Deciduous trees Advanced Master Gardener Training 2009
Mike Maddox Horticulture EducatorRock County UW-Extension Director of EducationRotary Botanical Gardens ISA Certified Arborist http://rock.uwex.edu/hortpassword: tree Deciduous trees
Overview What is “stress”? General overview Acute vs chronic Primary vs secondary Biotic vsabiotic Major stresses Soil and site problems Physiological disorders Physical / mechanical injury Architectural problems Insects Diseases Specific problems Acer Betula Fraxinus Malus Prunus Quercus Tilia Ulmus Society of Municipal Arborists- Tree of the Year
What is stress? Stress Condition in which a tree is not in good health Factors promoting plant health are out of balance Light, Air, Water, Nutrients, etc.
Types of stress Acute stress Disorder that occurs suddenly or over a short period of time Examples: pesticide sprays, frosts or freezes, mechanical injury, etc. Chronic stress Disorder occurring over a long period of time Nutritional imbalance, improper soil pH, long term weather changes, incorrect light intensity, etc.
Types of stress Biotic stress Disorder that occurs from a living organism Examples: insect feeding, disease infestation, animal damage Abiotic stress Disorder occurring from a non-living source Examples: Nutritional imbalance, frost damage, flooding, etc.
Types of stress Primary (inciting) stress Usually a chronic factor effecting the plant’s overall health Examples: nutrient imbalance, improper soil pH, construction damage, weather, etc. Secondary stress Usually a biotic factor that compounds the stress Disease or insect pest
Soil and site problems Physiological disorders Physical and mechanical injuries Insects and other pests Diseases General Examples of Stress
Soil and Site Problems Root related problems difficult to diagnose WHY? Symptoms typically appear on trunk and canopy Typically abiotic, chronic, primary stress Compacted soil Salt usage Soil pH Soil water holding capacity Grade changes and soil layering
Soil and Site Problems Soil compaction is extremely difficult, expensive, and often impractical to correct once it has occurred Avoid grade changes and soil compaction in the Critical Root Zone (CRZ) or Radius (CRZ) DBH x 1.5 = __ft of radius
Physical and Mechanical Injury Fire injury Use appropriate controlled-burn strategies Animal feeding Use tree wrap and fencing to protect May be associated with other stress ie. Woodpeckers & borers Lightning Install lightning protection in trees on special trees Vandalism (and stupid stuff) Lawn mower damage Mulch trees and educate the person with the weed-whip!
Architectural Problems Improper pruning Double leaders Included bark
Family A’s Tree - Not Pruned When Young Family B’s Tree - Pruned When Young At Planting 3-4 Yrs. 5-7 Yrs. 15 Years later
Insects Many insects, harmful or not, may live on plant Different life stages may be harmful to plant Most insect damage is result of feeding activity Biotic and typically secondary stress Leaf feeding insects vs Wood boring insects
Courtesy of D. Herms, OSU/ OARDC Scars the xylem tissue on the surface of the sapwood Feeds on phloem tissue just under the bark
Insects Develop IPM strategy for insect control Resistant varieties i.e. don’t plant ash trees? Scouting and monitoring Preventative measures Systemic insecticide, inspect incoming stock, etc. Curative measures
Diseases Susceptible host, pathogen, and favorable environment must be present for infection to form Most pathogens are host specific Part of tree affected indicates severity of disease Leaves, stems, trunks, roots, flowers Cosmetic vs. fatal Biotic, chronic or acute, typically secondary
Reducing Plant Stress “Right Plant, Right Place” Proper watering and nutrition Proper maintenance (planting, pruning) IPM, scouting Resources Woody ornamental pest management in Wisconsin, (A3597) www.isa-arbor.com , www.treecareindustry.org
Acer Betula Fraxinus Malus Prunus Species Specific Issues Quercus Tilia Ulmus Gleditsia
