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  • Transcript

    • 1. Deciduous trees
      Advanced Master Gardener Training 2009
    • 2. Mike Maddox
      Horticulture EducatorRock County UW-Extension
      Director of EducationRotary Botanical Gardens
      ISA Certified Arborist
      http://rock.uwex.edu/hortpassword: tree
      Deciduous trees
    • 3. Overview
      What is “stress”?
      General overview
      Acute vs chronic
      Primary vs secondary
      Biotic vsabiotic
      Major stresses
      Soil and site problems
      Physiological disorders
      Physical / mechanical injury
      Architectural problems
      Insects
      Diseases
      Specific problems
      Acer
      Betula
      Fraxinus
      Malus
      Prunus
      Quercus
      Tilia
      Ulmus
      Society of Municipal Arborists- Tree of the Year
    • 4. Average Tree Age per Site
    • 5. What is stress?
      Stress
      Condition in which a tree is not in good health
      Factors promoting plant health are out of balance
      Light, Air, Water, Nutrients, etc.
    • 6. Types of stress
      Acute stress
      Disorder that occurs suddenly or over a short period of time
      Examples: pesticide sprays, frosts or freezes, mechanical injury, etc.
      Chronic stress
      Disorder occurring over a long period of time
      Nutritional imbalance, improper soil pH, long term weather changes, incorrect light intensity, etc.
    • 7. Types of stress
      Biotic stress
      Disorder that occurs from a living organism
      Examples: insect feeding, disease infestation, animal damage
      Abiotic stress
      Disorder occurring from a non-living source
      Examples: Nutritional imbalance, frost damage, flooding, etc.
    • 8. Types of stress
      Primary (inciting) stress
      Usually a chronic factor effecting the plant’s overall health
      Examples: nutrient imbalance, improper soil pH, construction damage, weather, etc.
      Secondary stress
      Usually a biotic factor that compounds the stress
      Disease or insect pest
    • 9. Soil and site problems
      Physiological disorders
      Physical and mechanical injuries
      Insects and other pests
      Diseases
      General Examples of Stress
    • 10. Soil and Site Problems
      Root related problems difficult to diagnose WHY?
      Symptoms typically appear on trunk and canopy
      Typically abiotic, chronic, primary stress
      Compacted soil
      Salt usage
      Soil pH
      Soil water holding capacity
      Grade changes and soil layering
    • 11.
    • 12.
    • 13.
    • 14.
    • 15.
    • 16.
    • 17. Soil and Site Problems
      Soil compaction is extremely difficult, expensive, and often impractical to correct once it has occurred
      Avoid grade changes and soil compaction in the Critical Root Zone (CRZ) or Radius (CRZ)
      DBH x 1.5 = __ft of radius
    • 18.
    • 19. Physiological Disorders
      Non-infectious disorders
      Typically abiotic, chronic, primary stress
      Insufficient water
      Girdling roots
      Nutrient imbalance
    • 20.
    • 21.
    • 22.
    • 23.
    • 24.
    • 25. Research Summary
    • 26. Physiological Disorders
      Insufficient water
      ~1” of water per week
      Girdling roots
      Proper planting
      Nutrient imbalance
      Proper fertility regime
      ‘Right Tree, Right Place’
    • 27. Physical and Mechanical Injury
      Typically acute stress
      Full extent of damage cannot be immediately assessed
      Fire injury
      Animal feeding
      Lightning
      Lawn mower damage
      Vandalism (or stupid stuff)
    • 28.
    • 29.
    • 30.
    • 31.
    • 32.
    • 33.
    • 34.
    • 35.
    • 36. Physical and Mechanical Injury
      Fire injury
      Use appropriate controlled-burn strategies
      Animal feeding
      Use tree wrap and fencing to protect
      May be associated with other stress
      ie. Woodpeckers & borers
      Lightning
      Install lightning protection in trees on special trees
      Vandalism (and stupid stuff)
      Lawn mower damage
      Mulch trees and educate the person with the weed-whip!
    • 37. Architectural Problems
      Improper pruning
      Double leaders
      Included bark
    • 38.
    • 39.
