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Fruits & vegetables


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  • 1. Fruits & Vegetables
    Botanically speaking…
  • 2. Culinary speaking…
    Fruits are sweet tasting or used as such
    Vegetables are savory or used as such
  • 3. Botanically speaking…
    A fruit is the part of the plant derived from reproductive tissues and contains seed
    The vegetative parts of the plant include the stems, leaves, roots, buds, etc.
  • 4. Confusing?
  • 5. Pollination & Fertilization
    Fruits & Vegetables
  • 6. Remember…
    Flowers are for more than just our enjoyment.
    The point of flowers is reproduction and survival.
  • 7. Pollination
    Transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma.
    This happens in one of two ways
    Self pollination
    Cross pollination
  • 8. Self Pollination:
    Transfer of pollen from:
    the anther to the stigma of the same flower or
    different flowers on the same plant
    flowers on different plants of the same cultivar
  • 9. Cross Pollination:
    Transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma from flowers on plants of different cultivars of the same species.
  • 10. Who’s pollinating all of these flowers?
    Different insects are attracted to different types of flowers, depending on the color, scent and size of the flower.
    Some (just a little) pollination is also accomplished by people, animals, wind and water.
  • 11. Who’s pollinating all of these flowers?
    Most pollination occurs when insects brush against the pollen bearing parts of the flower (anther) and the against another flower (stigma) transferring the pollen.
  • 12. Common pollinators include:
    Honey Bees prefer blue purple and yellow flowers with a sweet scent.
    Butterflies are attracted to orange, yellow , pink and blue flowers that have a large landing pad
    Moths require flowers that are open at night and providing nectar – prefer white flowers.
  • 13. Pollination
    It’s estimated that honey bees accomplish 80% of crop pollination – that’s valued at over 14 billion dollars annually.
  • 14. How does pollination go wrong?
    Cool weather (below 55-600F)
    Too warm
    Triploid pollen
    Poor nectar producers
  • 15. What about fruit crops?
    Apples: cross pollination is always needed.
    Raspberries: most are self-fruitful but benefit from cross pollination.
    Strawberries: most are self-fruitful but benefit from cross pollination.
    Bees must visit a strawberry flower 16-20 times in just seven days to obtain a commercial size fruit.
  • 16. Fertilization
    Fertilization is the union of a male reproductive cell (gamete) and a female reproductive cell (gamete) that is capable of developing into an new individual
  • 17. Fertilization
  • 18. Focus on the Fruit
    Fruits & Vegetables
  • 19. Types of Fruit
    There are four basic kinds of fruit that we regularly eat.
  • 20. Accessory Fruits
    Fruit that develop from the tissue surrounding the ovary. Generally they develop from flowers that have inferior ovaries and the receptacle or hypanthium become part of the fruit. (can be simple, aggregate or multiple fruits).
  • 21. Parts of a Fruit
    Pericarp - the fruit wall (composed of #2, #3, #4).
    Ectocarp or Exocarp - the outermost layer of the pericarp.
    Mesocarp - the middle layer of the pericarp.
    Endocarp - the inner layer of the pericarp.
    Placenta - a region of attachment of seeds on the fruit wall.
    Funiculus - the stalk attaching the seed to the placenta.
    Seed - a matured ovule.
  • 22. Simple Fruits:
    Those that develop from a single ovary.
  • 23. Simple Fruits:
    Fleshy fruits
    Berry (tomato, banana, grape)
    Pome (pear, apple, quince)
    Pepo (watermelon, pumpkin, squash, cucumber)
    Hesperidium (orange, lemon, grapefruit)
    “Stone fruits” (peach, cherry, coconut, olive)
  • 24. Simple Fruits:
    Dry fruit
    Caryopsis (maize, wheat, rye, barley, sorghum)
    Nut (acorn, filbert)
    Silique (mustard)
    Legume (beans, peas)
  • 25. Aggregate Fruits
    Come from a single flower with many ovaries.
    The flower appears as a simple flower with one corolla, calyx and stem but with many pistils and ovaries.
    Ovaries are fertilized separately and independently.
  • 26. Raspberry
  • 27. Multiple Fruit
    Multiple Fruit: Fruit derived from a tight cluster of separate flowers born on a single structure. Each flower has its own calyx and corolla.
  • 28. Carpals
    Within the fruit the ovules remain attached to the parent tissue along the zones of placentation.
    Theses zones of placentation are known as carpals.
    Ovaries can be composed of one or many carpals.
  • 29. Carpals
    Some ovaries can be separated into several distinct chambers while others consist of only one chamber. These chambers are called locules. The number of locules is often (but not always equal to the number of carpals).
  • 30. Veggies Parts!
    Fruits & Vegetables
  • 31. Vegetables
    Vegetative Organs
    Modified Organs
  • 32. Veggie Lab
    At each station, examine the vegetable and determine if it is a leaf, stem, root, modified organ, etc.
    Is this a storage organ?
    Is this “veggie” botanically a “fruit”? What type?
  • 33. Veggie Lab
    Stems  asparagus
    Tubers (stem)  potato
    Leaves  lettuce, spinach, parsely
    Petioles  celery / rhubarb
    Roots  carrot / radish
    Tubers (root)  sweet potato
    Buds  Brussels sprouts
    Flowers  broccoli, cauliflower
    Fruit  tomatoes, zucchini, eggplant, squash, melon, avocado, peanuts, ….
    Bulb  onion