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Akhter sir
Akhter sir
Akhter sir
Akhter sir
Akhter sir
Akhter sir
Akhter sir
Akhter sir
Akhter sir
Akhter sir
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  • 1. Although modern societies are for the most part lacking in castes, guilds, and other socially embedded ways of recruiting, training, and organizing workers, personal connections and social networks are still highly relevant to many aspects of working life. In a parallel fashion, the rules and procedures governing the way that particular kinds of work are done may simply reflect longstanding customs, even when they may not be effective or efficient. In today‘s world, however, a great many aspects of work organization are governed by a markedly different approach, one that is encompassed by the term public bureaucracy. At first glance, this hardly seems like a progressive step, as bureaucracies are often thought to be collections of semi competent plodders hopelessly ensnarled in red tape. As we shall see, there is some truth to this stereotype, but bureaucracies have a number of positive features and for many kinds of work, their virtues far outweigh their vices.Notwithstanding the criticisms and dysfuntionalities , bureaucracy has a great potential and plays animportant role in the process of development. In fact when development constitutes the most pressingchallenge facing the human race, the role of bureaucracy in pursuing and promoting development canhardly be ignored or overlooked. On getting independence from the shackles of colonial powers whenmany third world countries development as their primary objective, bureaucracy was entrusted withstupendous task of development and nation building through a variety of state sponsored developmentprograms. Seen as Sine-qua-non in the process of development, while the role of bureaucracy hasundergone substantial changes from one of regulatory type of administration to developmentadministration, bureaucracy in recent years is going through a serious phase of transition in its identityand role definition. From the mindset of absolute power and status, the bureaucrats are now seen asfacilitators of development. In welfarist – interventionist and development states, which carry on abewildering variety of activities encompassing the administration of various development programs,while politicians decide which of these myriad activities the state may undertake, it is generally thebureaucracy that is called upon to execute them. In fact, bureaucrats, though not democraticallyelected officials, essentially run all governments on an everyday basis and even make overwhelmingmajority of decisions publicly credited to Presidents or Prime Ministers.Thus, when the systematic importance of bureaucracy has, for obvious reason, been widely acceptedboth by the academic community and the political leadership alike, in the context, the issue ofdevelopment has a close linkage with the issue of public bureaucracy.Here in this work I have tried to analyze the bureaucratic importance in the process of developmentand also have selected Bangladesh as a developing country to fulfill the need of my work. 1 Page
  • 2. Contextual outlines1. Bureaucracy and Public Bureaucracy: A Conceptual overview-Before going for the discussion on public bureaucracy we at first can have a look for the widely usedterm bureaucracy.1.2Bureaucracy:The term bureaucracy may be traced to the French word bureau meaning a writing table or desk. Theorigin of this word accordingly has come from French and was related to the cloth which covered thedesks of French Officials. Bureaucracy is essentially a normative model, which emphasizes thestructure of an organization. As an organized system of government, bureaucracy has largely been aphenomenon of the post-industrial revolution, although highly bureaucratic systems did exist in theold world, especially in China, ancient Egypt and India. Itis an essential part of an organization.Everyorganization whether big or small adheres to bureaucratic structure in different forms. Although theimage of the bureaucrat has gradually deteriorating in recent decades, it is interesting to recall that theGerman Sociologist Max Weber hailed Bureaucracy as an administrative organization for promotingclean, healthy and efficient Public Administration.As an ambiguous term, bureaucracy means different things to different people. While some describe itasThe organization of personnel that government needs for the exercise of its continuing functions, toget and keep things going under the constant supervision of political superiors, to others on contrary,it may signify the mechanistic, formal, inhuman, rigid and ritualistic attitude of administrators.According toMax Weber, "Bureaucracy is universal social phenomenon and the means of carryingcommunity action to rationally ordered societal action."In the words of Marshall E. Dimock, "Bureaucracy is the state of the society in which institutionsovershadow individuals and simple family relationships, stage of development In which division oflabour, specialization, organization, hierarchy, planning and regimentation of large groups ofindividuals either by voluntary or involuntary methods, are the order of the day."Hans Rosenberg has observed that "...an essential part of the present structure of governance consistsof its far-flung system of professionalized administration and its hierarchy of appointed officials uponwhom the society is thoroughly dependent. Whether we live under the most has totalitarian despotismor in the most liberal democracy, we are governed to a considerable extent by a bureaucracy of some 2kind." Page
