Jacksonian Democracy Andrew Jackson’s Policies and Effects he had on the United States. By Anna
Who was Andrew Jackson?
Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States.
Prior to becoming President he was a military commander in the Battle of New Orleans
Jackson’s strongest support when running for President came from the West and South.
Nicknamed “Old Hickory,” was seen as the first presidential candidate to rise from the masses .
Under Jackson’s Presidency…
The Nullification Crisis
Tariff of 1832
Compromise Tariff of 1833
Though Andrew Jackson first ran for Presidency in 1824, Jackson only won Presidency in 1828. He ran against John Q. Adams, who was running for reelection.
By Jackson’s second try for Presidency, most states had dropped the land requirement to vote.
New voters mainly voted for Jackson, the “people’s champion.”
Jackson’s Election… Continued
Jackson the “people’s champion…”
First president from the West
Seen as Frontiersman
Seemed to have risen from the masses: born in a log cabin; no college education, otherwise had little schooling.
Ran campaign that made him appeal to the the popular vote: Adams was seen as aristocrat, Jackson, on the other hand, would be the change necessary to fix the mistakes John Q. Adams made.
Jackson’s First Term
Andrew Jackson was known, among other things, as the one to really use the spoils system.
The Spoils System is when campaign supporters are awarded with government posts.
Jackson justified his position on the grounds that it brought new blood in and power should be with the people.
Though some scandals with this system on appointing of offices, loyalties in separate political parties became stronger.
Unlike previous presidents, who had more diverse Cabinets, Jackson’s was mostly composed of friends and supporters. Jackson mostly used this “Kitchen Cabinet” as his sole source of advice.
The Nullification Crisis
Caused mainly by the Tariff of 1828, also known as the “ Tariff of Abominations ,” which protected northern manufactures from other countries goods.
South believed that this showed favoritism towards the North.
Jackson did not repeal it when he took office
South then began to take action, especially the state of South Carolina.
The South Carolina Exposition
Published in 1828, and written anonymously by John C. Calhoun, Andrew Jackson’s Vice-President.
Like the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions asserting states rights, also using Compact Theory.
Unlike the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, suggesting that South Carolina should not obey tariff, and that all southern states should not consider it legal within in their states: null.
Issued Nullification Proclamation: states did not have the power to nullify federal laws.
Jackson’s Force Bill, which stipulated that force might be used to collect tariffs from offenders, was repealed by the
Compromise Tariff of 1833.
Jackson vs. The Bank of the United States
Set precedents with how he dealt with the Bank of the United States.
Did not veto charter renewal for the Bank based on whether or not it was Constitutional
Vetoed Bank charter because of personal beliefs.
Jackson Vs. The Bank
This veto made it that presidential power increased: President’s power equaled that of the legislative branch majority that passed the bill
Following the end of the bank, Jackson began Specie Circular, which meant that all land to be purchased with hard currency (not loans).
The Trail of Tears
The Indian removal policy is perhaps what Jackson is best known for
Removal of more than 100,000 Indians
The Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Cherokee, and Seminole tribes were moved.
There had been previous treaties with the Indians concerning land.
The Trail of Tears
Fueled by citizens want for more land
Jackson supported it to both help the Indians and gain land.
Treaties made before between the federal government and the Indians did not apply.
A rebellion occurred, however, it was crushed when Seminole rebellion leader was captured while asking for truce
A Cherokee tribe tried to fight using the legal system: the Cherokee Nation against Georgia Case and Worcester against Georgia Case.
Andrew Jackson was reelected in 1832 when Henry Clay ran against him
Following Jackson’s second term as president, Martin Van Buren ran as the Democratic-Republican candidate and won: the candidate Jackson backed.
Martin Van Buren, not as popular as Jackson, was guided by basically the same beliefs and Jackson himself.
However, was not reelected due to the Divorce Bill Van Buren passed to try to fix the Panic of 1837. However, the Divorce Bill, designed to take government money out of failing banks only made the economy worse.
William Henry Harrison, of the Whig party won.
The American Pageant. 13 th Edition. Kennedy, Cohen, Bailey.