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Industrial Revolution

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  • 1. By Alex Industrial Revolution From 1791 to 1860
  • 2. “Father of the Factory System”
    • Samuel Slater is considered to be the “Father of the Factory System”
    • With the help of a blacksmith and a carpenter Samuel Slater put into operation in 1791 the first efficient American machinery for spinning cotton thread.
    • The only problem was that it took to long o pick the cotton for the machine.
  • 3. Cotton Gin
    • Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
    • Constructed in ten days
    • Built for separating the seed from the short-staple cotton fiber.
    • It was fifty times more effective than the handpicking process
  • 4. Effects of Cotton Gin
    • Almost overnight the raising of cotton became highly profitable.
    • The instant demand for cotton renewed the need for slaves.
    • The American phase of the Industrial Revolution, which first blossomed in cotton textiles, was well on its way.
    • Factories first flourished in New England because of the stony soil, dense population to provide for a labor force, and rapid rivers which provided abundant water power to turn the cogs of the machines.
    • By 1860 more than 400 million pounds of southern cotton poured annually into the gaping maws of over a thousand mills, mostly in New England.
  • 5. Peace of Ghent
    • The manufacturing boom abruptly broke with the peace of Ghent in 1815. (British competitors unloaded their damned up surpluses at ruinously low prices)
    • As a response to this Congress provided some relief with the protective Tariff of 1816 to control the shape of the economy.
  • 6. Interchangeable Parts
    • As the factory system flourished it embraced numerous other industries in addition to textiles. (Firearms) Also lots of steel and iron were used for the railroads.
    • In 1798 Eli Whitney came up with the idea of having machines make each part.
    • This principal of interchangeable parts was widely adopted by 1850 and became basis of modern mass-production, the assembly line.
  • 7. Other Inventions
    • In 1844 Samuel F.B. Morse invented the telegraph. By the Civil War, a web of singing wires spanned the continent, revolutionizing news gathering, diplomacy, and finance.
    • In 1846 Elias Howe and Isaac Singer invented the sewing machine. It became the foundation of the ready made clothing industry, which took root about the time of the Civil War.
    • By 1860 there were a total of 28,000 patents.
  • 8. Working Conditions
    • The working conditions in factories were horrid.
    • Hours were long, wages were low, and meals were skimpy.
    • In 1820 a significant portion of the factory workers were children under the age of ten.
    • Women were also forced to work in the factories.
  • 9. Farming in the West
    • Farms were flourishing in the West. Many of these farms were based on corn.
    • The corn was not only used as a food source for humans, . but was also used to make liquor and feed hogs.
    • In 1837 John Deere of Illinois produced the steel plow.
    • In the 1830’s Cyrus McCormick invented the mechanical mower-reaper. It was to the western farmers what the cotton gin was to the southern planters.
    • A single man could do the work of five.
    • This made the production in the west very abundant and profitable. Now all that was needed was the means to transport it.
  • 10. The end