter productive.
  • Olbrich Botanical Gardens Demonstration of proper tree planting. Tree on left, properly planted. Tree on right, improperly planted. Note color, growth. Only one growing season!

Transcript

  • 1. Planting Trees and Shrubs Mike Maddox Horticulture Educator Rock County UW-Extension at Rotary Botanical Gardens ISA Certified Arborist                                                                          
  • 2. On-Line
    • http://rock.uwex.edu
      • ‘ horticulture’ section of webpage
      • PW: maddox
  • 3. Benefits of Trees
    • Environmental Benefits
    • Filter air pollutants
    • Reduce storm water runoff
    • Counter the urban heat island effect
    • Reduce glare
    • Provide wind breaks
  • 4. Benefits of Trees
    • Economic Benefits
    • Increase property values
    • Attract business
    • Attract customers
    • Reduce energy costs
  • 5. Benefits of Trees
    • Social Benefits
    • Beautify the landscape
    • Improve public health
    • Increase community pride
    • Reduce violent behavior
    • Recreation and relaxation
  • 6. In a 40-year lifespan, a tree will:
    • Sequester CO2 ($22/year)
    • Produce clean oxygen ($50/year)
    • Trap pollutants & control runoff ($75/year)
    • Cool air like an air conditioner ($73/year)
    • Add habitat ($75/year)
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11. Tree Planting
    • Planting
      • “ Right Tree, Right Place”
      • Roots & Root Flares
      • Types of planting materials
      • Method of planting
  • 12. Matching Plant & Site
    • Environmental characteristics: sun/shade mix, soil type & drainage, pH, above-/below-ground utilities, surrounding structures, sight lines, etc.
    • Cultural requirements: Hardiness, light, pH, size/width, growth rate, litter/fruiting, disease & insect susceptibility
    • Function in landscape: Shading, screening, focal point, etc.
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18. Choose Quality Stock
    • Inspect branches and architecture
    • Look for insects or disease problems
    • Determine if properly maintained, watered
    • “ Origins from ‘southern’ climates”
  • 19. Strong, well developed leader (or leaders in multiple leader tree). Bright, healthy bark. Trunk & limbs free of insect or mechanical injury. Branches well distributed around trunk, considerably smaller caliper than trunk. Ideal spacing between branches at least 8-12” for most species. Good trunk taper. Wide angle crotches for strength. Low branches - they are temporary, but help develop taper; promote trunk caliper growth and prevent sun damage. Healthy buds
  • 20.  
  • 21. Planting
    • Trunk & Shoots
      • Above ground, has bark for protection
      • Need light for photosynthesis
      • Need oxygen for respiration
    • Roots
      • Below ground, will respond to light (grow away)
      • Absorb water & nutrients
      • Need oxygen for respiration
  • 22. Research has shown this method of planting will lead to tree health problems.
  • 23.  
  • 24. Deep Planting
    • Option #1: Die from suffocation
    • Option #2: Adapt.
      • Roots will grow upwards to top 6-8” of soil
      • Causes problems as tree grows
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27.  
  • 28. Deep Planting
    • How can you tell if existing trees are deep planted?
      • Trunks enter the ground ‘flush’
      • Thinning canopies
      • Reduced growth
      • Early fall coloration
  • 29. Early August Premature Fall Color Thinning Canopy
  • 30. Early August
  • 31. Proper Tree Planting
    • The root flare of a tree will be even (or higher than) the natural soil grade of planting site.
      • Roots will grow away from trunk in top 6-8” of soil
  • 32. Root Flare
    • ‘ Set’ at germination
      • Oldest part of tree
    • Support
    • Storage
    • Area of transition from root tissue to trunk tissue
  • 33. Types of Planting Materials
    • Bareroot
    • Ball & Burlapped (B&B)
    • Containerized / Container grown
    • Must find the root flare in each
  • 34. Bareroot Scion (Trunk) Root Flare (Collar) Bud-Graft Union Root Stock
  • 35. Bareroot Root (support & storage) Root (water & nutrient uptake) Adventitious Root (remove)
  • 36. B&B
  • 37. B&B
  • 38. B&B
  • 39. Containerized
  • 40. Containerized
  • 41. Containerized Artificial Soil Line Bud graft union Root Flare
  • 42. Bareroot
    • PRO:
      • Lightweight
      • easy to find root flare
      • assess root system health
    • CON:
      • tree must be dormant
      • reduced planting time
      • limited selection
  • 43. Ball & Burlapped
    • PRO:
      • Wide selection
      • large trees
      • large window to plant
    • CON:
      • HEAVY
      • Expensive
      • difficult to find root flare
  • 44. Containerized
    • PRO:
      • Wide selection
      • Cheaper
      • Large window to plant
    • CON:
      • Circling roots
      • Difficult to find root flare
  • 45. How to dig a hole
    • Dig hole 3-5x bigger than root system
    • Dig hole deep enough to put root flare at the natural soil grade or 1-2” higher
    • Slope & roughen sides of planting hole
    • Leave bottom of hole undisturbed
  • 46. Call Diggers Hotline!