    • 40. Proper Pruning Cut
      3 Point Cut
      Undercut
      Stub cut
      Cut at branch collar
      Best in dormant season
    • 41. “Flush Cut”
    • 42. “Stub Cut”
    • 43.
    • 44.
    • 45.
    • 46.
    • 47.
    • 48.
    • 49.
    • 50.
    • 51.
    • 52.
    • 53.
    • 54.
    • 55.
    • 56. Family A’s Tree -
      Not Pruned
      When Young
      Family B’s Tree -
      Pruned When
      Young
      At Planting 3-4 Yrs. 5-7 Yrs. 15 Years later
    • 57. Insects
      Many insects, harmful or not, may live on plant
      Different life stages may be harmful to plant
      Most insect damage is result of feeding activity
      Biotic and typically secondary stress
      Leaf feeding insects vs Wood boring insects
    • 58.
    • 59.
    • 60. Courtesy of D. Herms, OSU/ OARDC
      Scars the xylem tissue on the surface of the sapwood
      Feeds on phloem tissue just under the bark
    • 61. Insects
      Develop IPM strategy for insect control
      Resistant varieties
      i.e. don’t plant ash trees?
      Scouting and monitoring
      Preventative measures
      Systemic insecticide, inspect incoming stock, etc.
      Curative measures
    • 62. Diseases
      Susceptible host, pathogen, and favorable environment must be present for infection to form
      Most pathogens are host specific
      Part of tree affected indicates severity of disease
      Leaves, stems, trunks, roots, flowers
      Cosmetic vs. fatal
      Biotic, chronic or acute, typically secondary
    • 63.
    • 64.
    • 65.
    • 66. Diseases
      Develop IPM strategy for disease control
      Resistant varieties
      Scouting and monitoring
      Preventative measures
      Preventative pesticide applications, pruning, disinfect tools, sanitation, etc.
      Curative measures?
    • 67.
    • 68. Reducing Plant Stress
      “Right Plant, Right Place”
      Proper watering and nutrition
      Proper maintenance (planting, pruning)
      IPM, scouting
      Resources
      Woody ornamental pest management in Wisconsin, (A3597)
      www.isa-arbor.com , www.treecareindustry.org
    • 69. Acer
      Betula
      Fraxinus
      Malus
      Prunus
      Species Specific Issues
      Quercus
      Tilia
      Ulmus
      Gleditsia
    • 70. Tree Selection
      For a healthy urban forest…
      No more than 10% of any single tree species.
      No more than 20% of any tree genus.
      No more than 30% of any tree family.
      (Frank Santamour, Jr. 1990. METRIA 7)
    • 71.
    • 72. Acer sp. (Maple)
      Family Aceraceae
      About 110-120 species of trees & shrubs
      Acer (maple)
      Dipteronia- occurs only in China
      Mostly N. Hemisphere
      Leaves
      opposite, simple and palmatelyveined or palmately or pinnately compound.
      Fruit
      samara
    • 73. Acer sp. (Maple)
      Insects
      Aphids**
      Cottony maple scale*
      Erinium gall mite
      Fall cankerworm**
      Leafhopper*
      Lecanium scale
      Maple bladder gall mite**
      Maple petiole disorder
      Obliquebandedleafroller
      Oystershell scale
      Spring cankerworm**
      Tussock moth
      Yellowkneckedcateripillar
      Diseases
      Anthracnose*
      Bacterial wetwood*
      Basal canker
      Leaf scorch
      Septoria leaf spot*
      Tar spot*
      Verticillium wilt**
    • 74. Acer sp. (Maple)
      Sugar (A. saccharum)- upland species, poor urban tolerance
      Norway maple (A. platanoides)- - OVERPLANTED, shade, invasive
      Silver maple (A. saccharinum)- - weak wood, messy, weedy
      Box elder (A. negundo)- weak wood, messy, weedy
      Amur maple (A. ginnala)- invasive
      Red maple (A. rubrum)- soil pH issues
      Japanese (A. palmatum)- cold hardiness
      Freeman maple (hybrid)- adaptable, overplanted?
      Autumn Blaze- 2003 Urban Tree of the Year by The Society of Municipal Arborists
    • 75.
