Liberal faiths like Deism and Unitarianism
arose in the 1700s.
Wave of religious revivals spread.
Many sects created.
Religion was now feminized.
Peter Cartwright and Charles Grandison
Different Classes = Different Religions
Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists
from wealthy levels of society.
Methodists, Baptists spawned from less properous.
Foreshadowed Civil War
Aka Christians of Latter-Day Saints
Joseph Smith/Brigham Young
Settled in present-day Utah
Infamous for polygamy
Horace Mann—better houses and teachers
Ideas about morality, patriotism, and idealism
Due to the Second Great Awakening, liberal
arts colleges established.
Ivy Leagues offered math, Latin, Greek.
Universities in South.
Criminal codes softened
Idea that prisons should not punish but “fix”
Leads to penitentiaries.
Gave reports on asylums
Before: excessive alcohol; affect factories
American Temperance Society
Cold Water Army
Wasn’t elimination as much as temperance
Maine Law of 1851 (Neal S. Dow)
century, women had few rights.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Susan B. Anthony
Woman’s Rights Convention at Seneca Falls
Stanton’s Declaration of Sentiments
Overshadowed by Civil War
Started permitting rights (college, marriage)
Came from Enlightenment
New Harmony (Robert Owen)
Science: Americans were better with inventions
Silliman—chemist and geologist
Medicine—not there yet; we still bleed to cure
Greek and Roman entry
Gilbert Stuary—a portrait artist
Hudson River School—landscape art
Music—”darky”; capture spirit of slaves
Less about reason and mind; truth transcends
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau
• Give freedom to the slave.
• Give well-being to the poor and the miserable.
• Give learning to the ignorant.
• Give health to the sick.
• Give peace and justice to society.