After the Mexico won their independence from Spain on October 4, 1832, Mexico adopted a new constitution defining the country as 19 states and 4 territories. One of the states was Coahuila y Tejas which included Texas. Coahuila y Tejas’s capitol, Satillo, was hundreds of miles away from Texas. Many Americans began settling Texas and by 1834, there were 30,000 Americans and only 7,800 Mexicans in Texas.
These are the events towards the end of the War that ended with the pivotal Battle of San Jacinto.
Santa Anna had lost San Antonio during the Siege of Bexar So he sends an army on February 23, 1836 and 145 Texans take refuge in the fortified grounds of an old mission known as the Alamo The regular army was under the command of William Travis and the volunteers were under the command of James Bowie. For two weeks the Mexicans built their army up to 2000 men and during that time, as called for by Travis’ famous “Appeal for Aid” which pleaded for more defendants. Travis received 44 men bringing his army up to 189 men. On March 6, 1836, the humongous Mexican army stormed the Alamo fortress killing all of the defendants and sparing some non-combatants. The Casualties were 1600 for the Mexicans and 189 for the Texans. This event is significant because this battle becomes a rallying cry for the continued struggle for independence.
Jose Urrea was going along the coast and attacking each city that came in his way. At Goliad, James Fannin had 350 men and he was called to aid William Travis at the Alamo. However, immediately after that Sam Houston commanded that Fannin retreat back to Goliad. Because Fannin was so indecisive he was delayed by 5 days and by that time he ran into the forces of General Jose Urrea. Fannin lost that battle against Urrea and he and his army surrendered thinking that they will just be able to go back home. The Mexican General captured Fannin and his forces. Santa Anna had established a law that any captured enemy would be treated like pirates and killed, so Santa Anna ordered that the Texans be killed. The Mexican army shot the Texans, piled their bodies and burnt them. This was what led to the intense passion for the Texans to win the war. Two chants that were used by the Texans were, “Remember Goliad” and “Remember the Alamo”
In the early morning of April 21, 1836, Sam Houston orders “deaf” Smith and a couple of men to destroy Vince’s bridge because that was the Mexicans only escape route. Later in the morning the two armies face when within seventy yards the word &quot;fire&quot; was given, the Texan shouts of &quot;Remember the Alamo&quot; and &quot;Remember Goliad&quot; rang along the entire line. Within a short time, 700 Mexicans were slain, with another 730 taken as prisoners. The battle for Texas was won.
A panel on the side of the monument at San Jacinto says, “The freedom of Texas from Mexico won here led to annexation and to the Mexican War, resulting in the acquisition by the United States of the States of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California, Utah, and parts of Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas and Oklahoma. Almost one-third of the present area of the American nation, nearly a million square miles of territory, changed sovereignty.&quot;
War of Texas Independence October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836 By: Parth 10-29-2009 APUSH Mr. Klopfenstein
A panel on the side of the monument at San Jacinto says, “The freedom of Texas from Mexico won here led to annexation and to the Mexican War, resulting in the acquisition by the United States of the States of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California, Utah, and parts of Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas and Oklahoma. Almost one-third of the present area of the American nation, nearly a million square miles of territory, changed sovereignty."