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  • The National Association of the Deaf, Padden & Humphries (1988), Senghas & Monaghan (2002), and other researchers in this field are carefully to clearly denote the differences between these two words. People who do not fall under the heading of Deaf are people “who find themselves losing their hearing because of illness, trauma, or age; although these people share the condition of not hearing they do not have access to the knowledge, beliefs, and practices that make up the culture of Deaf people.” -Deaf in America (1988)
  • I wanted to explore sign languages a little. This is a historical example of this kind of culture and home signing is part of Theophilus H. d’Estrella’s memoir.
  • Natural Sign Language - “The hands and body (including face) are used to encode both lexical forms and grammatical relationships. Artificial Sign Language - These mimic spoken language and borrow from the natural forms but incorporate elements of grammar and syntax that might be absent from natural sign languages. “For example, articles and the verb ‘is’ will be encoded in Signing Exact English…while ASL has no corresponding elements.” Fingerspelling - Allows written language to be dealt with by signers.
  • I think this is the aspect of signing that the general population is most familiar with.
  • I stumbled upon this in my internet research; the videos are a good potential resource for art teachers of deaf children that have been mainstreamed.
  • Switching gears, away from sing languages, I wanted to look at cochlear implants and their impact on the Deaf community. “ The medical model of deafness…holds that deafness is the pathological absence of hearing and that [as] such a hearing-impaired individual is therefore disabled because of faulty hearing. This perspective is sometimes called the medical model because medical procedures (such as cochlear implants) are characteristic of responses made by (hearing parents) of deaf children.” -Sign of Their Times, 2002 People that support cochlear implants see it as an obligation and opportunity to give deaf children a better life. People who are against cochlear implants see it as an attack on Deaf culture and a “solution” to their lifestyle.
  • This is the trailer for a documentary made in 2000 about the impact of the approval and availability of cochlear implants. The Deaf see this, and I think they say it in the clip, as a “cure” for their condition by the “hearing”.
  • I enjoyed this first hand account of man’s experience with a cochlear implant.
  • When I was first assigned this topic and was thinking about lesson adaptations I was thinking strictly about the amount of textual instruction in the room. Adaptations for deaf students would take into account the physical space of the classroom, how students are seated.

Megan hummelldeafpresentation Megan hummelldeafpresentation Presentation Transcript

  • Merriam Webster defines “deaf” as:
    • “ Hearing loss is the most prevalent sensory loss in the
    • United States.”
    • -Losing the Language of Silence, New York Magazine, 2008
    • According to Schein (1992) prelingual deafness occurs
    • in the general population in about 1 in 1,000 cases .
    • According to the National Association of the Deaf the
    • number of cases newborns that are deaf or hard of
    • hearing is closer to 2 or 3 in 1,000 .
    • “ Prelingual deafness refers to deafness that occurs
    • prior to the individual’s acquisition of a first language
    • and includes deafness at birth through 3 years .”
    • -Signs of Their Times: Deaf Communities and the Culture of Language, 2002
  • D/d
    • “ We use the lowercase deaf when referring to the
    • audiological condition of not hearing , and the
    • uppercase Deaf when referring to a particular group of
    • deaf people who share a language…the members of
    • this group have inherited their sign language, use it as a
    • primary means of communication among themselves,
    • and hold a set of beliefs about themselves and their
    • connection to the larger society.”
    • -Deaf in America: Voices from a Culture, 1988
    • At about 5 years old, Theophilus H. d’Estrella’s mother died and he
    • was orphaned:
    • “ My mother must have known my wants beforehand, without
    • any forced attempt on my part. But my guardian was a
    • stranger to me, and could not understand my desires. It was
    • necessary that she or I would seek something rational or
    • conventional to make us understand each other. So we made
    • signs one after another. Imitation constitutes the foundation of
    • the sign language. We traced as intelligibly as possible the
    • shapes and pecularities of the objects and the actions of
    • bodily movements.”
    • -Thought Before Language: A Deaf-Mute’s Recollections, 1892
    • “ If French is the language of lovers and German the
    • language of commerce, then perhaps sign is the
    • language of humans connecting . You can’t sign to
    • someone if you’re standing next to that person. You have
    • to look full-on at each other--watch each other’s faces and
    • necks, shoulders and elbows, hips and knees. You have to
    • stand a bit further back than you do with spoken language
    • so that you can take in the entirety of the person…”
    • - Losing the Language of Silence, New York Magazine, 2008
    • “ Since the [1980s] sign languages have become accepted as
    • genuine languages, and the notion of linguistic communities
    • of (deaf) signers is no longer novel.”
    • -Signs of Their Times: Deaf Communities and the Culture of Language, 2002.
    • There is no universal form of sign language ; it varies in
    • response to different spoken languages and alphabets.
    • Dialects can form within these different sign languages.
    • Natural Sign Language
    • Artificial Sign Language
    • Fingerspelling
  • American Sign Language Fingerspelling
  • ASL Pro Signs for Colors http://www.aslpro.com/cgi-bin/aslpro/phrases.cgi
  • Cochlear Implants Surgically implanted. Bypasses the damaged portion of the ear and sends signals to stimulate the auditory parts of the brain.
  • Sound and Fury (2000) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zXNrqKPsac0
  • This American Life: First Contact http://www.thisamericanlife.org/sites/all/play_music/play_full.php?play=411 Ira speakes with Scott Krepel-via his interpreter Marc Holmes-about what happened when Scott got cochlear implants as a kid and could suddenly hear for the first time.
  • Lesson & Classroom Adaptations
    • On some of the difficulties that face deaf students that
    • have been mainstreamed:
    • “ For a deaf person used to signing, the rhythms of
    • communication are off. In a deaf class, someone points
    • to where one’s attention should fall…If everyone is
    • looking in different directions, how can you know what’s
    • going on?…Even the architecture of a classroom works
    • to the deaf student’s disadvantage; often, filing
    • cabinets are too high for clear sight lines, and desks
    • are arranged so students turn their backs to one
    • another.”
    • -Losing the Language of Silence, New York Magazine, 2008
    • References
    • ASL Pro. http://www.aslpro.com/
    • Glass, Ira. (2010, ). First Contact. This American Life Podcast. Podcast retrieved from http://www.thisamericanlife.org/sites/all/play_music/play_full.php?play=411
    • James, W. (1892). Thought before language: A deaf-mute’s recollections. The Philosophical Review, 1(6), 613-624.
    • Padden, C. & Humphries, T. (1988). Deaf in America: Voices from a culture . Harvard University Press, MA.
    • Senghas, R. J. & Monaghan, L. (2002). Signs of their times: Deaf communities and the culture of language. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31 , 69-97.
    • The National Association of the Deaf. http://www.nad.org/
    • Walker, L. A. (2008). Losing the language of silence. New York Magazine. Retrieved from http://nymag.com/guides/mindbody/2008/42822/