Diagnosing Plant Problems2009


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Diagnosing Plant Problems2009

  1. 1. Plant Health Advising:<br />Mike Maddox<br />Horticulture Educator, Rock County UW-Extension<br />Director of Education, Rotary Botanical Gardens<br />
  2. 2. Plant health advising<br />Diagnosing plant problems<br />Plant identification<br />Pest identification <br />Insect<br />Disease<br />Animal<br />
  3. 3. What’s this plant?<br />What’s killing this plant?<br />Typical submission<br />
  4. 4. What’s the problem? The 7 S’s<br />Symptom<br />Sign<br />Species<br />Site<br />Spread<br />Season<br />(hi)Story<br />
  5. 5. Symptom<br />Plant response to biotic or abiotic factors<br />Biotic (living)- pathogen, insect, animal…<br />Abiotic (non living)- weather, chemical, nutrient…<br />
  6. 6. Symptom<br />Chlorosis<br />Necrosis<br />Wilting<br />Distorted growth<br />Lack of flowering/fruit-set<br />Vascular discoloration<br />Wood/stem discoloration<br />Root health<br />
  7. 7. Symptoms<br />One disease affecting multiple plant parts<br />Phytopthora<br />
  8. 8. Sign<br />Physical “clue” to causal agent<br />Evidence of feeding or activity.<br />
  9. 9. Signs<br />Cynipid gall wasp<br />Missing materials<br />Insect presence<br />Animal tracks<br />Bite marks<br />Webbing<br />Egg masses<br />Galls<br />Wound tissue<br />Euonymus webworm<br />
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  11. 11. Finding an Answer: The 7 S’s<br />Species<br />Many disorders are species specific<br />Variety or cultivar<br />
  12. 12. Finding an Answer: The 7 S’s<br />Dutch Elm Disease (photo)<br />Apple scab<br />Cedar-Apple rust<br />Oak wilt<br />Ash yellows<br />Aster yellows<br />
  13. 13. Finding an Answer: The 7 S’s<br />Site<br />Environmental conditions the plant is growing in<br />
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  15. 15. Diagnosing plant problems: the 7 ‘S’s<br />Spread<br />Distribution of signs and symptoms throughout the planting or landscape<br />Distribution of signs and symptoms on plant(s)<br />
  16. 16. Diagnosing plant problems: the 7 ‘S’s<br />Spread<br />Symptom progression<br />Movement through plant<br />Top to bottom<br />Bottom to top<br />Inside to out<br />Outside to in<br />Side to side<br />Placement on plant<br />Just one side<br />Certain aged leaves<br />Certain sized branches<br />Parts affected<br />
  17. 17. Diagnosing plant problems: the 7 ‘S’s<br />Season<br />Time of year symptoms/signs first started occurring<br />Growth stage of plant<br />
  18. 18. Diagnosing plant problems: the 7 ‘S’s<br />(hi)Story<br />What is the history of the site?<br />What is the history of the plant?<br />
  19. 19. Diagnosing plant problems: the 7 ‘S’s<br />(hi)Story<br />Soil type and fertility<br />Handling of the plant<br />Fertility management<br />Chemical use<br />Culture (mulches, watering, etc.)<br />Weather conditions<br />Construction<br />
  20. 20. Problem Solving Summary<br />Use a systematic approach<br />Identify the plant<br />Know what ‘normal’ looks like<br />Inspect the plant for overall vigor<br />Check surrounding plants; look for patterns<br />Look for signs<br />Look at symptoms<br />Review cultural practices<br />Examine root system<br />Evaluate plant’s microclimate<br />May need soil, plant tissue test, or the help of an expert!<br />
  21. 21. Getting help<br />Your county university Extension office<br />Botanic garden reference libraries <br />Garden centers<br />Hired professionals<br />Internet<br />Books<br />TV/radio<br />
