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Deciduous Trees Sew Fdl Compressed Deciduous Trees Sew Fdl Compressed Presentation Transcript

  • Deciduous trees
    Advanced Master Gardener Training 2009
  • Mike Maddox
    Horticulture EducatorRock County UW-Extension
    Director of EducationRotary Botanical Gardens
    ISA Certified Arborist
    http://rock.uwex.edu/hortpassword: tree
    Deciduous trees
  • Overview
    What is “stress”?
    General overview
    Acute vs chronic
    Primary vs secondary
    Biotic vsabiotic
    Major stresses
    Soil and site problems
    Physiological disorders
    Physical / mechanical injury
    Architectural problems
    Insects
    Diseases
    Specific problems
    Acer
    Betula
    Fraxinus
    Malus
    Prunus
    Quercus
    Tilia
    Ulmus
    Society of Municipal Arborists- Tree of the Year
  • Average Tree Age per Site
  • What is stress?
    Stress
    Condition in which a tree is not in good health
    Factors promoting plant health are out of balance
    Light, Air, Water, Nutrients, etc.
  • Types of stress
    Acute stress
    Disorder that occurs suddenly or over a short period of time
    Examples: pesticide sprays, frosts or freezes, mechanical injury, etc.
    Chronic stress
    Disorder occurring over a long period of time
    Nutritional imbalance, improper soil pH, long term weather changes, incorrect light intensity, etc.
  • Types of stress
    Biotic stress
    Disorder that occurs from a living organism
    Examples: insect feeding, disease infestation, animal damage
    Abiotic stress
    Disorder occurring from a non-living source
    Examples: Nutritional imbalance, frost damage, flooding, etc.
  • Types of stress
    Primary (inciting) stress
    Usually a chronic factor effecting the plant’s overall health
    Examples: nutrient imbalance, improper soil pH, construction damage, weather, etc.
    Secondary stress
    Usually a biotic factor that compounds the stress
    Disease or insect pest
  • Soil and site problems
    Physiological disorders
    Physical and mechanical injuries
    Insects and other pests
    Diseases
    General Examples of Stress
  • Soil and Site Problems
    Root related problems difficult to diagnose WHY?
    Symptoms typically appear on trunk and canopy
    Typically abiotic, chronic, primary stress
    Compacted soil
    Salt usage
    Soil pH
    Soil water holding capacity
    Grade changes and soil layering
  • Soil and Site Problems
    Soil compaction is extremely difficult, expensive, and often impractical to correct once it has occurred
    Avoid grade changes and soil compaction in the Critical Root Zone (CRZ) or Radius (CRZ)
    DBH x 1.5 = __ft of radius
  • Physiological Disorders
    Non-infectious disorders
    Typically abiotic, chronic, primary stress
    Insufficient water
    Girdling roots
    Nutrient imbalance
  • Research Summary
  • Physiological Disorders
    Insufficient water
    ~1” of water per week
    Girdling roots
    Proper planting
    Nutrient imbalance
    Proper fertility regime
    ‘Right Tree, Right Place’
  • Physical and Mechanical Injury
    Typically acute stress
    Full extent of damage cannot be immediately assessed
    Fire injury
    Animal feeding
    Lightning
    Lawn mower damage
    Vandalism (or stupid stuff)
  • Physical and Mechanical Injury
    Fire injury
    Use appropriate controlled-burn strategies
    Animal feeding
    Use tree wrap and fencing to protect
    May be associated with other stress
    ie. Woodpeckers & borers
    Lightning
    Install lightning protection in trees on special trees
    Vandalism (and stupid stuff)
    Lawn mower damage
    Mulch trees and educate the person with the weed-whip!