    • 76. Betula sp. (Birch)
      Family Betulaceae
      6 genera of about 120-170 species
      Betula (birches)
      Alnus (alder)
      Corylus (hazelnut)
      Carpinus (musclewood)
      Cool temperate environments of N. Hemisphere
      Often associated with lakes and streams
    • 77. Betula sp. (Birch)
      Shrubs or trees
      Leaves
      Alternate, simple
      Inflorescence
      Catkin
      Fruit
      Samara
    • 78. Betula sp. (Birch)
      Insects
      Aphids**
      Leafminer*
      Birch leaf skeletonizer*
      Bronze birch borer*
      Dusky birch sawfly*
      Fall webworm**
      Gypsy moth**
      Leafhopper
      Lecanium scale
      Yellownecked caterpillar
      Tussock moth
      Diseases
      Canker**
      Leaf rust*
      Leaf spot
    • 79. Betula sp. (Birch)
      Paper (B. papyrifera)- heat hardiness, moisture
      River (B. nigra)- adaptable, Japanese beetle, overplanted?
      Betulanigra Heritage™ 2002 Urban Tree of the Year by The Society of Municipal Arborists
    • 80.
    • 81. Fraxinus sp. (Ash)
      Family Oleaceae (Olive family)
      24-30 genera, herbs, shrubs, woody vines, trees
      Fraxinus (ash)
      Chionanthus (fringetree)
      Forsythia (forsythia)
      Ligustrum (privet)
      Syringa (lilac)
    • 82. Fraxinus sp. (Ash)
      Mostly temperate regions of N. Hemisphere
      Leaves
      opposite, odd-pinnately compound, leaflets serrate to entire
      Fruit
      Samara
    • 83. Fraxinus sp. (Ash)
      Insects
      Aphids**
      Ash flower gall mite
      Ash borer/lilac borer
      Emerald Ash Borer
      Fall webworm**
      Plantbugs**
      Oystershell scale
      Diseases
      Anthracnose**
      Leafspots*
      Cankers*
      Verticillium wilt**
    • 84. Fraxinus sp. (Ash)
      Green (F. pennsylvanica)- very adaptable, “green trash”, leaf loss, susceptible to many problems, OVERPLANTED
      White (F. americana)- more ornamental than green, cleaner, overplanted
      Blue (F. quadrangulata)- square stems, not as adaptable as others
    • 85. Fraxinus sp. (Ash)
      Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)
      Attacks ALL Fraxinus!
    • 86.
    • 87.
    • 88. Malus sp. (Crabapples)
      Family Rosaceae (Rose)
      97-100 genera, 3000 species
      World-wide distribution
      Very diverse: herbs to small trees
      • Prunus (almond, apricot, cherry, peach, plum)
      • 89. Spireae
      • 90. Potentilla
      • 91. Cratageus (hawthorn)
      • 92. Sorbus (Mtn. Ash)
      • 93. Rosa (rose)
      • 94. Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)
      • 95. Fragaria (strawberry)
      • 96. Pyrus (pear)
    • Malus sp. (Crabapples)
      According to Michael Dirr…
      400 to 600 types
      Tend to freely hybridize
    • 97. Malus sp. (Crabapples)
      Leaves
      Alternate, simple
      Flowers
      Single flower with 5 petals, born in umbels or racemes
      Fruit
      Pome
    • 98. Malus sp. (Crabapples)
      Red/pink buds
      White flowers
      Leaves green
      Fall color yellow/orange
      Fruits red or yellow (turning orange)
      Pink/magenta flowers
      Leaves tinged red
      Fall color burgundy
      Fruits always red
      White Bloom
      Rosy Bloom
    • 99. Malus sp. (Crabapples)
      Insects
      Aphids**
      Eastern tent caterpillar**
      Fall cankerworm
      Fall webworm
      Gypsy moth
      Japanese beetle
      Scale
      Shothole borer
      Spider mites
      Diseases
      Fireblight
      Rust
      Scab
      Powdery mildew
    • 100. Malus sp. (Crabapples)
      Native varieties often lack disease/insect resistance (M. ioensis)
      Breeding for disease resistance, flower color, fruit size & persistence
      Suckers and watersprouts
    • 101.
