Industrial Revolution


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Industrial Revolution

  1. 1. By Alex Industrial Revolution From 1791 to 1860
  2. 2. “Father of the Factory System” <ul><li>Samuel Slater is considered to be the “Father of the Factory System” </li></ul><ul><li>With the help of a blacksmith and a carpenter Samuel Slater put into operation in 1791 the first efficient American machinery for spinning cotton thread. </li></ul><ul><li>The only problem was that it took to long o pick the cotton for the machine. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cotton Gin <ul><li>Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed in ten days </li></ul><ul><li>Built for separating the seed from the short-staple cotton fiber. </li></ul><ul><li>It was fifty times more effective than the handpicking process </li></ul>
  4. 4. Effects of Cotton Gin <ul><li>Almost overnight the raising of cotton became highly profitable. </li></ul><ul><li>The instant demand for cotton renewed the need for slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>The American phase of the Industrial Revolution, which first blossomed in cotton textiles, was well on its way. </li></ul><ul><li>Factories first flourished in New England because of the stony soil, dense population to provide for a labor force, and rapid rivers which provided abundant water power to turn the cogs of the machines. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1860 more than 400 million pounds of southern cotton poured annually into the gaping maws of over a thousand mills, mostly in New England. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Peace of Ghent <ul><li>The manufacturing boom abruptly broke with the peace of Ghent in 1815. (British competitors unloaded their damned up surpluses at ruinously low prices) </li></ul><ul><li>As a response to this Congress provided some relief with the protective Tariff of 1816 to control the shape of the economy. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Interchangeable Parts <ul><li>As the factory system flourished it embraced numerous other industries in addition to textiles. (Firearms) Also lots of steel and iron were used for the railroads. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1798 Eli Whitney came up with the idea of having machines make each part. </li></ul><ul><li>This principal of interchangeable parts was widely adopted by 1850 and became basis of modern mass-production, the assembly line. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Other Inventions <ul><li>In 1844 Samuel F.B. Morse invented the telegraph. By the Civil War, a web of singing wires spanned the continent, revolutionizing news gathering, diplomacy, and finance. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1846 Elias Howe and Isaac Singer invented the sewing machine. It became the foundation of the ready made clothing industry, which took root about the time of the Civil War. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1860 there were a total of 28,000 patents. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Working Conditions <ul><li>The working conditions in factories were horrid. </li></ul><ul><li>Hours were long, wages were low, and meals were skimpy. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1820 a significant portion of the factory workers were children under the age of ten. </li></ul><ul><li>Women were also forced to work in the factories. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Farming in the West <ul><li>Farms were flourishing in the West. Many of these farms were based on corn. </li></ul><ul><li>The corn was not only used as a food source for humans, . but was also used to make liquor and feed hogs. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1837 John Deere of Illinois produced the steel plow. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1830’s Cyrus McCormick invented the mechanical mower-reaper. It was to the western farmers what the cotton gin was to the southern planters. </li></ul><ul><li>A single man could do the work of five. </li></ul><ul><li>This made the production in the west very abundant and profitable. Now all that was needed was the means to transport it. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The end