Is the engagement of a client in a horticultural activities facilitated by a trained therapist to achieve specific documented treatment goals.Is an active process which occurs in the context of an established treatment plan where the process itself is considered the therapeutic activity rather than the end product.Can be found in a wide variety of healthcare, rehabilitative and residential settings.
Is the process that uses plants and plant-related activities through which participants strive to improve their well-being through active or passive involvement.Goals are not clinically defined and documented but the leader will have training in the use of horticulture as a medium for human well-being.Can be found in a wide variety of healthcare, rehabilitative and residential settings.
Is a leisure or recreational activity related to plants and gardening. No treatment goals are defined, no therapist is present, and the focus is on social interaction and horticulture activities. A typical community garden or garden club is a good example of a social horticulture setting.
Is often a major component of a horticulture therapy program, focuses on providing training that enables individuals to work in the horticulture industry professionally, either dependently or semi-independently. These individuals may or may not have some type of disability.Can be found in schools, residential facilities, rehabilitation facilities, among others.
Healing GardensHealing gardens are plant dominated environments including green plants, flowers,water, and other aspects of nature. They are generally associated with hospitals andother healthcare settings, designated as healing gardens by the facility, accessible to all,and designed to have beneficial effects on most users. A healing garden is designed as aretreat and a place of respite for clients, visitors, and staff and to be used at theirdesire. Healing gardens may be further divided into specific types of gardens includingtherapeutic gardens, horticultural therapy gardens, and restorative gardens. Thesegarden types are likely to have overlap and the following definitions should be regardedas guidelines since no two gardens are the same.Therapeutic GardensA therapeutic garden is designed for use as a component of a treatment program suchas occupational therapy, physical therapy, or horticultural therapy programs and can beconsidered as a subcategory of a healing garden. A garden can be described as beingtherapeutic in nature when it has been designed to meet the needs of a specific user orpopulation. It is designed to accommodate client treatment goals and may provide forboth horticultural and non-horticultural activities. It should be designed as part of amulti-disciplinary collaborative process by a team of professionals. A therapeutic gardenmay exist on its own as an extension of an indoor therapeutic program area or it may bepart of a larger healing garden.Horticultural Therapy GardensA horticultural therapy garden is a type of therapeutic garden; it is designed toaccommodate client treatment goals, but it is designed to support primarily horticulturalactivities. A horticultural therapy garden is also designed in such a manner that theclients themselves are able to take care of plant material in the garden.Restorative GardensA restoration or meditation garden may be a public or private garden that is notnecessarily associated with a healthcare setting. This type of garden employs therestorative value of nature to provide an environment conducive to mental repose,stress-reduction, emotional recovery, and the enhancement of mental and physicalenergy. The design of a restorative garden focuses on the psychological, physical, andsocial needs of the users.
Elements of a Healing Garden R. Michael Maddox Horticulture Educator, Rock County UW-Extension
Elements of a healing garden We are stardust. We are golden. And we’ve got to get ourselves back to the garden. Woodstock-Joni Mitchell
Gardening is therapeutic… Research shows a positive correlation between plants (natural environments) and an individual’s well-being (mental, physical, emotional health)
Benefits of Plants: Wellness Surgery Recovery Shorter post-operative stays Less use of potent drugs and better attitudes Roger Ulrich. Texas A &M. Studies on nature and medical recovery
The Neese Memorial Rooftop Garden, Beloit Hospital
Benefits of Plants: Wellness Lifestyle Recovery Attention fatigue restored Improved relationships and career coping Cimprich, B. 1992. Attentional Fatigue Following Breast Cancer Surgery. Research in Nursing and Health 15, 199-207
Benefits of Plants: Wellness In laboratory research, visual exposure to settings with trees has produced significant recovery from stress within five minutes, as indicated by changes in blood pressure and muscle tension. Dr. Roger S. Ulrich Texas A&M University
Elements of a healing garden They paved paradise And put up a parking lot With a pink hotel, a boutique And a swinging hot spot Don't it always seem to go That you don't know what you've got Till it's gone They paved paradise And put up a parking lot Big Yellow Taxi-Joni Mitchell
Horticultural Therapy Horticultural therapy (HT) is not only an emerging profession, it is a time-proven practice. The therapeutic benefits of peaceful garden environments have been understood since ancient times. American Horticulture Therapy Association
Horticultural Therapy In the 19th century, Dr. Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and considered to be the "Father of American Psychiatry," reported that garden settings held curative effects for people with mental illness. American Horticulture Therapy Association
Horticultural Therapy Rehabilitative care of hospitalized war veterans in the 1940’s and 1950’s greatly expanded the practice of HT. Today, HT is recognized as a practical and viable treatment with wide-ranging benefits for people in therapeutic, vocational, and wellness programs. American Horticulture Therapy Association
Achieving Well-being THINK: How do YOU achieve well-being in the garden?
Plant-rich environment Landscapes dominated by vegetation
Plant-rich environment Plants predate humans by approximately 149 million years Humans have never been without plants Plants historically have provided us with food and shelter Plants have been integral to healing practices and systems within most cultures over time
Plant-rich environment Plants are our earliest ancestors Molecules remarkably similar: both have a ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms surrounding a single atom. The atom is magnesium in chlorophyll; iron in hemoglobin
High Line in the Chelsea neighborhood of Manhattan
Experience driven Passive / Active / Quasi Structured / Unstructured
HT Experience MD RN OT PT RT Social Worker Teacher Speech Pathologist Psychologist Dietician
HT Experience (Examples) Stroke, Spinal Cord, and Physical Disabilities Activities assisting in the development of fine motor skills, range of motion, hand-eye coordination, strength, balance, perception Assist in achieving goals set by OT, PT Activities that assist in psychological adjustment and well-being of patient Opportunities for socialization in group Vocational pursuits for after discharge Horticulture as Therapy: Principles and Practices, Simson, Straus
HT Experience (Examples) Traumatic Brain Injury (Physical) Goal: To improve general physical conditioning and endurance Basic objective: Survivor will tolerate standing for ten minutes at potting bench while assisting in transplanting activity Advanced: Survivor will work in greenhouse for two-hour block daily without break, five consecutive days for two weeks Horticulture as Therapy: Principles and Practices, Simson, Straus
HT Experience (Examples) Traumatic Brain Injury (Cognitive) Goal: To improve ability to correctly sequence multistep task Basic objective: Survivor will correctly plant four-pack with seeds by following step-by-step verbal instructions Advanced: Survivor will correctly complete daily closing routine of greenhouse by following written checklist Horticulture as Therapy: Principles and Practices, Simson, Straus
HT Experience (Examples) Traumatic Brain Injury (Emotional) Goal: To develop relaxation techniques Basic objective: Survivor will sit in greenhouse for fifteen minutes while listening to music of their choice Advanced: Survivor will identify one to three horticulture activities that they find relaxing and will schedule to participate regularly Horticulture as Therapy: Principles and Practices, Simson, Straus
HT Experience (Examples) Development Disabilities Goal: Individual will display appropriate social skills in a group setting… HT Goal: Individual will communicate daily in an appropriate manner during an hour long program (no hitting, swearing, name calling, shouting). Horticulture as Therapy: Principles and Practices, Simson, Straus
HT Experience (Examples) Mental Illness Example: Individual with dependent personality disorder Goal: to have patient assume responsibility HT Goal: Patient will water and/or check plants on the unit once a day for once week. Horticulture as Therapy: Principles and Practices, Simson, Straus
Janesville School of Blind and Visually Impaired, Janesville