  • 3. Herman Finer says that bureaucracy is a "professional body of officials, permanent, paid andskilled."Arthur K. Davis looked at bureaucracy from the structural point of view. To him, bureaucracy is "anintegrated hierarchy of specialized offices defined by systematic rules, an impersonal, routinestructure wherein legitimized authority rests in the office and not in the person of the incumbent".According to Pfiffner and Presthus ―Bureaucracy is the system of authority, men, offices andmethods that government uses to carry out its programs‖.So Bureaucracy can be defined as any large, complex organization composed of appointed officials,where Authority is divided among several managers; no one person is able to make all the decisions.Therefore bureaucracy based on one of the types, called Legal Rational Authority given by Weber is aclear cut division of labour, hierarchy of offices, consistent system of abstract rules, impersonality inofficial conduct, and guaranteed employment based on qualifications.Still some others call bureaucracy a form of government- a government of the civil servants, for thecivil servants and by the civil servants, which sole heartedly bear the meaning of public bureaucracy.1.3) Public bureaucracyBureaucracy is an administrative organization consisting of a legal body non-elective employedofficials and organized hierarchically in departments in accordance with rules governing theiremployment conditions. It is found in any type of society, in any type of organization, public orprivate or non-governmental and observed in all large organizations in whichthe numbers ofemployees or members are such that it is no longerpossible to run the organization on the basis offace-to-facecontacts with others in the organization.Therefore when the word PUBLIC is added the term Bureaucracy turns to Public Bureaucracy.Speaking more precisely we can start from the explanation of Civil or Public Service, which is toinclude all those personnel who are employed in a civil capacity by a government ( central, state orlocal), typically excluding those belonging to political, judicial and legislative offices and thoseemployed in public enterprises and regulatory agencies which operate independentently of the 3statutory civil service. Thus bureaucracy which exercised in civil service is synonymously called Pagepublic bureaucracy. The concept of bureaucracy given by Max Weber, can be used to describe the
  • 4. term public bureaucracy and also the characteristics of his ideal type bureaucracy is found ideal forexplaining the term public bureaucracy.A Proposed Definition of Public Bureaucracy: Thoseoffices created to carry out purposes mandatedby the legislatureand executive branches of government which (offices) are staffedlargely by personswho are neither elected norpoliticallyappointed. (Larry Hill, 1989)Using Max Webers description of bureaucracy as a guide, theideal bureaucracy should have thefollowing characteristics:1) Mission/Mandate given by law; the purpose of the agencyis to accomplish some public purposeusually stated inthe legislation creating the bureaucratic office.2) Hierarchical Authority: Authority is distributed top- down according to some organizationalchart.3) Prescribed roles and routines: Each position in thehierarchy has a job description (andcorresponding job requirements which alone determine who may be hired to fill each position). Eachposition has standard routines which are often described in a job description manual.4) Paperwork: All transactions are recorded. Standard operating procedures require keepingrecords of actionstaken within the organization as well as all dealingswith persons outside of theorganization. This "paper trail" ensures that standard operating procedures androutines are in factbeing followed as required. They also serve to protect the agencys clients/customers and employeesfrom arbitrary actions by others within theagency.5) Professional codes of conduct: Agency employees dealwith each other, and with persons outsideof the agency,according to clear standards of conduct. These codes exclude family, personal orpolitical favoritism, patronage, or prejudice in agency transactions.6) Focus of Loyalty: The ideal agency employee will viewhimself/herself as owing his/her job (andloyalty) to theagency rather than to a particular personal boss or tosome political party or faction. 4 Page