    • 102. Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…)
      Also Rosaceae family
      According to Dirr…
      Over 400 species of Prunus many difficult to distinguish
      Many insect and disease problems
      Do not look upon as long-term garden investments
    • 103. Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…)
      Leaves
      Alternate, simple, serrated
      Flowers
      Five-petalled, showy
      Fruit
      1 seeded drupe of various shapes, stone fruit often enclosed
    • 104. Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…)
      Insects
      Aphids**
      Eastern tent caterpillar**
      European red mite*
      Fall cankerworm**
      Fall webworm**
      Gypsy moth**
      Japanese beetle**
      Lecanium scale
      More Insects
      Lesser peachtree borer*
      Obliquebandedleafroller
      Oystershell scale*
      Peachtree borer
      Pear slug sawfly*
      San Jose scale*
      Spring cankerworm**
      Spider mite*
      Yellownecked caterpillar
    • 105. Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…)
      Diseases
      Bacterial leafspot & canker
      Black knot
      Powdery mildew
    • 106. Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…)
      Purple leaf sand cherry (P. x cistena)- OVERPLANTED, JB, BK
      American red plum (P. americana)- roadside waste land, BK
      Black cherry (P. serotina) – native, wildlife, best left to natural areas, BK
      IMO they all stink.
    • 107.
    • 108.
    • 109. Quercus sp. (Oak)
      Family Fagaceae (Beech)
      7 genera, 800-1000 species
      Temperate and tropical N. Hemisphere
      Castanea(chestnut)
      Fagus (beech)
    • 110. Quercus sp. (Oak)
      Leaves
      Alternate, simple, usually pinnately veined
      Fruit
      Nut
    • 111. Quercus sp. (Oak)
      Insects
      Aphids**
      Fall cankerworm**
      Fall webworm**
      Galls*
      Lacebug
      Lecanium scale
      Oakleaf miner
      More Insects
      Oak leaf skeletonizer
      Spider mites
      Spring cankerworm
      Twig pruner
      Two-lined chestnut borer
      Yellownecked caterpillar
    • 112. Quercus sp. (Oak)
      Diseases
      Anthracnose*
      Leaf spots**
      Oak wilt**
      Root and butt rot
      Misc.
      Alkaline soil induced chlorosis
    • 113. Quercus sp. (Oak)
      Rounded leaves
      1 year to bear acorn
      Physiologically resistant to oak wilt
      Pointed leaves
      2 years to bear acorns
      Very susceptible to oak wilt
      White Oak Group
      Red Oak Group
    • 114. Quercus sp. (Oak)
      White (Q. alba)- difficult to produce and transplant, slow growing; subject to decline with urbanization
      Swamp white (Q. bicolor)- moist bottomland species, chlorotic
      1998 Urban Tree of the Year by The Society of Municipal Arborists
      Bur (Q. macrocarpa) highly variable leaf description, “more tolerant of urban conditions than most oaks” (M. Dirr)
      Red (Q. rubra)- can be adaptable to urban areas, high pH intolerant
      Pin (Q. palustrisor Q. ellipsoidalis)- prefers moist soils, high pH intolerant, can be questionable for northern climates.
    • 115.
    • 116. Tiliasp. (Linden)
      Family Tiliaceae (Linden)
      50 genera, 450 species of trees, shrubs, herbs world-wide
      Of family members in N. America, only Tilia is arborescent
    • 117. Tiliasp. (Linden)
      Leaves
      Alternate, simple
      Fruit
      Capsule (berry-like)
    • 118. Tiliasp. (Linden)
      Insects
      Aphids**
      Fall cankerworm**
      Fall webworm
      Gypsy moth**
      Introduced basswood thrips*
      Insects (more)
      Japanese beetle**
      Lecanium scale
      Linden borer*
      San Jose scale
      Spring cankerworm**
      Tussock moth
      Yellownecked caterpillar
    • 119. Tiliasp. (Linden)
      American (T. americana) – native species, soil adaptable but not tolerant to pollution; European selections more ornamental and adaptable, “best left in the woods”, included bark
      Redmond (T. americanax T. xeuchlora) -
      Little leaf (T. cordata) - easy to transplant, urban tolerant, numerous cultivars, included bark
    • 120.
