Remember… Flowers are for more than just our enjoyment. The point of flowers is reproduction and survival.
Pollination Transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma. This happens in one of two ways Self pollination Cross pollination
Self Pollination: Transfer of pollen from: the anther to the stigma of the same flower or different flowers on the same plant flowers on different plants of the same cultivar
Cross Pollination: Transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma from flowers on plants of different cultivars of the same species.
Who’s pollinating all of these flowers? Different insects are attracted to different types of flowers, depending on the color, scent and size of the flower. Some (just a little) pollination is also accomplished by people, animals, wind and water.
Who’s pollinating all of these flowers? Most pollination occurs when insects brush against the pollen bearing parts of the flower (anther) and the against another flower (stigma) transferring the pollen.
Common pollinators include: Honey Bees prefer blue purple and yellow flowers with a sweet scent. Butterflies are attracted to orange, yellow , pink and blue flowers that have a large landing pad Moths require flowers that are open at night and providing nectar – prefer white flowers.
Pollination It’s estimated that honey bees accomplish 80% of crop pollination – that’s valued at over 14 billion dollars annually.
How does pollination go wrong? Cool weather (below 55-600F) Pesticides Too warm Rain Triploid pollen Poor nectar producers
What about fruit crops? Apples: cross pollination is always needed. Raspberries: most are self-fruitful but benefit from cross pollination. Strawberries: most are self-fruitful but benefit from cross pollination. Bees must visit a strawberry flower 16-20 times in just seven days to obtain a commercial size fruit.
Fertilization Fertilization is the union of a male reproductive cell (gamete) and a female reproductive cell (gamete) that is capable of developing into an new individual
Focus on the Fruit Fruits & Vegetables
Types of Fruit There are four basic kinds of fruit that we regularly eat. Simple Aggregate Multiple Accessory
Accessory Fruits Fruit that develop from the tissue surrounding the ovary. Generally they develop from flowers that have inferior ovaries and the receptacle or hypanthium become part of the fruit. (can be simple, aggregate or multiple fruits).
Parts of a Fruit Pericarp - the fruit wall (composed of #2, #3, #4). Ectocarp or Exocarp - the outermost layer of the pericarp. Mesocarp - the middle layer of the pericarp. Endocarp - the inner layer of the pericarp. Placenta - a region of attachment of seeds on the fruit wall. Funiculus - the stalk attaching the seed to the placenta. Seed - a matured ovule.
Simple Fruits: Those that develop from a single ovary.
Aggregate Fruits Come from a single flower with many ovaries. The flower appears as a simple flower with one corolla, calyx and stem but with many pistils and ovaries. Ovaries are fertilized separately and independently.
Multiple Fruit Multiple Fruit: Fruit derived from a tight cluster of separate flowers born on a single structure. Each flower has its own calyx and corolla.
Carpals Within the fruit the ovules remain attached to the parent tissue along the zones of placentation. Theses zones of placentation are known as carpals. Ovaries can be composed of one or many carpals.
Carpals Some ovaries can be separated into several distinct chambers while others consist of only one chamber. These chambers are called locules. The number of locules is often (but not always equal to the number of carpals).