  • 5. Quickie Way to Remember Max Webers Characteristics of Bureaucracy: While saying these are "ideal" characteristics we admit thatin fact many public agencies may befaulted for not showing all of these characteristics, however it may be said that most of the civilservants do behave as described by these characteristics.2. Development and Development Administration:2.1. Development:Despite the burgeoning literature on the subject, there in hardly any agreement among the social-scientist as to what constitutes development. Nonetheless, it is to define that, Development - means a progression from a simpler or lower to a more advanced, mature, or complexform or stage. It is also defined as the gradual advancement or growth through a series of progressivechanges. Development is a process, not a level. It is a path to achieve certain goals.MichaelTodarodescribed development ―as a multidimensional process involving changes in structures, attitudes andinstitutions as well as acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality and the eradicationof absolute poverty‖. The Brandt Commission Report indicates that development involves aprofound transformation of the entire economic and social-structure. Gunnar Myrdal, the author offamous Asian Drama stated development ―as the process away from underdevelopment of rising outof poverty, it is sought and perhaps actually attained by means of planning for development”.Development became a center of politics in the newly emerged independent countries after the WW2;it was at that time treated from the vantage point of economics by the economists of classicalorientation. Accordingly, though until 1970‘s development was used in the sense of economic growth,Robert S. McNamara, the president of the World Bank, insisted that the 1970‘s should see something 5 Pagemore than gross measures of economic growth. Thus in 1990s it was realized that development
  • 6. requires not only economic growth ,but also a concurrent and qualitative transformation of the societythrough social, political and cultural changes. It includes growth, modernization, increase in socialfacilities, political awareness, etc.Therefore development; Is a process of creating and guaranteeing conditions in which people can enjoy, exercise and utilize all their human rights. Is a process of generating not only self-sustained growth of a community but a concurrent and qualitative transformation of the society through social, political and cultural changes. It is a process of making one aware of himself, self-reliant, and self-respecting and giving freedom from exploitation. It involves active participation of the people in the process of making social, political and economic decisions; and It also requires action for preparing a planned program of development, which can be implemented effectively by the available instruments of administration.2.2. Development Administration- thus implies administration thus implies not merely for thedevelopment of people, but working with the people. It signifies decentralization of administration,and administration by participation. Characteristically, it can be defined as a goal-oriented, changeoriented, progressive, planned, innovative, flexible, motivational, clientele-oriented, and participatoryand a highly integrated administrative system with substantive coping ability. It maybe the realizationof goals of development either by governmental administrative system or voluntary agencies orpeople‘s organizations. 6 Page
  • 7. Role of Public Bureaucracy in Development:Context of a Developing countryPublic Bureaucracy has always been considered an indispensable tool of Social Management. It hasoften been termed as necessary evil ---necessary because a suitable substitute is yet to be devised—evil, because of its propensity to turn into a power hungry monster. Moreover there are some ‗though‘in the case of the role of Public Bureaucracy in Development. If we delve deeper we therefore can getbones alongside with some banes regarding the performance of the aforementioned issue indevelopment. The concerned topic on the other hand as has to be described from the point of view ofa developing country, Bangladesh as a developing country has been selected for convenience .3.1. Bangladesh as a Developing Country:The explanation of the aforementioned developing country can rightly be described with the followingcharacteristics- Short-term output determination- Output is limited by bottlenecks in certain sectors, particularly the agricultural sector and the foreign sector. Relative price changes are the main equilibrating force in the short run (although quantity adjustments also take place). Income distribution :The wage share is directly determined by the price of necessities (especially food) and not by the markup in the industrial sector. The institutional bottlenecks in agriculture and not the strength of trade unions are the main factors influencing income distribution. Effective demand expansions will give rise to a reductionin real wages and the wage share. Key sectors: Agricultural sector, Export sector, etc. Determinants of growth: The rate of growth of the production of necessities. An expansion of effective demand will lead to inflation unless constraints in this production are solved. Class composition: Complex class structure in which rural actors play a central role. Power relations and property structure in agriculture explains the low growth rate of national income. Class structure leads to the maintenance of the status quo and limits the effectiveness of state intervention. Role of the state: Increase in the overall rate of investment with a concentration on agriculture and the foreign sector. Elimination of institutional bottlenecks in agriculture (through land reform, etc). Planning is necessary to assure high rates of economic growth. State intervention is negative for powerful actors.Bangladesh hasParliamentary democracy. 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from WestPakistan, 16 December 1971 is known as Victory Day and has the Legal systembased on English 7common law. Politically it has a profound history, but to say briefly Sheikh MujiburRahman, leader Pageof the Awami League, became the first Prime Minister of the independent Bangladesh (land of