    • 121. Ulmussp. (Elm)
      Family Ulmaceae (Elm)
      18 genera, 150 trees and shrubs, world wide
      Celtis (hackberry)
      Dirr…
      “Why are elms treated like royalty when they are so fallible?”
    • 122. Ulmussp. (Elm)
      Leaves
      Alternate, pinnately veined, often inequilateral at base
      Fruit
      Samara (elm), drupe (hackberry)
    • 123. Ulmussp. (Elm)
      Insects
      Aphids**
      Elm leaf beetle
      Elm sawfly
      Fall cankerworm
      Fall webworm
      Gypsy moth**
      Leafhopper
      Insects (more)
      Lecanium scale
      Spider mites
      Spiny elm caterpillar
      Spring cankerworm
      Wooly apple aphid
      Yellownecked caterpillar
    • 124. Ulmussp. (Elm)
      Diseases
      Bacterial wetwood (slime flux)
      Dutch elm disease*
      Verticillium wilt*
      Canker*
      Leaf blister*
      Leaf spots*
    • 125. Ulmussp. (Elm)
      American (U. americana)- very adaptable, overused, DED
      Chinese or lacebark (U. parviflora)- durable and ornamental, DED resistant, underused?
      Siberian (U. pumila)- adaptable but little ornamental value, DED resistant, “a tree that does not deserve to be planted anywhere!” Dirr
      Asiatic hybrids- DED resistant, form?
      AccoladeTM (‘Morton’) U. japonica x U. wilsoniana
      ‘Patriot’, ‘Urban’ x selection of U. wilsoniana
      MANY others – need to question adult form.
    • 126. Gleditsia sp. (Honeylocust)
      Family Fabaceae (legume)
      Third largest family of flowering plants with 690-800 genera, 14,000 to 20,000 species of herbs, shrubs, trees, woody vines, world-wide.
      Cercis (red bud)
      Gymnocladus (Kycoffeetree)
      Robinia (locust)
      Cladrastis (yellowwood)
    • 127. Gleditsia sp. (Honeylocust)
      Leaves
      Alternate, 1- to 2-pinnately compound
      Fruit
      Elongated, compressed, indehiscent legume (pod)
    • 128. Gleditsia sp. (Honeylocust)
      Insects
      Aphids**
      Cottony maple scale
      Honeylocust spider mite*
      Honeylocustplantbug*
      Honeylocust pod gall midge
      Leafhoppers
      Lecanium scale
      Diseases
      Canker**
    • 129. Gleditsia sp. (Honeylocust)
      Thornless honeysuckle (G. triacanthosvarinermis)- TOUGH urban tree, tends Y-branch, OVERPLANTED
    • 130. Society of Municipal ArboristsTree of the Year Program
      Tree Recommendations
    • 131. 2010-Tree of the Year
      Redbud
      Cerciscanadensis
    • 132. 2009-Tree of the Year
      Chinkapin oak
      Quercusmuhlenbergii
    • 133. 2008-Tree of the Year
      Black Tupelo
      Nyssa sylvatica
    • 134. 2007-Tree of the Year
      Baldcypress
      Taxodiumdistichum
    • 135. 2006-Tree of the Year
      Kentucky Coffeetree
      Gymnocladusdioicus
    • 136. 2005-Tree of the Year
      'Chanticleer' Pear
      Pyruscalleryana'Chanticleer'
    • 137. 2004-Tree of the Year
      'Autumn Blaze' Maple
      Acer x freemanii
    • 138. 2003-Tree of the Year
      'Allee' Lacebark Elm
      Ulmusparvifolia‘Emer II’
    • 139. 2002-Tree of the Year
      'Heritage' River Birch
      Betulanigra‘Heritage’
    • 140. 2001-Tree of the Year
      Bur Oak
      Quercusmacrocarpa
    • 141. 2000-Tree of the Year
      'Redmond' Linden
    • 142. 1999-Tree of the Year
      'Skyline' Honeylocust
    • 143. 1998-Tree of the Year
      Swamp White Oak
      Quercus bicolor
    • 144. 1997-Tree of the Year
      'Ivory Silk' Lilac
      Syringareticulata
    • 145. 1996-Tree of the Year
      'Princeton Sentry' Ginkgo
    • 146. Thank you.
      Questions?