Tree Selection For a healthy urban forest… No more than 10% of any single tree species. No more than 20% of any tree genus. No more than 30% of any tree family. (Frank Santamour, Jr. 1990. METRIA 7)
Acer sp. (Maple) Family Aceraceae About 110-120 species of trees & shrubs Acer (maple) Dipteronia- occurs only in China Mostly N. Hemisphere Leaves opposite, simple and palmatelyveined or palmately or pinnately compound. Fruit samara
Acer sp. (Maple) Insects Aphids** Cottony maple scale* Erinium gall mite Fall cankerworm** Leafhopper* Lecanium scale Maple bladder gall mite** Maple petiole disorder Obliquebandedleafroller Oystershell scale Spring cankerworm** Tussock moth Yellowkneckedcateripillar Diseases Anthracnose* Bacterial wetwood* Basal canker Leaf scorch Septoria leaf spot* Tar spot* Verticillium wilt**
Acer sp. (Maple) Sugar (A. saccharum)- upland species, poor urban tolerance Norway maple (A. platanoides)- - OVERPLANTED, shade, invasive Silver maple (A. saccharinum)- - weak wood, messy, weedy Box elder (A. negundo)- weak wood, messy, weedy Amur maple (A. ginnala)- invasive Red maple (A. rubrum)- soil pH issues Japanese (A. palmatum)- cold hardiness Freeman maple (hybrid)- adaptable, overplanted? Autumn Blaze- 2003 Urban Tree of the Year by The Society of Municipal Arborists
Betula sp. (Birch) Family Betulaceae 6 genera of about 120-170 species Betula (birches) Alnus (alder) Corylus (hazelnut) Carpinus (musclewood) Cool temperate environments of N. Hemisphere Often associated with lakes and streams
Betula sp. (Birch) Shrubs or trees Leaves Alternate, simple Inflorescence Catkin Fruit Samara
Betula sp. (Birch) Paper (B. papyrifera)- heat hardiness, moisture River (B. nigra)- adaptable, Japanese beetle, overplanted? Betulanigra Heritage™ 2002 Urban Tree of the Year by The Society of Municipal Arborists
Fraxinus sp. (Ash) Green (F. pennsylvanica)- very adaptable, “green trash”, leaf loss, susceptible to many problems, OVERPLANTED White (F. americana)- more ornamental than green, cleaner, overplanted Blue (F. quadrangulata)- square stems, not as adaptable as others
Malus sp. (Crabapples) According to Michael Dirr… 400 to 600 types Tend to freely hybridize
Malus sp. (Crabapples) Leaves Alternate, simple Flowers Single flower with 5 petals, born in umbels or racemes Fruit Pome
Malus sp. (Crabapples) Red/pink buds White flowers Leaves green Fall color yellow/orange Fruits red or yellow (turning orange) Pink/magenta flowers Leaves tinged red Fall color burgundy Fruits always red White Bloom Rosy Bloom
Malus sp. (Crabapples) Insects Aphids** Eastern tent caterpillar** Fall cankerworm Fall webworm Gypsy moth Japanese beetle Scale Shothole borer Spider mites Diseases Fireblight Rust Scab Powdery mildew
Malus sp. (Crabapples) Native varieties often lack disease/insect resistance (M. ioensis) Breeding for disease resistance, flower color, fruit size & persistence Suckers and watersprouts
Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…) Also Rosaceae family According to Dirr… Over 400 species of Prunus many difficult to distinguish Many insect and disease problems Do not look upon as long-term garden investments
Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…) Leaves Alternate, simple, serrated Flowers Five-petalled, showy Fruit 1 seeded drupe of various shapes, stone fruit often enclosed
Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…) Insects Aphids** Eastern tent caterpillar** European red mite* Fall cankerworm** Fall webworm** Gypsy moth** Japanese beetle** Lecanium scale More Insects Lesser peachtree borer* Obliquebandedleafroller Oystershell scale* Peachtree borer Pear slug sawfly* San Jose scale* Spring cankerworm** Spider mite* Yellownecked caterpillar
Prunus sp. (Plum, cherry…) Purple leaf sand cherry (P. x cistena)- OVERPLANTED, JB, BK American red plum (P. americana)- roadside waste land, BK Black cherry (P. serotina) – native, wildlife, best left to natural areas, BK IMO they all stink.