  • 8. Bengal). After his assassination in 1975, the country saw sixteen years of military-backed regimes.The parliamentary elections which led to a centre-right Bangladesh National Party (BNP) governmentbeing installed in 1991 marked the start of a new era in building democratic institutions inBangladesh. Elections, held in June 1996 under a caretaker government, resulted in the return topowerof the Awami League. The BNP emerged as the largest opposition party. Theparty under theleadership of Khaleda Zia formed a four-party opposition alliance inJanuary 1999. The allianceparticipated in the October 2001 general election heldunder a Non-party Caretaker Government andwon the polls with two-thirdsmajority. The political climate is marked by tensions among rival partiesand leaders,especially between Awami League on one side and the BNP and Islamic parties ontheother.As a developing country though it is expected that Bangladesh one day will flourish from economic,social, political, etc. other many more aspects, the loopholes as a developing country cannotaltogether be neglected. Therefore as a developing country, It is trapped in a vicious circle ofstagnation, the population growth, food scarcity in developing countries willalways be a problem,Agricultural and mining exports cannot contribute to the economic development of acountry,Dependence of developing countries on the advanced economies leads to a netoutflow of capital andimportantly Rapid population growth, etc. many more obstacles has always been a threat to economicas well as overall development.3.2. Public Bureaucracy of Bangladesh:Bangladesh bears a colonial legacy in its entire public bureaucracy as well as public administrationsystem. Present day Bangladesh was part of the British Empire for almost two hundred years. In 1947Pakistani rulers replaced the British and dominated the area then known as East Pakistan until a bitterwar in 1971 brought about an independent Bangladesh. A colonial imprint persists in Bangladeshespecially in political and administrative arrangements. The British tradition helped the bureaucracyto become an essential tool of governance. At the same time, it is accused of following the ―Pakistanitradition of involvement in power politics‖ (Haque, 1995).The political system of Bangladesh has survived a series of transitions. A few years of democracywere followed by nearly fifteen years of military rule. In 1990, for the first time, Bangladesh achieveda fully functioning democratic structure. 8 Page
  • 9. After 1990, Bangladesh has reverted to parliamentary form of government. Two parliamentaryelections were held during this period, which were believed to be free and fair. Parliament wasrelatively active during the regime of Khaleda and Hasina compared to earlier JSs.Some the basic nature and practice of our Public Bureaucracy are as follow-3.2.1.Nature of bureaucracyBureaucracy played overt role in regime change. It is currently divided on party line. Careeradvancement seems to be dependent on the contentment of the incumbent government. Bureaucracyitself is beset with factionalism. As an institution it is on decay with waning elitism and esprit decorps. Consequently bureaucracy is eager to develop a mutual dependency relation with the rulingelite. Recruitment and promotion:During the reign of Khaleda (1991-1996), politicization of administration assumed numerous modes:placement of party loyalists to appoint crucial position in civil service, appointment of diehardsupporters as key functionaries (including the chairman) in Public Service Commission (PSC) withwhose assistance the BCS (Bangladesh Civil Service) recruitment process was allegedly manipulatedin favor of the candidates having links the ruling party and mass promotion of officers apparentlysubmissive to the ruing regime(Zafarullah, 1997:5 Part-3).During Hasina regime, the chairman and members of PSC had been politically appointed keeping aneye over their distinct political tinge. Quota for the freedom fighters has been made applicable for thechildren of freedom fighter family. This is an instance of disregard for merit principle in civil service.The standard of the recruitment examinations during these two regimes was moderate. A largenumber of civil servants were promoted several times on the basis of political affinity with theincumbent government. Seniority was utterly discarded on the issue of promotion let alone countingmerit as one of the prime yardsticks of career advancement. Administrative reformThe reform committee made a number of recommendations on the rationalization and reorganizationof government offices and presented its report to AL government. But instead of implementing therecommendations (Khan, 1998:114), the present government constituted its own commission PARC(Public Administration Reforms Commission) almost entirely composed of bureaucrats. Thecommission has already submitted the report with 137 recommendations (30 interim, 70 short termand 37 long term), which will be implemented in phases (Daily Star, July 03, 2000& Independent, 9July 5, 2000). Recommendations include among others the elimination of corruption and insurance of Pageaccountability at all levels. Of course the recommendations are yet to be implemented.