  22. 22. UW-Extension Resources<br />Rock Co. UW-Extension<br />http://rock.uwex.edu<br />UW Green Industry Website<br />http://greenindustry.uwex.edu/<br />Plant Doc- Distance Diagnostic Website<br />http://www.uwex.edu/ces/ag/plantdoc/<br />Weed ID and Management<br />http://www.weedid.wisc.edu/<br />Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic<br />http://www.plantpath.wisc.edu/pddc/<br />Turf Diagnostic Lab<br />http://www.plantpath.wisc.edu/tdl/<br />Insect Identification Lab<br />http://www.entomology.wisc.edu/entodiag.html<br />Soil and Plant Analysis<br />http://uwlab.soils.wisc.edu/<br />
  23. 23. Other sources<br />Wisconsin Pest Bulletin<br />http://pestbulletin.wi.gov/<br />
  24. 24. Diagnosing the Problem<br />Species: White Pine<br />Symptoms: Dead needles<br />Signs: none<br />Spread: All on one side of plant, all pines in area<br />Season: Early spring<br />Site: Rotary Gardens, adjacent to prairie<br />Story: Prairie burned in weeks prior<br />
  25. 25. Diagnosing the Problem<br />Species: Austrian pine<br />Symptoms: Yellowing of needles<br />Signs: NA<br />Spread: All pines in area; older needles<br />Season: began in September<br />Site: Rotary Botanical Gardens<br />Story: …..<br />
  26. 26. Annual needle loss in pine<br />
  27. 27. Diagnosing the Problem<br />Species: Mugo Pine<br />Symptoms: Dying plants, soft brown roots<br />Signs: White mycelia on roots<br />Spread: All plants on east side of home<br />Season: mid-summer<br />Site: 4” crushed granite + plastic fabric<br />Story: Watered heavily due to needle loss!<br />
  28. 28. Diagnosing the Problem<br />Species: Blue Spruce<br />Symptoms: Discoloration of last season’s growth<br />Signs: Stipling of needles?<br />Spread: Primarily single tree, others<br />Season: Noticed first last summer<br />Site: 8 year old landscape, trees in turf<br />Story: Low maintenance landscape<br />
  29. 29. N% for typical Blue spruce: 1.50 – 2.10<br />Current season’s growth: 1.09 % N<br />Last season’s growth: 0.82 % N<br />
  30. 30. Diagnosing the Problem<br />Species: Black Locust<br />Symptoms: Browning of leaves<br />Signs: none?<br />Spread: Single tree<br />Season: Droughty season, mid summer<br />Site: Mixed landscape adjacent to church parking lot<br />Story: Sudden onset of symptoms<br />
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  34. 34. Diagnosing the Problem<br />Species: Viburnum, multiple species<br />Symptoms: dead tissues<br />Signs: none?<br />Spread: all plants of cultivar in one block<br />Season: NA<br />Site: commercial cut flower farm on south facing slope<br />Story: 2008 and 2009 showed symptoms; planted in 2003.<br />
  35. 35. Viburnumtrilobum<br />ViburnumopulusCompactum<br />ViburnumOpulusCompactum ???<br />
  36. 36. Diagnosing the Problem<br />Species: Maples, mostly silver<br />Symptoms: black spots, early leaf drop<br />Signs: red lumps<br />Spread: all over the tree, mostly bottom<br />Season: spring<br />Site: everywhere<br />Story: cool humid spring<br />
  37. 37. Maple bladder galls<br />Venturia leaf blotch<br />
  38. 38. Diagnosing the Problem<br />Species: Tomatoes<br />Symptoms: wilting leaves<br />Signs: none<br />Spread: whole plant, all plants<br />Season: summer<br />Site: home garden, walnut tree nearby<br />Story: cool dry year<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Avoiding Plant Problems<br />Practice PHC, including IPM<br />Right plant, right place<br />Timely scouting<br />Know your resources<br />You may narrow down possibilities<br />Labs may be needed for 100% confirmation<br />Sometimes, you can’t find an answer<br />REMEMBER, many pests are easier prevented than cured.<br />