Quercus sp. (Oak) Family Fagaceae (Beech) 7 genera, 800-1000 species Temperate and tropical N. Hemisphere Castanea(chestnut) Fagus (beech)
Quercus sp. (Oak) Leaves Alternate, simple, usually pinnately veined Fruit Nut
Quercus sp. (Oak) Insects Aphids** Fall cankerworm** Fall webworm** Galls* Lacebug Lecanium scale Oakleaf miner More Insects Oak leaf skeletonizer Spider mites Spring cankerworm Twig pruner Two-lined chestnut borer Yellownecked caterpillar
Quercus sp. (Oak) Diseases Anthracnose* Leaf spots** Oak wilt** Root and butt rot Misc. Alkaline soil induced chlorosis
Quercus sp. (Oak) Rounded leaves 1 year to bear acorn Physiologically resistant to oak wilt Pointed leaves 2 years to bear acorns Very susceptible to oak wilt White Oak Group Red Oak Group
Quercus sp. (Oak) White (Q. alba)- difficult to produce and transplant, slow growing; subject to decline with urbanization Swamp white (Q. bicolor)- moist bottomland species, chlorotic 1998 Urban Tree of the Year by The Society of Municipal Arborists Bur (Q. macrocarpa) highly variable leaf description, “more tolerant of urban conditions than most oaks” (M. Dirr) Red (Q. rubra)- can be adaptable to urban areas, high pH intolerant Pin (Q. palustrisor Q. ellipsoidalis)- prefers moist soils, high pH intolerant, can be questionable for northern climates.
Tiliasp. (Linden) Family Tiliaceae (Linden) 50 genera, 450 species of trees, shrubs, herbs world-wide Of family members in N. America, only Tilia is arborescent
Tiliasp. (Linden) Leaves Alternate, simple Fruit Capsule (berry-like)
Tiliasp. (Linden) Insects Aphids** Fall cankerworm** Fall webworm Gypsy moth** Introduced basswood thrips* Insects (more) Japanese beetle** Lecanium scale Linden borer* San Jose scale Spring cankerworm** Tussock moth Yellownecked caterpillar
Tiliasp. (Linden) American (T. americana) – native species, soil adaptable but not tolerant to pollution; European selections more ornamental and adaptable, “best left in the woods”, included bark Redmond (T. americanax T. xeuchlora) - Little leaf (T. cordata) - easy to transplant, urban tolerant, numerous cultivars, included bark
Ulmussp. (Elm) Family Ulmaceae (Elm) 18 genera, 150 trees and shrubs, world wide Celtis (hackberry) Dirr… “Why are elms treated like royalty when they are so fallible?”
Ulmussp. (Elm) Leaves Alternate, pinnately veined, often inequilateral at base Fruit Samara (elm), drupe (hackberry)
Ulmussp. (Elm) Insects Aphids** Elm leaf beetle Elm sawfly Fall cankerworm Fall webworm Gypsy moth** Leafhopper Insects (more) Lecanium scale Spider mites Spiny elm caterpillar Spring cankerworm Wooly apple aphid Yellownecked caterpillar
Ulmussp. (Elm) American (U. americana)- very adaptable, overused, DED Chinese or lacebark (U. parviflora)- durable and ornamental, DED resistant, underused? Siberian (U. pumila)- adaptable but little ornamental value, DED resistant, “a tree that does not deserve to be planted anywhere!” Dirr Asiatic hybrids- DED resistant, form? AccoladeTM (‘Morton’) U. japonica x U. wilsoniana ‘Patriot’, ‘Urban’ x selection of U. wilsoniana MANY others – need to question adult form.
Gleditsia sp. (Honeylocust) Family Fabaceae (legume) Third largest family of flowering plants with 690-800 genera, 14,000 to 20,000 species of herbs, shrubs, trees, woody vines, world-wide. Cercis (red bud) Gymnocladus (Kycoffeetree) Robinia (locust) Cladrastis (yellowwood)
Gleditsia sp. (Honeylocust) Leaves Alternate, 1- to 2-pinnately compound Fruit Elongated, compressed, indehiscent legume (pod)
Gleditsia sp. (Honeylocust) Insects Aphids** Cottony maple scale Honeylocust spider mite* Honeylocustplantbug* Honeylocust pod gall midge Leafhoppers Lecanium scale Diseases Canker**