  • 10. Accountability of bureaucratsA number of measures have been undertaken during this decade to hold the bureaucrats accountable.The structure of committee system has been modified and its scope broadened. The minister isappointed as the chief executive of the ministry and the Upazilla system has been reintroduced. Thismay initiate a brake on bureaucratic dominance. Changing role of bureaucratsBureaucrats became development partners of the incumbent government. The ruling governmentshave established some sort of control over the bureaucracy by regulating their career development.However, bureaucrats‘ influence on politicians is still evident. Decay of ElitismElitism is now non-existent in Bangladesh civil service since all the services are unified at present. Inan effort to eliminate elitism from the bureaucracy and by liberalizing the system of recruitment ascomponent of administrative reform, the charm of the service has faded away. Like the British andPakistan periods, it no longer attracts the ´best and brightest‗youths. Easier entrance to the civilservice compared to British and Pakistan periods has brought forth declined performance ofbureaucracy (Jamil, 1998:40). Factionalism in BureaucracyThe entire bureaucracy in Bangladesh is plagued with deep-seated factionalism and waning esprit decorps. The sharpest and pernicious form of factionalism in civil service is the conflict between thespecialists of 28 cadres and the generalist of BCS (administration) cadre. To this principalconfiguration, one can add at least seven lesser strains of factionalism. This conflict has led to totaldemoralization, utter negligence of work, ugly acrimony and serious tension in bureaucracy (Siddqui,1996:18-20). They are more committed to their professional norms than the service rules. Thisfactionalism has weakened the esprit de corps of the bureaucracy as an institution.The role of public bureaucracy has changed in the course of Bangladesh‘s development. Afterindependence its focus was the attainment of development in all spheres of life by intervention andthe use of administration and the bureaucratic system in a constructive way. Government and 10administration were seen not merely as a regulator but as a facilitator. However, it can be argued that Page
  • 11. development, when considered as a multi-dimensional concept, cannot be attained and sustainedwithout sound practice of public bureaucracyTherefore the role of public bureaucracy has always been an issue of concern for the arena ofdevelopment. Thus by having the above information regarding the nature of public bureaucracy of adeveloping country (Bangladesh), the issue of public bureaucracy in the arena of development hasbeen elaborated below-3.3. Public Bureaucracy and Development 3.3.1. Public Bureaucracy and Development: Some international concern-Therelationshipbetweenbureaucraticperformanceanddevelopmentoutcomeshasbeenasubjectofinteresttotheinternationaldevelopmentcommunityaswellasschol ar sforquitesometime.Morerecently,someofthesameassumptionhasreappearedwiththeadditionalinsightthatthequalityofbureaucraticrulesisessentialforunderstandinghowbureaucraticperformancerelatestodevelopmental outcomes.Thecurrentassumptionsmaybesummarized, asfollows:BureaucraticRulesBureaucraticPerformanceSocio-EconomicDevelopment Forinstance,thecurrentfocusongovernanceininstitutionsliketheWorldBankandtheOrganizationforEc onomicCooperationandDevelopment (OECD)is almostexclusivelyonfindingthe linksbetweenimprovedgovernmentperformanceanddevelopmentoutcomes.Usingthetoolofregression analysisandaconceptionofgovernancethatisprimarilyassociated withqualitiesofstateinstitutions,Kaufmannandhiscolleaguehavecreatedsixscoresforsixdimensionsof governance.TheteamattheWorldBankisnotalone.Inrecentyears,agrowingnumberofotheractorshavebeguntoratethedegreeofbureaucraticperformanceindifferent ways (aspartofbroaderassessmentsofcountryrisk).Forexample,theEconomistIntelligenceUnit(EIU)provides ratings on variousaspectsofregulatoryquality,ruleoflaw,andcorruption (amongotherissues)fromaglobalnetworkofnationalinformationgatherersreviewedbyregionalpanels.TheInternationalCountryRiskGuide,producedbyPoliticalRiskServicesinNew 11York,providesadirect measureofbureaucraticqualityusingavarietyofindicators.TransparencyInternationalissuesitsannualPerceptionofCorruptionIndex.In sum, these agencies Pageprovidesubjectiveassessmentsonsomeofthekeyissuesof bureaucraticperformance–
