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Mexican
 

Mexican

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    Mexican Mexican Presentation Transcript

    • The U.S.-Mexican War 1846-1848
    • Motivation
    • California
      • President Polk, motivated by Manifest Destiny, desired California and desperately wanted to buy it from Mexico
      • Unable to buy it because of bitter relations between the two nations
      • In 1845, Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico City to offer $25 million for California, the Mexicans wouldn’t even allow him to present his “insulting” proposition
    • Mexican Debt
      • The U.S. had claims against Mexico for $3 million in American damages
      • Mexico agreed to pay up but defaulted on its payments
    • Texas
      • Mexico threatened war if the U.S. annexed Texas
      • Then the U.S. annexed Texas
      • Mexico pulled its ambassador to Washington, cutting off diplomatic relations
    • Texan Boundary Dispute
      • SW boundary had been Nueces River but the expansive Texans claimed more southerly Rio Grande
      • Polk felt morally obligated to defend Texas in its claim, once it was annexed
      • Mexicans believed that all of Texas was still theirs, just temporarily in revolt, and a fight over the two rivers seemed pointless
    • War
    • Polk’s Eagerness
      • Polk sent General Zachary Taylor with four thousand troops from the Nueces River to the Rio Grande
      • On May 9, 1846, he considered waging war before Mexican attack on the basis of unpaid claims and Mexican rejection of Slidell’s offer
      • Cabinet felt as if he should wait until the Mexican troops fired
      • That very night, news of bloodshed arrived
    • “ Jimmy Polk’s War”
      • After hearing that Mexican troops killed Americans, Polk spoke to Congress
      • He claimed that they did everything they could do to avoid a clash but the Mexicans were persistent and killed Americans on “American soil”
      • The patriotic Congress voted for war but Polk’s claims were twisting the truth
    • Santa Anna
      • The exiled dictator persuaded Polk into allowing him to return to Mexico, saying he would sell out his country
      • Instead, he proceeded to rally his countrymen to defend their soil
    • California Bear Flag Republic
      • American operations in the SW and California were completely successful
      • General Stephen W. Kearny led 1700 troops from Leavenworth to Santa Fe which was easily captured
      • Before Kearny could get to California, it was already won
      • Captain John C. Frémont just “happened” to be there when the war started up
    • Buena Vista
      • Zachary Taylor fought his way into Mexico where after several victories, he reached Buena Vista
      • There his weakened force was attacked by march-weary Mexican troops under Santa Anna
      • Mexicans were repulsed but with extreme difficulty
    • General Winfield Scott
      • Hampered by small number of troops, expiring enlistments, bigger enemy, mountainous terrain, disease, and political back-biting at home
      • Still battled way to Mexico City in one of the most brilliant campaigns in American military history
    • Resolution
    • Nicholas P. Trist
      • “ Blundering” chief clerk of the State Department, sent with Scott’s army to make treaty
      • Arranged ceasefire with Santa Anna where S.A. pocketed $10,000 and used time to strengthen defenses
      • Polk, disgusted in Trist, recalled him to Washington then Trist wrote a 65-page letter explaining why he wasn’t coming back
    • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
      • Signed by Trist on February 2, 1848
      • Confirmed American title to Texas
      • Gave up land stretching westward to Oregon, including California (about one-half of Mexico)
      • U.S. to pay $15 million for land and assumed the Mexican debt
    • Overview
      • Cost thirteen thousand American lives (most by disease)
      • Fruits of fighting were enormous—an addition greater than the Louisiana Purchase
      • Provided battlefield experience for a lot of Civil War soldiers, both Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant participated