  • Architectural Problems
    Improper pruning
    Double leaders
    Included bark
  • Proper Pruning Cut
    3 Point Cut
    Undercut
    Stub cut
    Cut at branch collar
    Best in dormant season
  • “Flush Cut”
  • “Stub Cut”
  • Family A’s Tree -
    Not Pruned
    When Young
    Family B’s Tree -
    Pruned When
    Young
    At Planting 3-4 Yrs. 5-7 Yrs. 15 Years later
  • Insects
    Many insects, harmful or not, may live on plant
    Different life stages may be harmful to plant
    Most insect damage is result of feeding activity
    Biotic and typically secondary stress
    Leaf feeding insects vs Wood boring insects
  • Courtesy of D. Herms, OSU/ OARDC
    Scars the xylem tissue on the surface of the sapwood
    Feeds on phloem tissue just under the bark
  • Insects
    Develop IPM strategy for insect control
    Resistant varieties
    i.e. don’t plant ash trees?
    Scouting and monitoring
    Preventative measures
    Systemic insecticide, inspect incoming stock, etc.
    Curative measures
  • Diseases
    Susceptible host, pathogen, and favorable environment must be present for infection to form
    Most pathogens are host specific
    Part of tree affected indicates severity of disease
    Leaves, stems, trunks, roots, flowers
    Cosmetic vs. fatal
    Biotic, chronic or acute, typically secondary
  • Diseases
    Develop IPM strategy for disease control
    Resistant varieties
    Scouting and monitoring
    Preventative measures
    Preventative pesticide applications, pruning, disinfect tools, sanitation, etc.
    Curative measures?
  • Reducing Plant Stress
    “Right Plant, Right Place”
    Proper watering and nutrition
    Proper maintenance (planting, pruning)
    IPM, scouting
    Resources
    Woody ornamental pest management in Wisconsin, (A3597)
    www.isa-arbor.com , www.treecareindustry.org
  • Acer
    Betula
    Fraxinus
    Malus
    Prunus
    Species Specific Issues
    Quercus
    Tilia
    Ulmus
    Gleditsia
  • Tree Selection
    For a healthy urban forest…
    No more than 10% of any single tree species.
    No more than 20% of any tree genus.
    No more than 30% of any tree family.
    (Frank Santamour, Jr. 1990. METRIA 7)
  • Acer sp. (Maple)
    Family Aceraceae
    About 110-120 species of trees & shrubs
    Acer (maple)
    Dipteronia- occurs only in China
    Mostly N. Hemisphere
    Leaves
    opposite, simple and palmatelyveined or palmately or pinnately compound.
    Fruit
    samara
  • Acer sp. (Maple)
    Insects
    Aphids**
    Cottony maple scale*
    Erinium gall mite
    Fall cankerworm**
    Leafhopper*
    Lecanium scale
    Maple bladder gall mite**
    Maple petiole disorder
    Obliquebandedleafroller
    Oystershell scale
    Spring cankerworm**
    Tussock moth
    Yellowkneckedcateripillar
    Diseases
    Anthracnose*
    Bacterial wetwood*
    Basal canker
    Leaf scorch
    Septoria leaf spot*
    Tar spot*
    Verticillium wilt**
  • Acer sp. (Maple)
    Sugar (A. saccharum)- upland species, poor urban tolerance
    Norway maple (A. platanoides)- - OVERPLANTED, shade, invasive
    Silver maple (A. saccharinum)- - weak wood, messy, weedy
    Box elder (A. negundo)- weak wood, messy, weedy
    Amur maple (A. ginnala)- invasive
    Red maple (A. rubrum)- soil pH issues
    Japanese (A. palmatum)- cold hardiness
    Freeman maple (hybrid)- adaptable, overplanted?
