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Fruits & vegetables
 

Fruits & vegetables

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    Fruits & vegetables Fruits & vegetables Presentation Transcript

    • Fruits & Vegetables
      Botanically speaking…
    • Culinary speaking…
      Fruits are sweet tasting or used as such
      Vegetables are savory or used as such
    • Botanically speaking…
      A fruit is the part of the plant derived from reproductive tissues and contains seed
      The vegetative parts of the plant include the stems, leaves, roots, buds, etc.
    • Confusing?
    • Pollination & Fertilization
      Fruits & Vegetables
    • Remember…
      Flowers are for more than just our enjoyment.
      The point of flowers is reproduction and survival.
    • Pollination
      Transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma.
      This happens in one of two ways
      Self pollination
      Cross pollination
    • Self Pollination:
      Transfer of pollen from:
      the anther to the stigma of the same flower or
      different flowers on the same plant
      flowers on different plants of the same cultivar
    • Cross Pollination:
      Transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma from flowers on plants of different cultivars of the same species.
    • Who’s pollinating all of these flowers?
      Different insects are attracted to different types of flowers, depending on the color, scent and size of the flower.
      Some (just a little) pollination is also accomplished by people, animals, wind and water.
    • Who’s pollinating all of these flowers?
      Most pollination occurs when insects brush against the pollen bearing parts of the flower (anther) and the against another flower (stigma) transferring the pollen.
    • Common pollinators include:
      Honey Bees prefer blue purple and yellow flowers with a sweet scent.
      Butterflies are attracted to orange, yellow , pink and blue flowers that have a large landing pad
      Moths require flowers that are open at night and providing nectar – prefer white flowers.
    • Pollination
      It’s estimated that honey bees accomplish 80% of crop pollination – that’s valued at over 14 billion dollars annually.
    • How does pollination go wrong?
      Cool weather (below 55-600F)
      Pesticides
      Too warm
      Rain
      Triploid pollen
      Poor nectar producers
    • What about fruit crops?
      Apples: cross pollination is always needed.
      Raspberries: most are self-fruitful but benefit from cross pollination.
      Strawberries: most are self-fruitful but benefit from cross pollination.
      Bees must visit a strawberry flower 16-20 times in just seven days to obtain a commercial size fruit.
    • Fertilization
      Fertilization is the union of a male reproductive cell (gamete) and a female reproductive cell (gamete) that is capable of developing into an new individual
    • Fertilization
    • Focus on the Fruit
      Fruits & Vegetables
    • Types of Fruit
      There are four basic kinds of fruit that we regularly eat.
      Simple
      Aggregate
      Multiple
      Accessory
    • Accessory Fruits
      Fruit that develop from the tissue surrounding the ovary. Generally they develop from flowers that have inferior ovaries and the receptacle or hypanthium become part of the fruit. (can be simple, aggregate or multiple fruits).
    • Parts of a Fruit
      Pericarp - the fruit wall (composed of #2, #3, #4).
      Ectocarp or Exocarp - the outermost layer of the pericarp.
      Mesocarp - the middle layer of the pericarp.
      Endocarp - the inner layer of the pericarp.
      Placenta - a region of attachment of seeds on the fruit wall.
      Funiculus - the stalk attaching the seed to the placenta.
      Seed - a matured ovule.
    • Simple Fruits:
      Those that develop from a single ovary.
    • Simple Fruits:
      Fleshy fruits
      Berry (tomato, banana, grape)
      Pome (pear, apple, quince)
      Pepo (watermelon, pumpkin, squash, cucumber)
      Hesperidium (orange, lemon, grapefruit)
      Drupe
      “Stone fruits” (peach, cherry, coconut, olive)
    • Simple Fruits:
      Dry fruit
      Caryopsis (maize, wheat, rye, barley, sorghum)
      Nut (acorn, filbert)
      Silique (mustard)
      Dehiscent
      Legume (beans, peas)
    • Aggregate Fruits
      Come from a single flower with many ovaries.
      The flower appears as a simple flower with one corolla, calyx and stem but with many pistils and ovaries.
      Ovaries are fertilized separately and independently.
    • Raspberry
    • Multiple Fruit
      Multiple Fruit: Fruit derived from a tight cluster of separate flowers born on a single structure. Each flower has its own calyx and corolla.
    • Carpals
      Within the fruit the ovules remain attached to the parent tissue along the zones of placentation.
      Theses zones of placentation are known as carpals.
      Ovaries can be composed of one or many carpals.
    • Carpals
      Some ovaries can be separated into several distinct chambers while others consist of only one chamber. These chambers are called locules. The number of locules is often (but not always equal to the number of carpals).
    • Veggies Parts!
      Fruits & Vegetables
    • Vegetables
      Vegetative Organs
      Stems
      Leaves
      Roots
      Buds
      Modified Organs
      Bulbs
      Tubers
      Flowers
    • Veggie Lab
      At each station, examine the vegetable and determine if it is a leaf, stem, root, modified organ, etc.
      Is this a storage organ?
      Is this “veggie” botanically a “fruit”? What type?
    • Veggie Lab
      Stems  asparagus
      Tubers (stem)  potato
      Leaves  lettuce, spinach, parsely
      Petioles  celery / rhubarb
      Roots  carrot / radish
      Tubers (root)  sweet potato
      Buds  Brussels sprouts
      Flowers  broccoli, cauliflower
      Fruit  tomatoes, zucchini, eggplant, squash, melon, avocado, peanuts, ….
      Bulb  onion