  • 12. includinggovernmentefficacy,redtape,andcorruptionamongpublicofficials.Therehavebeenanumberofimportantstudiesthathaveusedthesedatasetsinempiricalworkinvestigatingtheimportance ofdifferentaspects ofbureaucraticqualityfordevelopmentoutcomes.Forexample,usingEIUdata,Maurofoundthattheefficiencyofthebureaucracywasassociatedwithbetterratesofinvestmentandgrowthwhereas corruptionwasnegativelyrelated.3.3.2. Public Bureaucracy in development from the context of Bangladesh: Some ways andmeans-Thereareanumberofways and means throughwhich public bureaucracy is counted as a key roleplayer in the process of development.Some ways through which public bureaucracy plays the key role in development at present-A. Public Bureaucracy in the role of policy making:official policy makers are those who occupythe formal offices prescribed by the authorized community. Therefore the bureaucratic culture ofBangladesh itself has made the bureaucracy a powerful policy actor. Next to donors , they are highlyinfluential in the frame working stage of policy formation. It can also be stated that, publicbureaucracy and policy making go synonymously. Their roles are- In the secretariat though they do not initiate policy proposals like the cabinet ministers, but the define policy priorities based on official statistics about the field level and on external suggestions. Decisions regarding transfer, posting of senior professionals and other senior officers of the concerned policy making ministry, distribution of equipment, all other related works are determined by bureaucrats of that specific ministry. The secretary, the top most civil servant,is the key person in overall administration of a ministry. The rules of business accords considerable power to the secretary. He is the chief adviser to the minister on policy making, acts as the financialhead of try; and assumes the role of sole custodian of relevant information on which policies are based Below the central level , the original power of decision making is vested with the divisional director, district level officers, and the Thana level officers for that specific ministry. Though they do not initiate the broad policy proposals but as soon as they receive a macro policy framework from the donors and their political executives they become responsible for doing all the preliminary tasks to transform it into policy. In this process they manipulate the 12 policy ideas by virtue of their technical knowledge. It is also noticeable, that the public bureaucracy within the national context has controlled Page
  • 13. and mediated the nature and flow of development assistance and has been the primary source of contact with the foreign donors‘. In case of the recent health policy of Bangladesh government although the idea was injected by the World Bank on behalf of donors, the framework was formulated under the leadership of our bureaucrats. Public bureaucracy‘s close liaison with the major interest groups also enables it to recommend and implement public policies.B. Role player in the government’s planning apparatus:The powerful secretariat has made bureaucracy highly dominant. The secretariat headed by thesecretaries sits on the communication nerve of the nation and controls information about everythingthat is done on behalf of the government. Such possession of vital information and knowledge of thegovernment affairs provides them with potential sours of power. In this way the control of publicbureaucrats over the information as well as over the functions of government have given them thescope to be dominant.C. Politically forced not self-driven:We all think that bureaucrats are driven by their own sweet will, whereas the actual picture issomewhat hidden. The case of Pabna draws our attention. The concept of political control of civilservice is an admitted fact our country as like as other democratic system. it is popularly known aspoliticization of civil service. Political control has led to a deep seated perception within the politicalcommunity that whatever is wished by the politicians should be implemented without any questionbeing raised by civil servants. In contrst the civil servants have to work within the complex web oflaws, rules and regulations. Violation or disagreement may invite disciplinary action. If a particulardecision given by a minister runs counter to established rules and regulations, a civil servant sadly tosay has to be duty bound to stay free prom unusual punishment. Therefore to avoid the wrath of theminister most of the civil servants do bend the rules. Such trends start from the very stage ofrecruitment to post-retirement contractual appointment to those groups of candidates or civil servantswho are perceived by the party in power to have an acceptable degree of loyalty. Such cases werereported during 2001 to 2006 and also in 2010. 13 Page