    • Diggers Hotline is open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year!
    • To notify Diggers Hotline of your intent to dig, call:
    • Milwaukee Area (414) 259-1181 Toll Free (800) 242-8511 Hearing Impaired (TDD) (800) 542-2289
    • www.diggershotline.com/
  • 47. How to dig a hole: bareroot
  • 48. How to dig a hole: bareroot
  • 49. How to dig a hole: bareroot
  • 50. How to dig a hole: b&b
  • 51. How to dig a hole: b&b
  • 52. How to dig a hole: b&b
  • 53. How to dig a hole: b&b
  • 54. How to dig a hole: b&b
  • 55. How to dig a hole: b&b
  • 56.  
  • 57. How to dig a hole: containerized
  • 58. How to dig a hole: containerized
  • 59. How to dig a hole: containerized
  • 60. How to dig a hole: containerized
  • 61. How to dig a hole: containerized Artificial Soil Line Bud graft union Root Flare
  • 62. How to fill a hole
    • Backfill ONLY with soil native to the site
      • Amendments can cause moisture problems
      • Promote roots to expand into surroundings
    • Do not tamp / compact soil
      • Use water to eliminate large air pockets
  • 63. Shrubs Crown
  • 64.  
  • 65. Post Planting Care
    • Water
      • Provide trees with 1-2” of water per week for first growing season
      • Drip hose, lawn sprinkler…
      • Transplant Shock
        • 1” = 1 Season
        • 2” = 2 Seasons
        • And so on…
  • 66.  
  • 67. Post Planting Care
    • Staking
      • Especially important for bareroot
      • Secure tree loosely
      • Drive stakes outside root system
      • Wide straps best
      • Remove after one growing season
  • 68. Use heavy gauge wire that won’t droop down. Use 2” diameter stakes - insert into ground outside of soil ball. Use 2-3” canvas or seatbelt webbing with metal grommets Leave some slack - trees gain strength from movement
  • 69.  
  • 70. Mulching Trees & Shrubs
    • Mulch Material: What make a good mulch?
      • Texture (medium textured best)
      • Nutrient value (organic)
      • Availability
      • Aesthetics
  • 71. Types of Organic Mulch
    • Grass Clippings
    • Hardwood Bark
    • Hardwood Chips
    • Composted Leaf Litter
    • Manure
    • Mushroom Compost
    • Peat Moss
    • Pine Boughs
    • Pine Needles
    • Sawdust
    • Sewage Sludge
    • Straw
  • 72. Applying Mulch
    • Spread mulch throughout planting bed to depth of 3”-5” (medium to course texture)
    • Pull mulch away from base of plant creating a donut hole
    • Mulched area should extend to the drip line of the tree, or at least 4-5 feet from trunk (the larger the area, the more beneficial)
    • Replenish as necessary
  • 73. Benefits of Mulch
    • Provides insulation layer
    • Conserve soil moisture
    • Improve soil’s physical structure and fertility
    • Prevent erosion
    • Reduces root competition
  • 74. Additional Benefits of Mulch
    • Protection from lawn mower damage
    • Recycles yard/landscape waste
    • Provides a more natural appearance to the landscape
    • Provides favorable environment for earthworms and other organisms that benefit soil structure and fertility
  • 75. Potential Disadvantages
    • Creates barrier to oxygen and water (fine textured mulches)
    • Excessive moisture (fine textured mulches)
    • Heat injury (dark colored mulches)
    • Soil temperatures (poor timing of application)
    • Weed seeds
    • Needs to be replenished
  • 76. Research Summary Gary Watson, Morton Arboretum Unfertilized (at recommended turf rates) Fertilized (over recommended turf rates) Turf Low root density Normal carbohydrate storage Low root density Low carbohydrate storage Mulch High root density Normal carbohydrate storage High root density Low carbohydrate storage
  • 77.  
  • 78.  
  • 79.  
  • 80.  
  • 81.  
  • 82.  
  • 83. Post Planting Care
    • Tree Wrap
      • Used to protect trees during transportation
      • Sometimes useful to protect against animal damage
      • REMOVE!
  • 84. Post Planting Care
    • Pruning
      • Only remove damaged branches at time of planting
      • Designate ‘temporary branches’ for eventual removal
    • Fertilization
      • Not necessary
  • 85.  
  • 86. Tree Planting Summary
    • Dig hole 3-5x wider than roots
      • no deeper than flare
    • Backfill with native soil, no tamping
    • Stake if necessary for 1 season
    • Water as needed
    • Prune only broken, diseased branches
  • 87.  
  • 88.