    Autumn Blaze- 2003 Urban Tree of the Year by The Society of Municipal Arborists
  • Betula sp. (Birch)
    Family Betulaceae
    6 genera of about 120-170 species
    Betula (birches)
    Alnus (alder)
    Corylus (hazelnut)
    Carpinus (musclewood)
    Cool temperate environments of N. Hemisphere
    Often associated with lakes and streams
  • Betula sp. (Birch)
    Shrubs or trees
    Leaves
    Alternate, simple
    Inflorescence
    Catkin
    Fruit
    Samara
  • Betula sp. (Birch)
    Insects
    Aphids**
    Leafminer*
    Birch leaf skeletonizer*
    Bronze birch borer*
    Dusky birch sawfly*
    Fall webworm**
    Gypsy moth**
    Leafhopper
    Lecanium scale
    Yellownecked caterpillar
    Tussock moth
    Diseases
    Canker**
    Leaf rust*
    Leaf spot
  • Betula sp. (Birch)
    Paper (B. papyrifera)- heat hardiness, moisture
    River (B. nigra)- adaptable, Japanese beetle, overplanted?
    Betulanigra Heritage™ 2002 Urban Tree of the Year by The Society of Municipal Arborists
  • Fraxinus sp. (Ash)
    Family Oleaceae (Olive family)
    24-30 genera, herbs, shrubs, woody vines, trees
    Fraxinus (ash)
    Chionanthus (fringetree)
    Forsythia (forsythia)
    Ligustrum (privet)
    Syringa (lilac)
  • Fraxinus sp. (Ash)
    Mostly temperate regions of N. Hemisphere
    Leaves
    opposite, odd-pinnately compound, leaflets serrate to entire
    Fruit
    Samara
  • Fraxinus sp. (Ash)
    Insects
    Aphids**
    Ash flower gall mite
    Ash borer/lilac borer
    Emerald Ash Borer
    Fall webworm**
    Plantbugs**
    Oystershell scale
    Diseases
    Anthracnose**
    Leafspots*
    Cankers*
    Verticillium wilt**
  • Fraxinus sp. (Ash)
    Green (F. pennsylvanica)- very adaptable, “green trash”, leaf loss, susceptible to many problems, OVERPLANTED
    White (F. americana)- more ornamental than green, cleaner, overplanted
    Blue (F. quadrangulata)- square stems, not as adaptable as others
  • Fraxinus sp. (Ash)
    Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)
    Attacks ALL Fraxinus!
  • Malus sp. (Crabapples)
    Family Rosaceae (Rose)
    97-100 genera, 3000 species
    World-wide distribution
    Very diverse: herbs to small trees
    • Prunus (almond, apricot, cherry, peach, plum)
    • Spireae
    • Potentilla
    • Cratageus (hawthorn)
    • Sorbus (Mtn. Ash)
    • Rosa (rose)
    • Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)
    • Fragaria (strawberry)
    • Pyrus (pear)
  • Malus sp. (Crabapples)
    According to Michael Dirr…
    400 to 600 types
    Tend to freely hybridize
  • Malus sp. (Crabapples)
    Leaves
    Alternate, simple
    Flowers
    Single flower with 5 petals, born in umbels or racemes
    Fruit
    Pome
  • Malus sp. (Crabapples)
    Red/pink buds
    White flowers
    Leaves green
    Fall color yellow/orange
    Fruits red or yellow (turning orange)
    Pink/magenta flowers
    Leaves tinged red
    Fall color burgundy
    Fruits always red
    White Bloom
    Rosy Bloom
  • Malus sp. (Crabapples)
    Insects
    Aphids**
    Eastern tent caterpillar**
    Fall cankerworm
    Fall webworm
    Gypsy moth
    Japanese beetle
    Scale
    Shothole borer
    Spider mites
    Diseases
    Fireblight
    Rust
    Scab
    Powdery mildew
  • Malus sp. (Crabapples)
    Native varieties often lack disease/insect resistance (M. ioensis)
    Breeding for disease resistance, flower color, fruit size & persistence
    Suckers and watersprouts
  • Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…)
    Also Rosaceae family
    According to Dirr…
    Over 400 species of Prunus many difficult to distinguish
    Many insect and disease problems
    Do not look upon as long-term garden investments
  • Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…)
    Leaves
    Alternate, simple, serrated
    Flowers
    Five-petalled, showy
    Fruit
    1 seeded drupe of various shapes, stone fruit often enclosed
  • Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…)
    Insects
    Aphids**
    Eastern tent caterpillar**
    European red mite*
    Fall cankerworm**
    Fall webworm**
    Gypsy moth**
    Japanese beetle**
    Lecanium scale
    More Insects
    Lesser peachtree borer*
    Obliquebandedleafroller
    Oystershell scale*
    Peachtree borer
    Pear slug sawfly*
    San Jose scale*
    Spring cankerworm**
    Spider mite*
    Yellownecked caterpillar
  • Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…)
    Diseases
    Bacterial leafspot & canker
    Black knot
    Powdery mildew
  • Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…)
    Purple leaf sand cherry (P. x cistena)- OVERPLANTED, JB, BK
    American red plum (P. americana)- roadside waste land, BK
    Black cherry (P. serotina) – native, wildlife, best left to natural areas, BK
    IMO they all stink.