  • 14. D. the meritorious portion of a country:The Public Sector in Bangladesh currently numbers around one million people. Around300,000 are employed in public enterprises whilst approximately 700,000 are employed in variousministries, Departments and other Government Offices. This latter group is termed the ―CivilService.‖ These officers staff 41 ministries, 15 administrative divisions and the offices of thePresident and Prime Minister (DFID: 2004). The Bangladesh Civil Service is structured horizontallyinto four classes, Class 1 being the professional or officer class and others performing a variety ofsupporting functions. There are 29 cadres each comprising officers with particular skills orqualifications. All above cadre posts are filled up by competitive examination starting from thepreliminary exam based on MCQ, then with the next stage of written examination, ending to the laststage of viva. Then the Recruitment is conducted by the Public Service Commission (PSC) as perrequirement conveyed by the Ministry of Establishment, which is responsible for the personnel policywithin the civil service and human resources function, particularly in the administrative cadre.E. Following hierarchy: a guide for maintaining pile of works:-The internal organization structure of a ministry reflects a hierarchical order. The minister is in chargeof a ministry and is normally the ―political head‖ of that ministry. A ministry consists of at least onedivision. The secretary or, in his absence the additional secretary, is considered the ―administrativehead‖ of the ministry. He/she conducts and looks after the duties of a division, which includes routineoperation, supervision of its staffing and organizational processes (Jahan: 2006). He/she is also theadviser to the minister regarding policy and administrative issues. A division can further be dividedinto wings. A joint secretary is the head of a wing and has the power to submit cases directly to theminister for decisions. In practice, such cases are first submitted to a secretary/additional secretary forhis consideration before being placed before a minister. A wing is composed of branches. The head ofa wing—a joint secretary—supervises the activities of the branches within his wing. Each branch isunder the charge of a deputy secretary. Below the branch is the section, which is headed by anassistant secretary, and is the basic working unit of a division. An assistant secretary disposes all casesbased on clear precedents. Below the level of assistant secretary, there are a considerable number ofoffice personnel (Zafarullah, 1998: 83-87). 14 Page
  • 15. Concluding Remarks:Often tagged with negative interpretations, public bureaucracy has been the most used and abusedconcept in the discourse of public administration. True to the words of Toffler ( 1990: 165), who inhis book power swift wrote, ―Everyone hates a bureaucrat‖, everybody connected or unconnectedwith it , indulges in bureaucracy-bashing which has become a sort of national as well as internationalpastime. In almost all countries, bureaucrats are viewed as indolent and inefficient, imperious andimpervious, arthritic and parasitic, obstructive and destructive, authoritarian, arrogant, irresponsiveand irresponsible, basically in the third-world developing countries like Bangladesh. Exceptthemselves, there are perhaps no admirers left for the bureaucrats.Whatever may be the criticism, the fact is that no organization, whether public or private or evenautonomous, has been able to do away with bureaucracy or do without bureaucracy. Despite seriousscholarly attacks and consultant advice to reduce bureaucracy, create flat hierarchies and democratizeinternal organizational