The settlers found that the Appalachian mountains were a barrier for shipping goods eastward so it was easier to float goods down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to the port at new Orleans
The Spanish had withdrawn the right of deposit guaranteed by the treaty. Deposit or warehouse privileges were important to frontier farmers who floated their produce down the Mississippi to the ocean
If the revolt would have taken place the united states would have been at war with both Spain and France
The situations the U.S. was put in forced Thomas Jefferson to contradict himself and the policies he believed in.
If these proposals failed the situation would become critical. Monroe and Livingston were then to negotiate an alliance with Britain. Jefferson was forced to gamble against his hate of war and alliances. He was forced to make a friend with old foe Britain against France his old friend to secure new Orleans.
Napoleon changed his mind because of his failed efforts to conquer Santo Domingo, a sugar rich island in which Louisiana would have served as a source for food. Also napoleon was about to end his conflict with Britain and because Britain controlled the seas he did not want to give them Louisiana in a peace treaty. Instead of pushing the Americans into a conflict with Britain over Louisiana he decided to sell it and focus on his plots in Europe. Old world issues again gave America diplomatic success.
The ministers were presented with a difficult situation that was not within their orders but they felt the offer was too good to decline and that it could be withdrawn by napoleon at any time. Waiting for an approval would have taken too much time.
Three treaties had been signed for $15 million for New Orleans and an expanse of land that more than doubled the united states instead of the $10 million authorized for new Orleans and as much east as possible.
He privately proposed a constitutional amendment but he was advised that Napoleon could withdraw his offer so Jefferson just submitted the treaties to the Senate for approval though he thought the purchase unconstitutional.
The purchase was too good of an opportunity for the United States to get into the nitty gritty of laws when the action would be in the best interest of all the people living in the states.
The federalists did not want western or southern interests to be strengthened in congress further reducing their influence. It is strange that the federalists would be opposed to this action since it gave the central government more power but they war far more interested in their own personal benefit and power.
The trail Lewis and Clark followed went from the Mississippi river through the rocky mountains and along the Columbia river to the pacific ocean. Sacagawea helped and translated for them when they reached Bismarck south Dakota greatly helping the success of the mission. This exploration led to the U.S. claim to Oregon and opened the west to Indian trade and exploration Pike explored near the Mississippi from 1805-06 and went to Colorado and new Mexico where he sighted pikes peak form 1806-07. the Spanish began to be wary of the increased settlement in the Spanish regions foreshadowing future entanglements.
Without blood America had acquired the richest river valley and laid the foundations to become a major world power. The purchase guaranteed a Mississippi waterway to the gulf of Mexico including New Orleans. Federalists were now only a sectional party in new England and the west was more loyal to the union because Jefferson was seen as a hero.
Indian removal- by the 1890’s all natives left in the territory were moved to reservations. The American fur company formed by john Jacob Astor in 1808 to tap the new territory led to the U.S. claim of Oregon. The government learned that through many events acquiring the territory was much easier than governing it but overall it was an important and influential addition to the united sates affecting later generations and events to come.
Louisiana Purchase Presentation
The Louisiana Purchase By Margaret
Background Information <ul><li>At the end of the French and Indian wars in 1763, France lost all of its possessions in North America removing hopes of a colonial empire </li></ul><ul><li>By the terms of the treaty of Fontainebleau Louisiana west of the Mississippi was ceded to Spain and Britain acquired the large land to its east. </li></ul>
Background Cont. <ul><li>After the U.S won its independence from Britain in 1783 a major concern became unrestricted access to the Mississippi River. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers were moving west </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish control of both sides of the Mississippi below Natchez. </li></ul>
Background Cont. <ul><li>Secret pact signed between Napoleon and the king of Spain to cede to France the Louisiana territory including New Orleans in exchange for a Spanish kingdom in Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>Rumors confirmed when Pinckney's Treaty of 1795 was withdrawn by the Spanish </li></ul>
Anger <ul><li>Frontier settlers were angry with the new situation and talked of starting a revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of their warehouse privileges and use of the vital port </li></ul>
Jefferson’s Situation <ul><li>Jefferson was a pacifist and against war </li></ul><ul><li>Louisiana in Spain's possession was not a real threat, but that changed with Napoleon acquiring the territory. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States was not strong enough to defeat Napoleon’s armies alone so it would have to seek allies, against its anti-alliance policy. </li></ul>
Jefferson’s Solution <ul><li>In 1803 Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to join Robert Livingston the permanent Paris minister. </li></ul><ul><li>They were instructed to purchase New Orleans and as much land to the east of it at the maximum of $10 million </li></ul>
Napoleon’s Decision <ul><li>Napoleon suddenly decided to sell all of Louisiana and abandon his dream of a New World empire. </li></ul><ul><li>By selling the Louisiana Territory to the United States Napoleon hoped they would one day become a military and naval power that could prevent British expansion in the New World. </li></ul>
Negotiations <ul><li>When the American ministers were asked for a price for the whole Louisiana Territory by the Parisian minister Talleyrand, they were surprised with the change of events and timidly began to negotiate a treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Treaties were signed on April 30, 1083 ceding Louisiana to the U.S. for $15 million. </li></ul>
Jefferson's Reaction <ul><li>Jefferson was shocked when the news of the bargain reached American soil. </li></ul><ul><li>The ministers had bought a wilderness to get a city. </li></ul>
Jefferson’s Wrestling <ul><li>Strict constructionist </li></ul><ul><li>He saw no reference to incorporating a large expanse of land into the Union with thousands of inhabitants in the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic visionary </li></ul><ul><li>He thought the large area would form the “empire of liberty” which would ensure the American democratic experiment’s survival. </li></ul>
Approval <ul><li>The senators approved the transition promptly. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans were not going to debate constitutionality of an issue when 828,000 mi 2 were about to be added at approximately 3 cents per acre. </li></ul>
Federalist Opposition <ul><li>Federalists argued that the Louisiana purchase was a worthless desert and unconstitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>They were most worried for the new states that were to come. </li></ul>
Exploration <ul><li>Jefferson wanted to explore the new territory. Sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore in 1804-1806 </li></ul><ul><li>Zebulon M. Pike explored this territory as well. </li></ul>
Short term Effects <ul><li>By approving the Louisiana Purchase Jefferson had avoided possible war with France and an entangling alliance with Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase ended European expansion in North America for the most part. </li></ul><ul><li>Boosted national unity. </li></ul>
Future Effects <ul><li>The purchase set new precedents for future westward expansion, eventually all the way to the Pacific and incorporation of new lands and peoples into the Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerated the rise of U.S. economic and political power. </li></ul>
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