  • Quercus sp. (Oak)
    Family Fagaceae (Beech)
    7 genera, 800-1000 species
    Temperate and tropical N. Hemisphere
    Castanea(chestnut)
    Fagus (beech)
  • Quercus sp. (Oak)
    Leaves
    Alternate, simple, usually pinnately veined
    Fruit
    Nut
  • Quercus sp. (Oak)
    Insects
    Aphids**
    Fall cankerworm**
    Fall webworm**
    Galls*
    Lacebug
    Lecanium scale
    Oakleaf miner
    More Insects
    Oak leaf skeletonizer
    Spider mites
    Spring cankerworm
    Twig pruner
    Two-lined chestnut borer
    Yellownecked caterpillar
  • Quercus sp. (Oak)
    Diseases
    Anthracnose*
    Leaf spots**
    Oak wilt**
    Root and butt rot
    Misc.
    Alkaline soil induced chlorosis
  • Quercus sp. (Oak)
    Rounded leaves
    1 year to bear acorn
    Physiologically resistant to oak wilt
    Pointed leaves
    2 years to bear acorns
    Very susceptible to oak wilt
    White Oak Group
    Red Oak Group
  • Quercus sp. (Oak)
    White (Q. alba)- difficult to produce and transplant, slow growing; subject to decline with urbanization
    Swamp white (Q. bicolor)- moist bottomland species, chlorotic
    1998 Urban Tree of the Year by The Society of Municipal Arborists
    Bur (Q. macrocarpa) highly variable leaf description, “more tolerant of urban conditions than most oaks” (M. Dirr)
    Red (Q. rubra)- can be adaptable to urban areas, high pH intolerant
    Pin (Q. palustrisor Q. ellipsoidalis)- prefers moist soils, high pH intolerant, can be questionable for northern climates.
  • Tiliasp. (Linden)
    Family Tiliaceae (Linden)
    50 genera, 450 species of trees, shrubs, herbs world-wide
    Of family members in N. America, only Tilia is arborescent
  • Tiliasp. (Linden)
    Leaves
    Alternate, simple
    Fruit
    Capsule (berry-like)
  • Tiliasp. (Linden)
    Insects
    Aphids**
    Fall cankerworm**
    Fall webworm
    Gypsy moth**
    Introduced basswood thrips*
    Insects (more)
    Japanese beetle**
    Lecanium scale
    Linden borer*
    San Jose scale
    Spring cankerworm**
    Tussock moth
    Yellownecked caterpillar
  • Tiliasp. (Linden)
    American (T. americana) – native species, soil adaptable but not tolerant to pollution; European selections more ornamental and adaptable, “best left in the woods”, included bark
    Redmond (T. americanax T. xeuchlora) -
    Little leaf (T. cordata) - easy to transplant, urban tolerant, numerous cultivars, included bark
  • Ulmussp. (Elm)
    Family Ulmaceae (Elm)
    18 genera, 150 trees and shrubs, world wide
    Celtis (hackberry)
    Dirr…
    “Why are elms treated like royalty when they are so fallible?”