decision making, the fact of the matter is that not much has happened to reducebureaucracy and on the contrary, bureaucracy, has shown stubborn survival capacity. In fact ,bureaucracy is the most omnipotent phenomenon running from the developed to the developingsocieties , flourishing equally under presidential to parliamentary democracies, even in non-democracies, and relevant to socialism or capitalism or any other ism. It can be rightly said that ifdifferent countries are really captive of a system, it is not capitalism or socialism but bureaucratism,for bureaucracy is the most prevalent form of power in almost all categories of states. Toffler ( 1990:s257) very aptly comments that ―…..no matter how many parties run against one another in electionsand no matter who gets the most votes, a single party always wins. It is the invisible part ofBUREAUCRACY‖. However it is to see that the word bureaucracy, specifically public bureaucracyby now has a markedly negative tone. Nonetheless it has correctly been said by CHRISTIAANMOSTERT, in his Hope: Challenging the Culture of Despair that any little thing can give hope, like acandle in the dark. Therefore from a wide point of view it can be hoped that public bureaucracy willwork as a candle for lightening the process of development to change the myth of bureaucracy as ananti-role player to friendly-role for overall development. Moreover it can also be realized right awaythat cooperative role of the government under a strong and attainable political leadership can help thePublic Bureaucracy to play a friendly role as well as to deliver the fruits of development to the peoplein this century and later centuries come by . 15 Page
  • 16. References: 1. ADB, (2005). Supporting Good Governance Initiatives II, http://www.adb.org/Documents/TARs/BAN/37017-BAN-TAR.pdf 2. Ahmed, Syed Giasuddin. (2002), Public Administration in the Three Decades. In A. M. Chowdhury and FakrulAlam (eds.), Bangladesh: on the Threshold of the Twenty-First Century. Dhaka, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. pp. 321-354 3. Alavi, Hamza. (1972). the State in Post-Colonial Societies: Pakistan and Bangladesh, New Left Review I, 74: 59-62. 4. Ali, A. M. M. Shawkat, (2004), Bangladesh Civil Service, political-Administrative Perspectives, Dhaka, UPL.. 5. Daily Star, The, Dhaka. 6. Daily Janakntha, The, Dhaka. 7. Daily Shangbad, The, Dhaka. 8. Daily ProthomAlo, The, January 14, 2001. 9. Financial Express, The, Dhaka, Programme to increase efficiency of bureaucrats next year, October 29, 2005. 10. Ahmed, Syed Giasuddin. 2000. Public Administration in the Three Decades. In A. M. Chowdhury and FakrulAlam (eds.), Bangladesh: on the Threshold of the Twenty-First Century. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 11. Ali, A.M.M. Shawkat. 2007. Civil Service Management in Bangladesh. Dhaka: University Press Limited. 12. Center for Policy Dialogue (CPD). 2007. Bangladesh: Vision for 2021: Prepared under the Initiative of the Nagorik Committee 2006. Dhaka: Center for Policy Dialogue. 13. Jahan, Ferdous. 2006. Public Administration in Bangladesh, State of Governance Studies-2006, Institute of Governance. Dhaka: BRAC University. 14. Mohammad Mohabbat Khan (eds.), Bureaucratic Ascendancy: Public Administration in Bangladesh: The First Three Decades. Dhaka: AHDPH. pp. 67-95. 15. Monem, Mobasser. 2006. The Politics of Privatization in Bangladesh: Western Solution, Eastern Problems. Dhaka: Osder Publications. 16. Siddiqui, Kamal. 1996. Towards Good Governance in Bangladesh: Fifty UnpleasantEssays. Dhaka: University Press Limited 17. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 2004. Public Administration Reform in Bangladesh, SURF. Bangkok, Thailand. 18. United Nations DevelopmentProgramme (UNDP). 2005. Trends and Challenges inPublic Administration Reform in Asia and the Pacific. Dhaka: UNDP Bangladesh. 19. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 2007. Building a 21st Century PublicAdministration in Bangladesh: Formulation Mission Report on September 16 – October7, 2007. Dhaka: UNDP Bangladesh. 20. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Ministry of Establishment (MoE).2007. Report on Public Administration Sector Study in Bangladesh. Dhaka: UNDP Bangladesh. 16 Page

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