  • Ulmussp. (Elm)
    Leaves
    Alternate, pinnately veined, often inequilateral at base
    Fruit
    Samara (elm), drupe (hackberry)
  • Ulmussp. (Elm)
    Insects
    Aphids**
    Elm leaf beetle
    Elm sawfly
    Fall cankerworm
    Fall webworm
    Gypsy moth**
    Leafhopper
    Insects (more)
    Lecanium scale
    Spider mites
    Spiny elm caterpillar
    Spring cankerworm
    Wooly apple aphid
    Yellownecked caterpillar
  • Ulmussp. (Elm)
    Diseases
    Bacterial wetwood (slime flux)
    Dutch elm disease*
    Verticillium wilt*
    Canker*
    Leaf blister*
    Leaf spots*
  • Ulmussp. (Elm)
    American (U. americana)- very adaptable, overused, DED
    Chinese or lacebark (U. parviflora)- durable and ornamental, DED resistant, underused?
    Siberian (U. pumila)- adaptable but little ornamental value, DED resistant, “a tree that does not deserve to be planted anywhere!” Dirr
    Asiatic hybrids- DED resistant, form?
    AccoladeTM (‘Morton’) U. japonica x U. wilsoniana
    ‘Patriot’, ‘Urban’ x selection of U. wilsoniana
    MANY others – need to question adult form.
  • Gleditsia sp. (Honeylocust)
    Family Fabaceae (legume)
    Third largest family of flowering plants with 690-800 genera, 14,000 to 20,000 species of herbs, shrubs, trees, woody vines, world-wide.
    Cercis (red bud)
    Gymnocladus (Kycoffeetree)
    Robinia (locust)
    Cladrastis (yellowwood)
  • Gleditsia sp. (Honeylocust)
    Leaves
    Alternate, 1- to 2-pinnately compound
    Fruit
    Elongated, compressed, indehiscent legume (pod)
  • Gleditsia sp. (Honeylocust)
    Insects
    Aphids**
    Cottony maple scale
    Honeylocust spider mite*
    Honeylocustplantbug*
    Honeylocust pod gall midge
    Leafhoppers
    Lecanium scale
    Diseases
    Canker**
  • Gleditsia sp. (Honeylocust)
    Thornless honeysuckle (G. triacanthosvarinermis)- TOUGH urban tree, tends Y-branch, OVERPLANTED
  • Society of Municipal ArboristsTree of the Year Program
    Tree Recommendations
  • 2010-Tree of the Year
    Redbud
    Cerciscanadensis
  • 2009-Tree of the Year
    Chinkapin oak
    Quercusmuhlenbergii
  • 2008-Tree of the Year
    Black Tupelo
    Nyssa sylvatica
  • 2007-Tree of the Year
    Baldcypress
    Taxodiumdistichum
  • 2006-Tree of the Year
    Kentucky Coffeetree
    Gymnocladusdioicus
  • 2005-Tree of the Year
    'Chanticleer' Pear
    Pyruscalleryana'Chanticleer'
  • 2004-Tree of the Year
    'Autumn Blaze' Maple
    Acer x freemanii
  • 2003-Tree of the Year
    'Allee' Lacebark Elm
    Ulmusparvifolia‘Emer II’
  • 2002-Tree of the Year
    'Heritage' River Birch
    Betulanigra‘Heritage’
  • 2001-Tree of the Year
    Bur Oak
    Quercusmacrocarpa
  • 2000-Tree of the Year
    'Redmond' Linden
  • 1999-Tree of the Year
    'Skyline' Honeylocust
  • 1998-Tree of the Year
    Swamp White Oak
    Quercus bicolor
  • 1997-Tree of the Year
    'Ivory Silk' Lilac
    Syringareticulata
  • 1996-Tree of the Year
    'Princeton Sentry' Ginkgo
  • Thank you.
    Questions?